Introduction to matlab

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO MATLABTM http://www.matlab.com General instructions Open the Matlab program and input commands into the text-based window. Type help <function name> to obtain information on Matlab functions. Example help sin will provide information on the sin function. lookfor <keyword> to do a key word search. Ctrl + C to abort command. pwd shows the current working director. dir shows a file listing. cd changes directory to the one specified e.g. cd a: will change to the a drive. who displays the variables in the workspace. clear clears the working directory. Calculations using Matlab Calculations may be done in the Matlab Environment using the following operators +, -, *, / which represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Other useful mathematical functions are sqrt, ^, sin, asin, cos, acos, tan, atan, log(base e) log10(base 10), abs, angle. Programming environment Variable names may be used for example if we let a=1, b=3, c=4, we can then set d=a+b+c. d will equal 8. Variable names are case sensitive, can have up to 31 characters, they must start with a letter and cannot contain punctuation. Plotting functions Results may be plotted using the plot, subplot, axis and hold functions. Plot details can be included using the title, xlabel and ylabel functions Two vectors (list of numbers) e.g. V for voltage and I for current with 20 elements each can be plotted using the following syntax. plot(I,V), title('Ohms Law'), xlabel('Current / Amps'), ylabel('Voltage / Volts’). A vector (list of numbers) with a variable name V is written into Matlab as V = [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ] note space between numbers. Script m-files A sequence of Matlab commands can be put together and run in sequence by saving a text file with the commands as an m-file. There is a convenient text editor in Matlab. Go to file - new m-file to start text editor or file - open m-file. A very useful command that can be used with m-files is the input function. Example of how to request information for variable x x = input(‘Enter value for x (state units) ’) Comments can be added to the m-file if a % sign is placed before the comment.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO MATLABTM http://www.matlab.com Vectors and Matrices Vectors (list of numbers) and matrices are conveniently formed in rows. Square brackets enclose the vector or matrix, commas separate elements of a row and semicolons separate rows ( the commas can be excluded if a space is left between row elements). Vector A=[ 2, 3, 4 ] or A=[ 2 3 4 ] Matrix B=[ 3, 5, 6 ; 2, 6, 3 ] or B=[ 3 5 6 ; 2 6 3 ] To transpose a vector or matrix use the ' operator. Functions for producing vectors and matrices are: rand, round, max, min, colon, linespace, logspace, zeros and ones. Matrix operations Operaion Matlab Element by Element Addition A + B A + B A + B Subtraction A - B A - B A - B Multiplication A x B A * B A .* B Division A / B A / B A ./ B Indexing elements of vectors and matrices: The first element of a vector is indexed by, 1 and the top left corner of a matrix is indexed by (1,1) Indexing examples a=A(2) will make variable a =3, b = B(2,2) will make variable b = 6. Flow Control Matlab has a number of flow control functions similar to standard programming languages such as C programming e.g. for, while, and if else. Function files Function files are similar, to m-files except they have a formal set of input and output variables. They are similar to sub routines in other programming languages. The first line of the script must have the following format: function [outputVariableList] = functionName(inputVariableList) the m file name must be the same as the functionName
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO MATLABTM http://www.matlab.com Short list of Matlab Functions function example comment - x = (6-3) subtraction % % code comments used to enter comments in m-file or function * x = (2*3) multiplication, use brackets for clarity .* z = x.*y element by element vector or matrix multiplication, note dot before * ./ z = x./y element by element division / x = (4/2) division ^ x = 2^3 2 to the power of 3 + x = (2+4) addition abs x = abs(3+4j) magnitude of a complex number acos x = acos(0.5) inverse cos, note answer is in radians angle x = angle(3+4j) angle of a complex number asin x = asin(0.5) inverse sin, note answer is in radians cd cd a: change directory or drive clear clear empty workspace conj x = conj(3+4j) conjugate of 3+4j conv y = conv([1 2],[ 1 2 1]) convolution or polynomial multiplication cos x = cos(1.5) cos of an angle, note angle should be in radians deconv x = deconv( [1 2 1],[1 2]) polynomial division dir dir list files exp x = exp(-0.5) e to the power of -0.5, note e = 2.7183 freqs [h,w] = freqs(b,a) frequency resposne of Transfer Function b = laplace numerator coefficients and a = denominator coefficients use with semilogx function function c = myadd(a,b) %help comments here c=a+b fprintf('answer = %g',c) funtion to add two numbers, fprintf provides formatted output, file name should be same as fucntion name myadd.m ginput ginput(n) extract n x-y points from graphs help help rand help will provide help on function specified
  • 4. INTRODUCTION TO MATLABTM http://www.matlab.com hold on hold on allows multiple plots on the one graph imag b = imag(z) imaginary part of z input x = input('request data from user') used to request data from user, data given to variable x length lx = length(x) determine the length of vector x, number of values log x = log(20) log to the base e log10 x = log10(20) log to the base10 lookfor lookfor rand lookfor will find information on the text string specified max [m,i] = max([ 1 2 4 2]) maximium value and position plot plot(x,y) plots vectors y against x pwd pwd shows current directory rand x = rand(1,20) 20 random numbers between 0-1 real a = real(z) real part of complex number z residue [R P K]=residue(1, [1 2 1]) determine partial fraction expansion of transfer fucntion roots x=roots( [1 2 1]) roots of polynomial with coefficients [1 2 1] semilogx semilogx(w,h) plots linear y axis against log x axis sin x = sin(1.5) sin of an angle, note angle should be in radians sqrt x = sqrt(9) square root of a number stem stem(n,v) Discrete signal plot subplot subplot(2,2,1), plot(x,y), title('info'),xlabel('info'),ylabel('info') 2 x 2 set of plots sum x = sum(x) Add values of vector x title title('plot title') title for plot who who shows variables in workspace x' x' transpose vector or matrix x xlable xlabel('x label information') x lable quantity / units ylabel ylabel('y label information') y label quantity / units