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WTO & ITS IMPLICATIONS ON AGRICULTURE P.Naresh Kumar M.Sc (Q.Econ); M.Sc (Stat); M.Phil Lecturer in Economics SIBER Univer...
CONTENTS <ul><li>WTO </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Agriculture-Overview </li></ul><ul><li>WTO Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Impl...
<ul><li>Pascal Lamy Director-General    </li></ul>Pascal Lamy Director-General    World Trade Organization Centre William ...
1.WTO <ul><li>The Bretton Woods Conference(1944) recommended the establishment of IMF, World Bank and ITO. </li></ul><ul><...
URUGUAY ROUND <ul><li>Time: September 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Venue: Punta del Este in Uruguay </li></ul><ul><li>Three basi...
2.Indian Agriculture Overview
 
 
3.WTO Agreement on Agriculture <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Salient features </li></ul><ul><li>Product coverage ...
Introduction <ul><li>The AoA forms a part of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round. </li></ul><ul><li>It was signed by the me...
<ul><li>What is the Root cause of destruction? </li></ul><ul><li>- massive domestic subsidies given by the industrialized ...
<ul><li>Hence, the starting point for the establishment of a fair agri-trade has to be: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of dom...
Salient Features <ul><li>The AoA contains provisions in the following three broad areas of agriculture and trade policy. <...
1. Market Access <ul><li>On market access , the Agreement has two basic elements </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Tariffication of no...
<ul><li>The only commitment India has undertaken is to bind its tariffs  </li></ul><ul><li>-on primary goods at 100% </li>...
<ul><li>(ii) The second element relates to minimum level for imports of agricultural products by member countries as a sha...
<ul><li>The minimum level is to rise by 5% by the year 2000 in the case of developed countries and by 2004 in the case of ...
2.Domestic Support <ul><li>Provisions of the agreement  regarding domestic support have two main objectives </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>All domestic support is quantified through the mechanism of total Aggregate Measurement of Support(AMS) </li></ul>...
<ul><li>AMS consists of two parts- product specific subsidies and non-product specific subsidies. </li></ul><ul><li>Produc...
(3) Export Subsidies <ul><li>The AoA lists several types of subsidies to which reduction commitments apply. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Note that developing countries are free to provide three of the listed subsidies- </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of E...
Product Coverage <ul><li>The Agreement defines agri.products by reference o he harmonised system of product classification...
Implementation period <ul><li>The implementation period  for the country-specific commitments is the six-year period comme...
Implication of Agreement <ul><li>Implications of AoA differ from country to country. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian agriculture ...
<ul><li>Implications of the AoA for India should thus gauged from the impact it will have on the following: </li></ul><ul>...
Implications-short period <ul><li>The share of developing countries in world exports of food remained 44% </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Regarding freedom to pursue our domestic policies, it is quite evident that in the short term India will not  be a...
Implications-Long Term <ul><li>To enjoy the gain from the application of Science& Technology  it would require </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Regarding the impact of liberalization of trade in agriculture in the long term, Indian agriculture enjoys the adv...
<ul><li>On the whole , large scale import of agricultural commodities as a result of trade liberalization is ruled out. </...
<ul><li>Improved  export prospects leads to increasing price of domestic agri -commodities. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers woul...
Likely Issues for Negotiations <ul><li>India argued for additional flexibility by appropriate  adjustments to the provisio...
<ul><li>Q: What are the prospects and opportunities for increasing agri exports from India’s a result of WTO AoA? </li></u...
<ul><li>India with its cheap labour , diversified climatic conditions and large agricultural sector can definitely gain th...
<ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
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    1. 1. WTO & ITS IMPLICATIONS ON AGRICULTURE P.Naresh Kumar M.Sc (Q.Econ); M.Sc (Stat); M.Phil Lecturer in Economics SIBER University Road Kolhapur-416004 E-mail: naresh.peesapati@gmail.com
    2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>WTO </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Agriculture-Overview </li></ul><ul><li>WTO Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Pascal Lamy Director-General   </li></ul>Pascal Lamy Director-General   World Trade Organization Centre William Rappard, Rue de Lausanne 154, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland .
    4. 4. 1.WTO <ul><li>The Bretton Woods Conference(1944) recommended the establishment of IMF, World Bank and ITO. </li></ul><ul><li>GATT-Genaral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of Uruguay round GATT transformed in to WTO with effect from January 1995 </li></ul>
    5. 5. URUGUAY ROUND <ul><li>Time: September 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Venue: Punta del Este in Uruguay </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic subjects for discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing specific trade barriers & improving market access </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening GATT disiplines </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of liberalisation of services and TRIPs & TRIMs </li></ul>
    6. 6. 2.Indian Agriculture Overview
    7. 9. 3.WTO Agreement on Agriculture <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Salient features </li></ul><ul><li>Product coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation period </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Implication of the agreement </li></ul>
    8. 10. Introduction <ul><li>The AoA forms a part of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round. </li></ul><ul><li>It was signed by the member countries in April 1994 at Marrakesh, Morocco and came into force on 1 st January 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Uruguay Round agreement sought to bring order and fair competition to the highly distorted sector of world trade by establishment of a fair and market oriented agricultural trading sector. </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>What is the Root cause of destruction? </li></ul><ul><li>- massive domestic subsidies given by the industrialized countries to their agricultural sector for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>This in turn led to excessive production </li></ul><ul><li>-dumping in international markets </li></ul><ul><li>-as well as import restrictions to keep out foreign agricultural products from their domestic markets </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>Hence, the starting point for the establishment of a fair agri-trade has to be: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of domestic subsidies given by industrilised countries </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in the volume of subsidised exports </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum market access opportunities for agricultural producers world wide </li></ul>
    11. 13. Salient Features <ul><li>The AoA contains provisions in the following three broad areas of agriculture and trade policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Market Access </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Subsidy or domestic support </li></ul><ul><li>Export Subsidy </li></ul>
    12. 14. 1. Market Access <ul><li>On market access , the Agreement has two basic elements </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Tariffication of non-tariff barriers </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. quantitative restrictions and export and import licensing etc. are to be replaced by tariffs to provide the same level of protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Tariffs to be reduced by a simple average of 36% over 6 years in case of developed countries and 24% over 10 years in case of developing countries. </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>The only commitment India has undertaken is to bind its tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>-on primary goods at 100% </li></ul><ul><li>- on processed foods at 150% and </li></ul><ul><li>- on edible oils at 300% </li></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>(ii) The second element relates to minimum level for imports of agricultural products by member countries as a share of domestic consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries are required to maintain current levels(1986-88) of access for each individual product. </li></ul><ul><li>Where the current level of import is negligible, the minimum access should not be less than 3% of domestic consumption. </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>The minimum level is to rise by 5% by the year 2000 in the case of developed countries and by 2004 in the case of developing countries. </li></ul>
    16. 18. 2.Domestic Support <ul><li>Provisions of the agreement regarding domestic support have two main objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To identify acceptable measures that support farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>To deny unacceptable, trade distorting support to the farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>These provisions are aimed largely at the developed countries where the levels of domestic agricultural support have risen to extremely high levels in recent decades. </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><li>All domestic support is quantified through the mechanism of total Aggregate Measurement of Support(AMS) </li></ul><ul><li>AMS is a means of quantifying the aggregate value of domestic support or subsidy given to each category of agricultural product. </li></ul><ul><li>A commitment made requires 20% reduction in total AMS for developed countries over 6 years: for developing countries this percentage is 13% and no reduction is required in least developed countries. </li></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>AMS consists of two parts- product specific subsidies and non-product specific subsidies. </li></ul><ul><li>Product specific subsidy refers to the total level of support for each individual agricultural commodity, essentially signified by procurement price in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-product specific subsidy refers to the total level of support for the agricultural sector as a whole, i.e. subsidies on inputs such as fertilizers, electricity, irrigation, seeds, credit etc. </li></ul>
    19. 21. (3) Export Subsidies <ul><li>The AoA lists several types of subsidies to which reduction commitments apply. </li></ul><ul><li>However, such subsidies are virtually non-existent in India as exporters of agricultural commodities do not get direct subsidy. </li></ul><ul><li>Even exemption of Export profits from income tax under Section 80-HHC of the Income Tax Act is not among the listed subsidies. </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>Note that developing countries are free to provide three of the listed subsidies- </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of Export Marketing Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and International Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Freight Charges-charges assessed for transporting Cargo </li></ul>
    21. 23. Product Coverage <ul><li>The Agreement defines agri.products by reference o he harmonised system of product classification. </li></ul><ul><li>The definition covers not only basic agricultural goods such as wheat, milk and live animals but the products derives from them such as bread, butter, other dairy products and meat, as well as processed agricultural products such as chocolates and sausages. </li></ul><ul><li>The coverage includes wines, spirits and tobocco products, fibres such as cotton, wool and silk, and raw materials skins destinated for leather production. Fish and fish products are not included. </li></ul>
    22. 24. Implementation period <ul><li>The implementation period for the country-specific commitments is the six-year period commencing in 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>However, developing countries have the flexibility to implement their reduction and other commitments over a period of up to 10 years. </li></ul>
    23. 25. Implication of Agreement <ul><li>Implications of AoA differ from country to country. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian agriculture is characterized by a preponderant majority of small and marginal farmers holding less than 2 hectares of land, less than 35.7 % of land, is under any assured irrigation system and for the large majority of farmers , the gains from the application of science and technology are yet to be realised. </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>Implications of the AoA for India should thus gauged from the impact it will have on the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the Agreement has opened up markets and facilitated exports of our products. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether we would be able to continue with our domestic policy aimed at improving infrastructure and provision of inputs at subsidised prices for achieving increased agricultural production. </li></ul>
    25. 27. Implications-short period <ul><li>The share of developing countries in world exports of food remained 44% </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials increased insignificantly from 32% in 1994 to 34% in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>The average growth of developed countries imports of agricultural products increased by just 1%. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s share in total agricultural exports from developing Asia is 8%, behind China’s 19%, Thailand’s 17%, Malasiya’s 14%, and Indonesia’s 10%. </li></ul>
    26. 28. <ul><li>Regarding freedom to pursue our domestic policies, it is quite evident that in the short term India will not be affected by the WTO AoA. </li></ul><ul><li>India has been maintaining QRs on import of 825 agri products as on 1.4.1997 . QRs are proposed to be eliminated within the over all time frame of six years in three phases – 1.4.97 to 31.3.2003. </li></ul><ul><li>In Trade Policy 2004-09 it has removed all QRs. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, for the present, he MSP provided to commodities is less than the fixed external reference price determined under agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, AMS is negative. Therefore we could increase the product specific support up to 10%. </li></ul>
    27. 29. Implications-Long Term <ul><li>To enjoy the gain from the application of Science& Technology it would require </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructural support </li></ul><ul><li>Improved technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of inputs at reasonable costs </li></ul>
    28. 30. <ul><li>Regarding the impact of liberalization of trade in agriculture in the long term, Indian agriculture enjoys the advantage of cheap labour. </li></ul><ul><li>a comparison with world prices of agri- commodities reveals that domestic prices in India are considerably less with the exceptions of a few commodities. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports to India would not be attractive in the case of rice, tea, sun flower oil and cotton. </li></ul>
    29. 31. <ul><li>On the whole , large scale import of agricultural commodities as a result of trade liberalization is ruled out. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the exports of those food grains which are cheaper in the domestic market. </li></ul><ul><li>But they are sensitive from the point of view of consumption by the economically weaker sections are not likely to raise to unacceptable levels because of high inland transportation cost and inadequate export infrastructure in India. </li></ul>
    30. 32. <ul><li>Improved export prospects leads to increasing price of domestic agri -commodities. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers would get benefits which in turn would encourage investment in resource scarce agricultural sector. </li></ul><ul><li>With decrease in production subsidies as well as export subsidies, the international prices of agri-commodities will rise and this will help in making our exports more competitive in world market. </li></ul>
    31. 33. Likely Issues for Negotiations <ul><li>India argued for additional flexibility by appropriate adjustments to the provisions of the AoA, in order to enable us to pursue our legitimate non-trade concerns </li></ul><ul><li>India believes that a focused discussion on the subject will contribute to increased awareness to the non-trade concerns such as food security and rural employment </li></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>Q: What are the prospects and opportunities for increasing agri exports from India’s a result of WTO AoA? </li></ul><ul><li>Ans: It is expected that reduction in export subsidy and domestic support to the agricultural sector by the developed countries may lead to a decrease in production in those countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore it will give scope for expansion of exports from developing countries. </li></ul>
    33. 35. <ul><li>India with its cheap labour , diversified climatic conditions and large agricultural sector can definitely gain though expansion of international trade in agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the concerns relating to quality of products for seeking markets in the advanced countries needs to be addressed on an urgent basis. </li></ul>
    34. 36. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
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