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Nitu projrct elec

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  • 1. SETH JAI PARKASH POLYTECHNIC DAMLA (YAMUNA NAGAR) SUMMER TRAINING IN SESSION 2004-07 PREPARED BY:- SOURAV SINGH : 041515050 DEPARTMENT OF INST. & CONTROL, ENGINEERING SETH JAI PARKASH POLYTECHNIC DAMLA (YAMUNA NAGAR)
  • 2. S.NO. TITAL 1. CERTIFICAT 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3. INTRODUCTION 4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 5. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 6. WORKING OF CIRCUIT 7. BLOCK DIAGRAM 8. PCB DESIGNING 9. IC DETAILS 10. LIST OF COMPONENTS 11. INTRUMENTS 12. FAULT FINDING & TESTING 13. PRECATION INDEX
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGMENT To secced in any field, the most essential requirment are inspiration and guidance. As inspration wprlds up, dedication and guidence helps us at very steps in achiving our goal, so inspiration and guidence is always thanked and respected by deep jeeling of heart ER.VIPPAN UPPAL of Electronic & communication in SETH JAI PARKASH POLYTECHNIC DAMLA (YAMUNA NAGAR) PARVEEN KAUSHIK 031510038 PARVEEN KUMAR 031510039 RISHI PAL 031510049
  • 4. PERFACE Electronics & Communication has commanding position in all world technolozy. The Electronics equipment requie very small power as compare to eletrical & mechinical equipment and they are very noisy. Our project deals with the utilization of telephone set for switching on and off an electrical device without moving from our place.
  • 5. CERTIFICATE Certified that the project entitled “TELEPHONE CONTROLLED REMOTE SWITCH.” which is being submitted successfully in. PARVEEN KAUSHIK 031510038 PARVEEN KUMAR 031510039 RISHI PAL 031510049 Final years students of ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION (2003-06) for the partical fulfillment for the award of Diploma in a bonafied record of work done by them under our supervision and guidence. We hope that there future work shall reflact same spirit of initative enthasias and presence. We wise them every success in life. GUIDED BY:- SH. V.M. KALRA ER. VIPPEN UPPAL ER. RAJESH GARG H.O.D Project Guide Lecturer
  • 6. INTRODUCTION TELEPHONE CONTROLLED REMOTE SWITCH The project deals with the utilization of telephone set for switching on or off any electrically operated device without away from your place. In order worlds it is used for remote switching of an electrical device. The ckt of the project doesn’t require any physical connection with conventional telephone lines. Hence the normal operation of telephone set in not effected. This ckt only senses the coded ring signal send by telephone. One should contact the distant telephone by dialing the number of that telephone. The decoder ckt in the project decodes only the ring sound & not the dialed no. For switching on the ckt life the hand set & dial the distant phone no. after hearing two ring tones put back hand set on credit. Wait for 50s amd again lift the hand set and dial the no. again hearing after two ring tones put hand set on credit. If a valid code is sensed by mic it detcts the reciebed signal and this signal is passed through amplifier and timing stage to raise the level of signal sufficient to drive relay. Once relay is activited it remainis its positin unless power sulpply is switched off.
  • 7. BLOCK DIAGRAM BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TELEPHONE CONTROLLED REMOTE SWITCH CONDENSOR MIC COMPARATOR MMV 1 [L2s] COUNTER LOGIC DECODE CKT MMV 3 [50 s] ELECTRICAL SEVICE MMV 2 [2 MINUTE] RELAY DRIVER RELAY
  • 8. DESCRIPTION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM: - (1) Detector (2) Timing & Control logier (3) Relay drier unit (!) Detector: - The detector stage comprises of mice c condenser & a comparator combination. The incoming ring signal is detected by the condenser mice & o/p of condenser compared with the reference outage of comparator. O/p of condendenser mice is connected to inverting terminal of comparator. In normal case, o/p of comparator is high as non- inserting terminal is sufficiently high {+V} as compared to non-inserting terminal. But when the signal defected by condenser is applied to comparator, it o/p transits from higher to lower state. This higher to lower transaction trigger IC, &IC2<IC3. Which are constable multiuibrators of diff. Duration. (!!) Timing & Control Logic: This unit consists of (a) 3monostable multiuibrators of diff, duration (b) Counter (c) Logic decodes circuit.
  • 9. Monostable Multiusibrator This out put of comparator triggers triggers the monostable multiuibrator MVV1MMV2.MMV,is used to generate only 1 pulse during 1 second of ring signal is separated by a time of 2second . Hence duration of o/p of MMV1is kept more than 1seconds but less than 2seconds . The MMV2 is used to enable the counter for 2 minutes . It also resets the counter, if valid code is not received. The MMV3 is used to reset the counter, if the delay between pairs signal is less than 50s. Counter :- The counter works in response to the o/p pulses of monostable multiuib raters .It automatically resets by MMV3 if invalid code is received It o/p MMV2 Is count. IfMMV2 o/p is low reset of counter is enabled it is forced to counter is enabled it is forced to count zerp. Decoder ckt:- When counter reaches the count of two the decoder ckt triggers the timer IC8CMMV3whose o/p is goes high for 50seconds . After 50s period , count 3&4 takes place After 4count, IC8 is again triggered &after 50s delay relay drive ckt is activated. Relay Driver ckt:- It works in relation to logic to logic decoder ckt &drives the relay in on off state as per requirement .
  • 10. CIRCUIT DETAILS Schematic diagram of the ckt is given in fig. While the power supply ckt is given separately. The wave froms available at various points of set diagran are shown in the timing diagram. For bravity, the ring wave CAI is shown continuous for each ring without showing the inter mediate 0.2 second break.
  • 11. WORKING For the ckt to switch on cor off the electrical desice, a special code is required to be sent. The valid code consists of two ring of the telephone followed by a predetermined delay (50 second) and again two more ring. But code must be sent with two minetes. If are sent three or more rings first time unstead of two rings then the circuit automatically resets to count zero. But if and only if we send another two rings after the predetermited delay of 50 seconds then the ckt activates a relay which can be used for her switching on or off at any electrically operated device. Once the relay is activated, it latches it self through one of the its own pair of contacts. Once enerigsed, the relay con only be deactivated by switching off power supply to circuit. The use of the relay contacts for latching makes the ckt operation more reliable. The ring soundfrom telephone set as picked up by the condeneer is couplet to the increting terminat of comparator (LM339). The non-inverting terminal of comparator is returned to a sufficienty high _ve voltge with the help of preset VRI so that the xomparator remains in high state and is not affected by the noise. Whehever ring signal is detedted by microphone the voltage at inverting terming passes aboue the non-inverting terminal voltage and, as a results, the output of comparator drops from high level. This high to low going output of comp arator triggers timers ic2 & ic3 (both ne555) simultaneously. The+ve going monopulses at the output of ic2 & ic3 stay high for
  • 12. stipulated durations of 1.2 second & 2 minutes, respectively. The pulse widths may be adjusted, as necessary, using presets vr2 & vr3 respectively. Refer timing waveforms (B) & (C) in fig. The duration of output pulse of ic2 I so adjusted that it remains high for a period greater than that of one ring (I see) but terminates before the start of the next ring. This output of IC2 server as clock for counter OC4 (742592) to advance. IC3 contact counter IC4 through its resets terminals. When output by IC3 is low, it forces the reset. The ring sound form telephone set as picked up by the condeneer is couplet to the incerting terminat of comparator (LM339). The non-inverting terminal of comparator is returned to a sufficienty high+ve voltage with the help of preset VRI so that in the comparator reamins high and not is not affected by the noise. Whenever ring singl is detected by microphone the voltage at inverting terminal passes above the non-inverting terminal voltage and, as a results, the output of comparator drops from high level to low level. This high to low going output of comparator triggers tomers ic2 &ic3 (both ne555) somultaneously. The+ve going monopulses at the output of ic2 & ic3 stay high for stipulated durations of 1.2 seconds & 2 minutes, respectibely. The pluse widths may be adjusted, as nesessary, using presets vr2 & vr3 respectively. Refer timing waveforms (B) & (C) in fig. The duration of output puse of ic2 is so adjusted that it remains high for for a period greater than that of one ring (I see) but terminates before
  • 13. the start of the next ring. This output of IC2 server as clock for counter IC4 (742592) to advance. IC3 controls counter IC4 through its reset terminals . when output by IC3 stages at count No. when output of IC3 goes high it enables the counter IC4 for a period of two minutes (to count). When counter IC4 reaches the count of two the decoder circuit tiggers the timers ICB whose output goes high for 50 seconds as shown in wave form (D). during this period of 50 seconds is Ic4 receives a third clock pulse, counter IC4 resets. VTa gates N4,M2& N1 to counters if and `ble than an electronic latch circuit. The ring sound from telephone set as picked up the condeneer is couplet to the incerting of compartor (LM339). The non-inverting terminal of comparator is returned to a sufficiently high_ve voltage with the help of preset VRI so that in the comparator remains high and is not affected by the noise. Whenever ring signal is detected by microphone the voltage at inverting terminal passes above the non-inverting terminal voltage and as a results, the output of comparator drops fom high level to low level. This high to low going output of ic2 & ic3 stay high for stipulated durations of 1.2 seconds & 2 minutes, respectively. The pulse widths may be adjusted as necessary using presets vr2& vr3 respectively. Refer timing waveforms (B) & (C) in fig. The duration of put puse of ic2 is so adjusted that it remains high for a period greater than that of one ring (I see) but terminates before the start of the next ring. This output of IC2 server as clock for counter IC4(742592) to advance. IC3
  • 14. controls counter IC4 through its reset terminals. When output by IC3 is low, it forces the reset terminalsb by IC4 to go to logoc 1 state via NAND gate N1. thus counter Ic4 stages No. When output of Ic goes high it enables the counter Ic4 for period of two minutes (to counter). When counter IC4 reaches the counter the counter of two the decoder circuit tigger the timers ICB whose output goes high for 50 secounds as shown in wave form (D). during this period of 50 seconds is Ic4 receivers a third clock pulse, counter IC4 resets. VTa gates N4,M2&N1 to counter if and when counter IC4 reaches the coujnt of 4 then IC8 is again triggered and after a 50 second delay relay RlI is achvated 4 latched. For latching tanchon, one det of contads of relay connected as shown in figure are used. For ease of understanding the operation of decoder circuit logic levels at various points of the circuit after given in truth table. LED in dicators are used at various points in the circut for eary adjustment & tesing All suchs point are monked in circuit diagram.
  • 15. PCB MANUFACTURING PCB designing determins the size of project. Various steps involved in PCB designing are:- 1. Layout Dsigning:- It is the drawing on paper which provides a complete information about the compenents outline, components holes & their inter connection. 2 Artwork Designing:- Artwork given the actual size of coponets conductor orientation routing & spacing. 3. Negative Preparation:- For the perparation of negative the photographic lith film is cut to the size of artwork. This film is then bathed through fixed which is the sodium trisulphate solution. This film is then worked with water & is then dried. 4. Pattern Transfer:- The copper clad sheet is cleaned with steel wool & wash with water & then dry the sheet. Then the copper clad sheet is coated with the photoresist material. The coated sheet is then exposed to UN rays through the film the master. Then we develop the copper clad sheet in photodeveloper for cascaded development.
  • 16. 5. Etching The PCB is then kept in ferric chloride solution for removal of unwanted copper. 6. Washing We wash the PCB with simple water & dry it. 7. Drilling The holes are then drilled in PCB for comonent insertion.
  • 17. SOLDERING START PROCESS APPLY SOLDER PASTE PLACE COMPONENT CURESOLDER PASTE REFLOW SOLDER CLEAN THE TEST CHIP
  • 18. LIST OF COMPONENTS SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE 1. IC1 LM 339 quad comparator 2. IC2, IC3, IC8 NE-555 Timer 3. IC4 74 LS92 (Divide by 12 counter) 4. IC5 (N4-N3) 74 LS00quad 21/P NAND gate 5. IC6 (N4-N6) 74LS08 quad 21/P AMD gate 6. IC7 (N7-N10-N17) 7. IC9 (N11-N16) 74LS04 hex inverter 8. IC10 7805+5 volt regulator 9. D1 TO D3 IN4148 Switching Diode 10.D4-D8 IN4007 rectifier diode 11.T1, T2 BC557 PNP transistor 12.LED1, LED7, LED8 3mm red LED PASSIV COMPONENTS RESISTOR:- 1. R1 47KO 2. R2 22KO 4. R3, R5, R7 5. R8, R16 10KO 6. R4 100KO 7. R9,R10,R17 3.3KO
  • 19. 8. R11,R12,R13,R14 9. R15,R18,R19 470KO 10. R20,R21 1KO 11. VR1 4.7KO Preset 12. VR2 220 KO Preset 13. VR3, VR4 470KO Preset CAPACITORS:- 1. C1 .47 μf Ceramic Disc 2. C2, C3, C6, C7, C12 .01 μf Ceramic Disc 3. C14, C11, C13 100 μf, 25 V Electrolytic 4. C8 10 μf, 25v Electroytic 5. C9 220 μf, 25 Electrolytic 6. C14 1000 μf, 25 V Electrolytic
  • 20. IC DETAILS PIN OUT DIAGRAM VCC I1P O1P I1P O1P I1P 8O1P I1P OIP I1P O1P I1P O1P GNO O 1 INPUT O OUTPUT 14 7404
  • 21. IC SPECIFICATION IC 74LS04 7404 is used as NOT gate. It consist of 6 not gate 1 pin is for ground & other is for Vcc. Since it belongs to TTL family, its operating voltage is 5V. LM339 Quad Comparator It is a comparatorthe voltage applied at its input terminal with reference voltage applied. IC 74 LS04 7404 is used as NOT gate. It consist of 6 not gate 1 pin is ground & other is for Vcc. Since it belongs TTL family, its operating voltage is 5V.
  • 22. PINOUT DIAGRAM I1P I1P VCC O1P 8 O1P 14 I1P O1P I1P O1P 7 GND 0 O 1 I1P O O1P 1 SYMBOL A NC O.O O.1 GND 0.2 O.3 B NC NC NC VCC RO1 RO2 7400 14 7492
  • 23. CLOCK QC QB QA A B C D R F NORMAL L L L L L L H H H 1ST L L H H L L H L H 2ND L H L L L H H L H 3RD Default L H H H H H L H H 3RD L H H H H L H L H 4TH H L L L L H0 H0 LO L# NOTE * LOW/HIGH FOR 50Δ # : L/H AFTER 50Δ TRUTH TABLE FOR 74LS92
  • 24. 74LS92: - It is a TTL IC operated at 5V. It is a divide by 12 counter 74LS00: - it is a quad 2 input NAND gate Input Output 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 74ls08: - It is a quad 2 input TT gate Input Output 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
  • 25. NE555 Timer Pins No. Description 1. Ground 2. Trigger Input 3. O/P 4. Reset 5. Control Voltage 6. Threshold 7. Discharge 8. +Vcc
  • 26. 7805+5 Volt Regulator 1. Input 2. Common 3. Output SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES: - IN4148: - It is switching diode used to provide trigger input to monostable multivibrator when forward biased. IN4007: - Rectified Diode
  • 27. TRANSISTOR BC557: - It is a PNP transistor. LED: - It is a light emitting diode.
  • 28. RAW MATERIAL 1. Ribbon Cable 2. Signal & Multistand Wires 3. Solder Wire 4. Flux 5. Copper Clad Sheet 6. Thinner 7. Steel Wool 8. Ferriechloride
  • 29. INSTRUMENTS USED 1. Tester 2. Screw Drive 3. Digital Multimeter 4. Soldering Iron 5. Bread Board 6. Blade 7. Plier 8. Cutter 9. Twisser 10. Magnifying Lamp 11. Drilling Mechanic 12. Heting Element 13. Varies
  • 30. FRONT PANEL CONTROL OF CABINET:- 1.2s 2M 50s Qc QB Q o TIMER LED s CODE COUNTER POWER LED POWER SWITCH PUSH BUTTON RELAY LED
  • 31. FRONT PANEL CONTROL 1. Power LED & Power Switch: - Power to switch on or off the supply to ckt. Power LED indicates that power supply is reaching at input of ckt. 2. Timer LED’s:- These LED’s are timer LED and glows as per the time period set by multicuibrator IC’s 3. Counter Code:- These LED’s represents the 7492IC when trigger signal is given to ckt. 4. Trigger:- It is a push button used to produce input signal in the case mic is not worked. 5. Device ON LED:- It is glows when relay is activated
  • 32. FAULT FINDING & TESTING:- Fr easy adjustment & testing built in LED indicators are provided at various points of ckt. Trouble shooting proodure 1. 1st check the ltage atpins 2, 4, 3, of IC 10 which should be in range of 4. V to 5.2 V. if it is not so than check mains supply presence at primary winding of X & 12V reaching pins 1 & 2 of IC 10 (7805). 2. Remove IC3 from socket temporary. 3. Touch the microphone gently with finger & observe the LED is lit for approximately 1.2 seconds. Not adjust VR2 to get that timing. If no change occurs than adjust preset VR, starting from a lower value using multimeter check whether colloctor voltage or transistor changes. After that if IC2 doesn’t respond then IC2 may be faulty. 4. To check the operation of counter IC4, mementory shot pin 1 of gate N1 To ground using twisser. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
  • 33. 1. Never use the less than a V or more than 12 V power supply. 2. The soldering should be proper. 3. Variables resister should be proper. 4. Prevent overheating of any IC. 5. Grounding should be proper. 6. Layout should be correct. 7. Mounting of compo should be proper.