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  • Cmmi

    1. 1. CMMI Chapter 3 1
    2. 2. 2 Focus of CMMI SW-CMM is applied here CMMI is applied here
    3. 3. 3 Everyone realizes the importance of having a motivated, quality work force but... • ...even our finest people can’t perform at their best when the process is not understood or operating “at its best.” PEOPLE PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Quality Leverage Points Major determinants of product cost, schedule, and quality
    4. 4. 4 Why Focus on Process? • Process provides a constructive, high-leverage focus... – as opposed to a focus on people • Your work force, on the average, is as “good” as it is trained to be. • Working harder is not the answer. • Working smarter, through process, is the answer. – as opposed to a focus on technology • Technology applied without a suitable roadmap will not result in significant payoff. • Technology provides the most benefit in the context of an appropriate process roadmap.
    5. 5. 5 Underlying Premise of Process Improvement “The quality of a product is largely determined by the quality of the process that is used to develop and maintain it.”
    6. 6. 6 Categories of Process Improvement Benefits • Process improvement benefits fall into eight general categories: – improved schedule and budget predictability – improved cycle time – increased productivity – improved quality (as measured by defects) – increased customer satisfaction – improved employee morale – increased return on investment – decreased cost of quality
    7. 7. 7 What is a CMM? • Capability Maturity Model: A reference model of mature practices in a specified discipline, used to assess a group’s capability to perform that discipline • CMMs differ by – Discipline (software, systems, acquisition, etc.) – Structure (staged versus continuous) – How Maturity is Defined (process improvement path) – How Capability is Defined (institutionalization)
    8. 8. What is CMMI? • CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) is a proven industry framework to improve product quality and development efficiency for both hardware and software – Sponsored by US Department of Defense in cooperation with Carnegie Mellon University and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) – Many other companies involved in CMMI definition such as Motorola and Ericsson – CMMI has been established as a model to improve business results • CMMI, staged, uses 5 levels to describe the maturity of the organization, same as predecessor CMM – Vastly improved version of the CMM – Emphasis on business needs, integration and institutionalization 8
    9. 9. How can CMMI help? • CMMI provides a way to focus and manage hardware and software development from product inception through deployment and maintenance. – ISO/TL9000 are still required. CMMI interfaces well with them. CMMI and TL are complementary - both are needed since they address different aspects. • TL9000 is a process compliance standard • CMMI is a process improvement model • Behavioral changes are needed at both management and staff levels. Examples: – Increased personal accountability – Tighter links between Product Management, Development, SCM, etc. • Initially a lot of investment required – but, if properly managed, we will be more efficient and productive while turning out products with consistently higher quality. 9
    10. 10. 10 So Many Models, So Little Time Software CMM Software CMM Systems Security Engr CMM Systems Security Engr CMM Systems Engr CMM Systems Engr CMM People CMM People CMM IPD CMM IPD CMM Software Acq CMM Software Acq CMM • Different structures, formats, terms, ways of measuring maturity • Causes confusion, especially when using more than one model • Hard to integrate them in a combined improvement program • Hard to use multiple models in supplier selection
    11. 11. 11 Bridging the Divide CMMI: •Integrates systems and software disciplines into one process improvement framework. •Provides a framework for introducing new disciplines as needs arise.
    12. 12. CMMI Models within the Framework • Models: – Systems Engineering + Software Engineering (SE/SW) – Systems Engineering + Software Engineering + Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) – Systems Engineering + Software Engineering + Integrated Product and Process Development + Supplier Sourcing (SS) – Software Engineering only • Representation options: – Staged – Continuous • The CMMI definition of “Systems Engineering” - “The interdisciplinary approach governing the total technical and managerial effort required to transform a set of customer needs, expectations and constraints into a product solution and to support that solution throughout the product’s life.” This includes both hardware and software. 12
    13. 13. CMMI Staged Representation - 5 Maturity Levels Level 5 Initial Level 1 Processes are unpredictable, poorly controlled, reactive. Managed Level 2 Processes are planned, documented, performed, monitored, and controlled at the project level. Often reactive. Defined Level 3 Processes are well characterized and understood. Processes, standards, procedures, tools, etc. are defined at the organizational (Organization X ) level. Proactive. Quantitatively Managed Level 4 Processes are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. Optimizing ProcessM aturity Process performance continually improved through incremental and innovative technological improvements. 13
    14. 14. 14 Behaviors at the Five Levels Initial Managed Defined Quantitatively Managed Optimizing Process is unpredictable, poorly controlled, and reactive Process is characterized for projects and is often reactive Process is characterized for the organization and is proactive Process is measured and controlled Focus is on continuous quantitative improvement Maturity Level Process Characteristics Behaviors Focus on "fire prevention"; improvement anticipated and desired, and impacts assessed. Greater sense of teamwork and inter- dependencies Reliance on defined process. People understand, support and follow the process. Over reliance on experience of good people – when they go, the process goes. “Heroics.” Focus on "fire fighting"; effectiveness low – frustration high.
    15. 15. 15 CMMI Components • Within each of the 5 Maturity Levels, there are basic functions that need to be performed – these are called Process Areas (PAs). • For Maturity Level 2 there are 7 Process Areas that must be completely satisfied. • For Maturity Level 3 there are 11 Process Areas that must be completely satisfied. • Given the interactions and overlap, it becomes more efficient to work the Maturity Level 2 and 3 issues concurrently. • Within each PA there are Goals to be achieved and within each Goal there are Practices, work products, etc. to be followed that will support each of the Goals.
    16. 16. 16 Maturity Level Project Managment Engineering Process Management Support 5 Optimizing Organizational Innovation & Deployment Causal Analysis & Resolution 4 Quantitatively Managed Quantitative Project Mngt Organizational Process Performance 3 Defined Integrated Project Mngt Risk Management Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Decision Analysis & Resolution 2 Managed Project Planning Project Monitoring & Control Supplier Agreement Mngt Requirements Mngt Measurement & Analysis Process & Product Quality Assurance Configuration Mngt 1 Initial CMMI Process Areas
    17. 17. 17 CMMI Terminology & Structure Maturity Levels (1 - 5) Generic Practices Generic Goals Process Area 2 Common Features Process Area 1 Process Area n Verifying Implementation Specific Goals Specific Practices Ability to Perform Directing Implementation RequiredRequired Sub practices , typical work products, discipline amplifications, generic practice elaborations, goal and practice titles, goal and practice notes, and references Commitment to Perform Sub practices , typical work products, discipline amplifications, generic practice elaborations, goal and practice titles, goal and practice notes, and references InformativeInformative Required. Specific for each process area. Required. Common across all process areas.
    18. 18. 18 Example For the Requirements Management Process Area: An example Goal (required): “Manage Requirements” An example Practice to support the Goal (required): “Maintain bi-directional traceability of requirements” Examples (suggested, but not required) of typical Work Products might be Requirements traceability matrix or Requirements tracking system
    19. 19. Slide 19 Yet another CMMI term: Institutionalization • Building and reinforcement of corporate culture that supports methods, practices and procedures so they are the ongoing way of business…….. Required for all Process Areas
    20. 20. 20 The Next Step Is CMM Integration • The CMM Integration Project was formed to – build an initial set of integrated models – improve best practices from source models based on lessons learned – establish a framework to enable integration of future models – create an associated set of appraisal and training products • Collaborative endeavor (over 100 people involved) – Industry – Government – Software Engineering Institute (SEI)
    21. 21. 21 Bodies of Knowledge Captured in CMMI Models •An organization selects the bodies of knowledge most relevant to achieving its business objectives. Bodies of knowledge* available in CMMI models include –software engineering(sw) –systems engineering(se) –integrated product and process development (IPPD) –supplier sourcing (SS) •*Each body of knowledge related to product or process development in CMMI is considered a discipline.
    22. 22. 22 Software Engineering (SW) • SW covers the development of software systems • SW focus on applying systematic, disciplined, and quantifiable approaches to the – development, – operation – maintenance
    23. 23. 23 System Engineering (SE) • Systems engineering covers the development of total systems, which may or may not include software • Systems engineers focus on transforming customer needs, expectations, and constraints into product solutions and supporting these product solutions throughout the life of the product
    24. 24. 24 Supplier sourcing (SS) • As work efforts become more complex, projects may use suppliers to perform functions or add modifications to products that are specifically needed by the project. When those activities are critical, the project benefits from enhanced source analysis and from monitoring supplier activities before product delivery
    25. 25. 25 Integrated Product & process development (IPPD) • IPPD is a systematic approach that achieves a timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the life of the product to better satisfy customer needs, expectations, and requirements
    26. 26. 26 IPPD - Definition IPPD provides a systematic approach to product development that achieves a timely collaboration of relevant stakeholders throughout the product life cycle to better satisfy customer needs.
    27. 27. 27 About IPPD Integrated Product and Process Development • IPPD affects all process areas. • IPPD is not a discipline like SE or SW. • Rather, it is a way of doing business. • IPPD is employed in conjunction with the CMMI disciplines (software and systems engineering). • Implementation of IPPD shapes how you perform the work in these disciplines.
    28. 28. 28 CMMI Models Source Models • Capability Maturity Model for Software V2, draft C (SW-CMM V2C) • EIA Interim Standard 731, System Engineering Capability Model (SECM) • Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model, draft V0.98 (IPD-CMM) CMMI-SE/SW Staged Representation CMMI-SE/SW Continuous Representation • Combined System Engineering / Software Engineering model • Can be applied to: – Just the software engineering projects in an organization – Just the system engineering projects in an organization – Both – IPPD/SS can be used in either/both
    29. 29. 29 Understanding CMMI Representations • There are two types of representations in the CMMI models: – staged – continuous • A representation allows an organization to pursue different improvement objectives • The organization and presentation of the data are different in each representation. However, the content is the same.
    30. 30. 30 Staged Representation • Provides a proven sequence of improvements, each serving as a foundation for the next • Permits comparisons across and among organizations by the use of maturity levels • Provides an easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI • Provides a single rating that summarizes appraisal results and allows comparisons among organizations Indicates maturity of an organization’s standard process -- to answer, “What is a good order for approaching improvement across the organization?”
    31. 31. 31 CMMI Model Representations
    32. 32. 32 Maturity Levels • A maturity level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau of process improvement. • There are five maturity levels. • Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement using a proven sequence of improvements, beginning with basic management practices and progressing through a predefined and proven path of successive levels.
    33. 33. 33 The Maturity Levels 1 2 3 4 5 Process unpredictable, poorly controlled, and reactive Process characterized for projects and is often reactive Process characterized for the organization and is proactive Process measured and controlled Focus on continuous process improvement Optimizing Quantitatively Managed Defined Initial Managed Optimizing Defined
    34. 34. Maturity Level 1 Initial • Maturity Level 1 deals with performed processes. • Processes are unpredictable, poorly controlled, reactive. • The process performance may not be stable and may not meet specific objectives such as quality, cost, and schedule, but useful work can be done. 34
    35. 35. Maturity Level 2 Managed at the Project Level • Maturity Level 2 deals with managed processes. • A managed process is a performed process that is also: – Planned and executed in accordance with policy – Employs skilled people – Adequate resources are available – Controlled outputs are produced – Stakeholders are involved – The process is reviewed and evaluated for adherence to requirements • Processes are planned, documented, performed, monitored, and controlled at the project level. Often reactive. • The managed process comes closer to achieving the specific objectives such as quality, cost, and schedule. 35
    36. 36. Maturity Level 3 Defined at the Organization Level • Maturity Level 3 deals with defined processes. • A defined process is a managed process that: – Well defined, understood, deployed and executed across the entire organization. Proactive. – Processes, standards, procedures, tools, etc. are defined at the organizational (Organization X ) level. Project or local tailoring is allowed, however it must be based on the organization’s set of standard processes and defined per the organization’s tailoring guidelines. • Major portions of the organization cannot “opt out.” 36
    37. 37. 37 Maturity Levels Should Not Be Skipped • Each maturity level provides a necessary foundation for effective implementation of processes at the next level. – Higher level processes have less chance of success without the discipline provided by lower levels. – The effect of innovation can be obscured in a noisy process. • Higher maturity level processes may be performed by organizations at lower maturity levels, with the risk of not being consistently applied in a crisis.
    38. 38. 38 Continuous Representation • Allows you to select the order of improvement that best meets your organization’s business objectives and mitigates your organization’s areas of risk • Enables comparisons across and among organizations on a process-area-by-process- area basis • Provides an easy migration from EIA 731 (and other models with a continuous representation) to CMMI
    39. 39. 39 Capability Levels • A capability level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the organization’s capability relative to a process area. • There are six capability levels. • For capability levels 1-5, there is an associated generic goal. • Each level is a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement. • Thus, capability levels are cumulative, i.e., a higher capability level includes the attributes of the lower levels.
    40. 40. 40 The Capability Levels 5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed 3 Defined 2 Managed 1 Performed 0 Incomplete
    41. 41. 41 Relating Process Area Capability and Organizational Maturity • Organizational maturity is the focus of the staged representation, whereas process area capability is the focus of the continuous representation. • Organizational maturity and process area capability are similar concepts. • The difference between them is that organizational maturity pertains to a set of process areas across an organization, while process area capability deals with a set of processes relating to a single process area or specific practice.
    42. 42. 42 Comparison of Representations Staged Continuous • Process improvement is measured using maturity levels. • Maturity level is the degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas. • Organizational maturity pertains to the “maturity” of a set of processes across an organization Process improvement is measured using capability levels. Capability level is the achievement of process improvement within an individual process area. Process area capability pertains to the “maturity” of a particular process across an organization.
    43. 43. 43 Advantages of Each Representation • Staged • Provides a roadmap for implementing – groups of process areas – sequencing of implementation • Familiar structure for those transitioning from the Software CMM • Continuous • Provides maximum flexibility for focusing on specific process areas according to business goals and objectives • Familiar structure for those transitioning from EIA 731
    44. 44. 44 Benefits of Continuing Process Improvement •SEI Software CMM Level 5: For the Right Reasons* –Defects are now nearly all found and fixed before testing begins. –Defects escaping into the field have been reduced from 11% to practically 0%. –Programs consistently reach customer satisfaction and performance targets. –Peer reviews increase total project costs by 4%, but reduced rework during testing by 31%. R.O.I. is 7.75:1.
    45. 45. 45 CMM“I” – Improvement • The CMMI Product Suite provides a foundation for enterprise-wide improvement and adds – new emphasis on products and services as well as process – emphasis on both process capability and organizational maturity – early emphasis on measurement and analysis • The CMMI model improves upon Software CMM V1.1 and Software CMM V2.0 Draft C.
    46. 46. 46 CMM“I” – Integration • Provides expanded model scope for integration – Integrated Product Management – Integrated Supplier Management – Decision Analysis and Resolution – “Relevant Stakeholder” planning and execution – Inclusion of the Integrated Product and Process Development body of knowledge
    47. 47. 47 Improving on the Software CMM • CMMI Models improve on the best practices in Software CMM Version 2.0 Draft C: – Incorporates 4+ additional years of learning – More explicitly links management and engineering activities to business objectives – Expands the scope of and visibility into the product life cycle and engineering activities to ensure the product or service meets customer expectations – Incorporates additional areas of best practice (e.g., measurement, risk management, bi-directional traceability in requirements management, decision analysis and resolution, and supplier management) – Captures more robust high-maturity practices – Addresses additional generic practices needed for institutionalization – More fully complies with relevant ISO standards
    48. 48. 48 CMMI Can Benefit You • CMMI provides – Efficient, effective assessment and improvement across multiple process disciplines in an organization – Improvements to best practices incorporated from the Software CMM – A common, integrated vision of improvement for all elements of an organization – A means of representing new discipline-specific information in a standard, proven process- improvement context
    49. 49. 49 Available Models • The following CMMI Models exist: – SE/SW Staged – SE/SW Continuous – SE/SW/IPPD Staged – SE/SW/IPPD Continuous – SE/SW/IPPD/SS Staged – SE/SW/IPPD/SS Continuous – SW Staged – SW Continuous
    50. 50. 50 Selecting a Discipline to Use • Different model versions exist – CMMI-SW -- CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD – CMMI-SE/SW -- CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/SS • You select which disciplines you wish to use, based on where you are trying to improve • Example – A company which engineers and builds computer systems, by acquisition of COTS hardware and development of custom software, using integrated teams – Use CMMI-SW applied only to the software development – Use CMMI-SE/SW applied to the computer system and the software – Use CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD applied to the system, software, and use of teams – Use CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD applied to the system, software, teams, and COTS acquisition
    51. 51. 51 CMMI Structure one Model, Two Representations Maturity Level 5 OID, CAR Maturity Level 4 OPP, QPM Maturity Level 3 REQD, TS, PI, VER, VAL, OPF, OPD, OT, IPM, RSKM, DAR Overview Introduction Structure of the Model Model Terminology Maturity Levels, Common Features, and Generic Practices Understanding the Model Using the Model Maturity Level 2 REQM, PP, PMC, SAM, MA, PPQA, CM Appendixes Engineering REQM, REQD, TS, PI, VER, VAL Project Management PP, PMC, SAM IPM, RSKM, QPM Process Management OPF, OPD, OT, OPP, OID Process Management PAs - Goals - Practices Support CM, PPQA, MA, CAR, DAR Appendixes CMMI-SE/SW Staged Overview Introduction Structure of the Model Model Terminology Capability Levels and Generic Model Components Understanding the Model Using the Model CMMI-SE/SW Continuous
    52. 52. 52 CMMI Model Structure
    53. 53. 53 Staged Representation: Process Areas by Maturity Level Organizational Innovation and Deployment Causal Analysis and Resolution5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed 3 Defined 2 Managed Continuous process improvement Quantitative management Process standardization Basic project management Organizational Process Performance Quantitative Project Management Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Integrated Project Management Integrated Supplier Management Risk Management Decision Analysis and Resolution Organizational Environment for Integration Integrated TeamingRequirements Management Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Measurement and Analysis Process and Product Quality Assurance Configuration Management 1 Initial Process AreasLevel Focus (IPPD) (IPPD) (SS)
    54. 54. 54 Requirements Management Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Engineering Project Management Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Integrated Project Management(IPPD) Integrated Supplier Management (SS) Integrated Teaming (IPPD) Risk Management Quantitative Project Management Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Organizational Process Performance Organizational Innovation and Deployment Process Management Configuration Management Process and Product Quality Assurance Measurement and Analysis Causal Analysis and Resolution Decision Analysis and Resolution Organizational Environment for Integration (IPPD) Support Continuous Representation: Organization of Process Areas Category Process Area
    55. 55. SW-CMM V1.1 vs. CMMI V1.1 Defect Prevention Causal Analysis and Resolution Technology Change Mgmt Organizational Innovation & Deployment Process Change Management Quantitative Process Mgmt Organizational Process Performance Software Quality Mgmt Quantitative Project Management Organization Process Focus Organization Process Focus Organization Process Definition Organization Process Definition Training Program Organizational Training Integrated Software Mgmt Integrated Project Management Risk Management Software Product Engr Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Intergroup Coordination Verification Peer Reviews Validation Decision Analysis and Resolution Requirements Management Requirements Management Software Project Planning Project Planning Software Project Tracking & Oversight Project Monitoring and Control Software Subcontract Mgmt Supplier Agreement Management Software Quality Assurance Product & Process Quality Assurance Software Configuration Mgmt Configuration Management Measurement and Analysis LEVEL 5 OPTIMIZING LEVEL 4 MANAGED LEVEL 3 DEFINED LEVEL 2 REPEATABLE 55 Key Process Areas (KPAs) Process Areas (PAs) 55
    56. 56. 56 Support Process Areas There are 5 Support Process Areas: – Configuration Management (L2) – Process and Product Quality Assurance (L2) – Measurement and Analysis (L2) – Causal Analysis and Resolution (L5) – Decision Analysis and Resolution (L3)
    57. 57. 57 Understanding Support Processes • Support process areas cover the practices that support product development, maintenance, and acquisition. • They provide essential processes used by all the CMMI process areas, and are typically used in the context of performing other processes.
    58. 58. Casual Analysis and Resolution – The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future. SG 1 Determine Causes of Defects – SP 1.1 Select Defect Data for Analysis – SP 1.2 Analyze Causes SG 2 Address Causes of Defects – SP 2.1 Implement the Action Proposals – SP 2.2 Evaluate the Effect of Changes – SP 2.3 Record Data 58
    59. 59. Configuration Management • The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. Specific Goal and Practice Summary SG 1 Establish Baselines – SP 1.1 Identify Configuration Items – SP 1.2 Establish a Configuration Management System – SP 1.3 Create or Release Baselines SG 2 Track and Control Changes – SP 2.1 Track Change Requests – SP 2.2 Control Configuration Items SG 3 Establish Integrity – SP 3.1 Establish Configuration Management Records – SP 3.2 Perform Configuration Audits 59
    60. 60. Decision Analysis and Resolution • The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. Specific Goal and Practice Summary SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives – SP 1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis – SP 1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria – SP 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions – SP 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods – SP 1.5 Evaluate Alternatives – SP 1.6 Select Solutions 60
    61. 61. Measurement and Analysis • The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs. SG 1 Align Measurement and Analysis Activities – SP 1.1 Establish Measurement Objectives – SP 1.2 Specify Measures – SP 1.3 Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures – SP 1.4 Specify Analysis Procedures SG 2 Provide Measurement Results – SP 2.1 Collect Measurement Data – SP 2.2 Analyze Measurement Data – SP 2.3 Store Data and Results – SP 2.4 Communicate Results 61
    62. 62. Process and Product Quality Assurance • The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. Specific Goal and Practice Summary SG 1 Objectively Evaluate Processes and Work Products • SP 1.1 Objectively Evaluate Processes • SP 1.2 Objectively Evaluate Work Products and Services SG 2 Provide Objective Insight • SP 2.1 Communicate and Ensure Resolution of Noncompliance Issues • SP 2.2 Establish Records 62
    63. 63. 63 Project Management Process Areas • There are eight Project Management Process Areas. – Project Planning (L2) – Project Monitoring and Control (L2) – Integrated Project Management (IPPD) (L3) – Risk Management (L3) – Supplier Agreement Management (L2) – Quantitative Project Management (L4)
    64. 64. Project Planning • The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities. SG 1 Establish Estimates • SP 1.1 Estimate the Scope of the Project • SP 1.2 Establish Estimates of Work Product and Task Attributes • SP 1.3 Define Project Lifecycle • SP 1.4 Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost SG 2 Develop a Project Plan • SP 2.1 Establish the Budget and Schedule • SP 2.2 Identify Project Risks • SP 2.3 Plan for Data Management • SP 2.4 Plan for Project Resources • SP 2.5 Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills • SP 2.6 Plan Stakeholder Involvement • SP 2.7 Establish the Project Plan SG 3 Obtain Commitment to the Plan • SP 3.1 Review Plans That Affect the Project • SP 3.2 Reconcile Work and Resource Levels • SP 3.3 Obtain Plan Commitment 64
    65. 65. Project Monitoring and control • The purpose of Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. SG 1 Monitor Project Against Plan • SP 1.1Monitor Project Planning Parameters • SP 1.2Monitor Commitments • SP 1.3Monitor Project Risks • SP 1.4Monitor Data Management • SP 1.5Monitor Stakeholder Involvement • SP 1.6Conduct Progress Reviews • SP 1.7Conduct Milestone Reviews SG 2 Manage Corrective Action to Closure • SP 2.1Analyze Issues • SP 2.2Take Corrective Action • SP 2.3Manage Corrective Action 65
    66. 66. 66 Engineering Process Areas • There are six Engineering Process Areas. – Requirements Management (L2) – Requirements Development (L3) – Technical Solution (L3) – Product Integration (L3) – Verification (L3) – Validation (L3)
    67. 67. Requirements Development • The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product component requirements. SG 1 Develop Customer Requirements – SP 1.1 Elicit Needs – SP 1.2 Develop the Customer Requirements SG 2 Develop Product Requirements – SP 2.1 Establish Product and Product Component Requirements – SP 2.2 Allocate Product Component Requirements – SP 2.3 Identify Interface Requirements SG 3 Analyze and Validate Requirements – SP 3.1 Establish Operational Concepts and Scenarios – SP 3.2 Establish a Definition of Required Functionality – SP 3.3 Analyze Requirements – SP 3.4 Analyze Requirements to Achieve Balance – SP 3.5 Validate Requirements 67
    68. 68. Product Integration • The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. SG 1 Prepare for Product Integration – SP 1.1 Determine Integration Sequence – SP 1.2 Establish the Product Integration Environment – SP 1.3 Establish Product Integration Procedures and Criteria SG 2 Ensure Interface Compatibility – SP 2.1 Review Interface Descriptions for Completeness – SP 2.2 Manage Interfaces SG 3 Assemble Product Components and Deliver the Product – SP 3.1 Confirm Readiness of Product Components for Integration – SP 3.2 Assemble Product Components – SP 3.3 Evaluate Assembled Product Components – SP 3.4 Package and Deliver the Product or Product Component 68
    69. 69. 69 Process Management Process Areas • There are five Process Management Process Areas: – Organizational Process Focus (L3) – Organizational Process Definition (L3) – Organizational Training (L3) – Organizational Process Performance (L4) – Organizational Innovation and Deployment (L5)
    70. 70. Organizational Process Focus • The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets. SG 1 Determine Process Improvement Opportunities • SP 1.1Establish Organizational Process Needs • SP 1.2Appraise the Organization’s Processes • SP 1.3Identify the Organization's Process Improvements SG 2 Plan and Implement Process Improvements • SP 2.1Establish Process Action Plans • SP 2.2Implement Process Action Plans SG 3 Deploy Organizational Process Assets and Incorporate Lessons Learned • SP 3.1Deploy Organizational Process Assets • SP 3.2Deploy Standard Processes • SP 3.3Monitor Implementation • SP 3.4Incorporate Process-Related Experiences into the Organizational Process Assets 70
    71. 71. Organizational Process Performance • The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process-performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects. SG 1 Establish Performance Baselines and Models – SP 1.1 Select Processes – SP 1.2 Establish Process-Performance Measures – SP 1.3 Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives – SP 1.4 Establish Process-Performance Baselines – SP 1.5 Establish Process-Performance Models 71
    72. 72. 72 Process Areas Organized by Category Process Management Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Organizational Process Performance Organizational Innovation and Deployment Project Management Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Integrated Project Management Risk Management Quantitative Project Management Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Support Configuration Management Process and Product Quality Assurance Measurement and Analysis Decision Analysis and Resolution Causal Analysis and Resolution analyze empower analyze employ measure & assist standardize processes
    73. 73. 73 Summary • There is one CMMI Model with two representations, Staged and Continuous • The material in both representations is the same just organized differently • Each representation provides different ways of implementing processes • Equivalent Staging provides a mechanism for relating Maturity Levels to Capability Levels • The CMMI model should be applied using intelligence, common sense, and professional judgment
    74. 74. 74 For More Information About CMMI–Go to CMMI Website • http://sei.cmu.edu/cmmi • http://seir.sei.cmu.edu/seir/ • http://www.ndia.org/ (annual CMMI Conference) • www.google.com
    75. 75. 75 Further Reading

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