Communicating ChangesAndReceiving Feedback By Anil Kumar Sharad Kumar Akanksha Singh
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Sources of change
The demand for change can arise from:
- the internal environment (e.g. employees and departments) - the external environment (e.g. competition, markets and customers)
Types of change
Types of change include alterations to size, structure, culture, leadership, tasks and activities
The organisation can be reactive or proactive towards change
Lewin’s Force Field Analysis
Change is the outcome of the impact of driving forces upon restraining forces Driving forces are often economic in nature Change invokes uncertainty in the existing workforce Managers involved need to communicate strong justification for changes The process of change
The change process model
The change process model Stage 1 Unfreezing of current attitudes and behaviour Organisational anticipation
The change process model Stage 2 Moving to a new level Organisational flux Information building Experimentation
The change process model Stage 3 Refreezing attitudes and behaviour at the new level Highlight the positive outcomes of the changes
Communicating change In communicating change consider: - the information which needs to be imparted - the best media to use For communicating routine or minor change use: - circulars or newsletters - announcements on noticeboards - letters, memos and e-mail
Cont… For communicating routine or minor change use: - circulars or newsletters - announcements on noticeboards - letters, memos and e-mail
Communicating change In communicating change aim to: - involve organisation members in planning and implementing the change
Communicating change - have a two-way dialogue with those affected by the change - counter informal communication, such as rumours and gossip
Greiner’s model Greiner’s model can be used to highlight the need: for structural change for development of key skills to manage transfer from one phase to the next
Five dimensions of organisational development Age Size Stages of evolution Stages of revolution Industry growth rate
Phase 1 - Growth through creativity Focus is product development and selling Crisis of leadership: informal management style becomes inadequate more expertise is needed
Phase 2 - Growth through direction Crisis of leadership is resolved by: specialisation functional structure implementing control systems formal communication Decision Making expands up the hierarchy
Phase 2 - Growth through direction Crisis of autonomy over centralisation no opportunity to exercise initiative
Phase 3 - Growth through delegation Crisis of autonomy is resolved by: decentralisation divisional structure top management deal with strategic issues and middle manager competitive issues Crisis of control: top management feel a loss of control over the divisions
Phase 4 - Growth through co-ordination Crisis of control is resolved by: formal planning more staff concerned with control throughout the organisation encourage managers to take a corporate perspective
Phase 4 - Growth through co-ordination Crisis of red tape: lack of confidence in co-ordination between employees and HQ proliferation of systems innovation is stifled
Phase 5 - Growth through collaboration Crisis of red tape is resolved by social control and self discipline Crisis of collaboration - employees exhausted by teamwork and the need for innovation
Feedback is: information about performance or behaviour that leads to action to affirm or develop that performance or behaviour.
Purpose of Feedback How can we expect people to change and develop if they don’t know what they need to change? Unless they get feedback, how do they know what they do well so they can continue doing it?
Feedback Reality vs Perceptions Most people really want to know how they are doing. They want to know if other people like what they’re doing. They also want to know if something could be done more effectively or if boundaries are being overstepped.
Feedback is NOT: an end in itself a solution to performance problems or issues praise or blame, approval or disapproval. Evaluation means to place value on a performance or piece of work. But feedback is value neutral. It merely describes what you did or did not accomplish, given a standard or intent. Derived from tests, exercises or simulations. The activity being assessed is your normal work. You cannot get closer to real life than real life itself.
Brown & Leigh’s Feedback Rules (1996) TIMELY SELECTIVE BALANCED SUGGESTIONS rather than PRESCRIPTIONS DESCRIPTIVE SPECIFIC or focussed Avoid personal comments Avoid Mixed Messages Avoid diffusion DIRECTED towards behaviour that can be changed
The Impact of Feedback The person receiving the feedback can react with: Anger – ‘I’ve had enough of this’ Denial – this reaction often accompanies the initial shock of feedback ‘I cant see any problem with that’ Blame – ‘It’s not my fault. What can you expect when the patient won’t listen? Rationalisation – finding excuses to try and justify their behaviour ‘I’ve had a particularly bad week’ ‘Doesn’t everyone do this?’ Acceptance Renewed Action
what type of feedback might you get? written/verbal individualised eg a particular assignment written/verbal general feedback to your class eg on most common errors/successes on an exam paper checklists/proforma eg headings of assessment criteria, with comments below assessment criteria grid, showing where you are placed against each criteria model answers computerised eg multiple-choice questions "Off the cuff" comments from others eg "You're really good at…"
Rules for Receiving Feedback Listen carefully to what is being said People should be receptive to feedback and see it as helpful. Don’t reject it! Accept positive feedback…don’t reject it! Accept negative feedback...don’t reject it! Avoid arguing or being defensive. Ask questions to clarify fully and seek examples is useful. Acknowledge the giver of feedback and show his or her appreciation. The feedback may not have been easy to give. Involve mutual good will receiver should feel that the giver isn’t their enemy giver needs to want to help receiver develop
what to do with the feedback? It is up to you Read or listen Understand; Clarification: examples and alternatives; Keep notes Give it time to sink in and get into perspective Try to keep feedback sheets/information together Address areas for improvement. Identify, Action Plan Try not to feel devastated by small criticisms and try not to be defensive and make excuses