ATC for congestion management in deregulated power system

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ATC for congestion management in deregulated power system

  1. 1. Enhancement of Available Transfer Capacity for Congestion Management In Deregulated Power System Guided by : Prof. S. K. Joshi M.S.U. Baroda Presented by B.P.Pandya , BE(E) IV Roll No. : 424
  2. 2. Project Theme <ul><li>Deregulated Electricity Market – Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion Management </li></ul><ul><li>Available Transfer Capacity </li></ul>• To propose a new set of AC sensitivity referred as “ AC Power Transfer Congestion Distribution Factor (ACPTCDF) “ for 6 bus system. • Calculate ATC of transmission line • Enhancement of ATC using facts devices for congestion management
  3. 3. Significance of Topic <ul><li>Conversion of Vertically integrated utilities to Open Access market system </li></ul><ul><li>[ May 2003,Indian Electricity Act] </li></ul><ul><li>To promote competition through open access among utilities ATC must be calculated [ ATC posted on OASIS] </li></ul><ul><li>Because of Open Access, Congestion is prime problem for power system </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion can be managed by Facts devices. Fact devices can enhance ATC. </li></ul><ul><li>So we develop a set of congestion distribution factors in terms of real as well as reactive power </li></ul><ul><li>Most sensitive congested line is identified by sensitive analysis and ATC calculation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Regulation
  5. 5. Deregulation
  6. 6. Advantages of Deregulation <ul><li>The need for regulation changed – former vertically integrated utility is disaggregated into separate companies devoted to each function. </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul><ul><li>Cost is expected to drop </li></ul><ul><li>Customer focus will improve </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Power production and retail sales will be competitive, monopoly franchise business </li></ul>
  7. 7. Benefits & Issues involved in Deregulation Benefits Issues Improved generation Network Congestion Planning Efficiency Optimal bidding for Genco Cheaper electricity due to competition and innovation Transmission pricing Improved Economy Ancillary Services Management New jobs for power engineers Risk Analysis
  8. 8. Network Congestion <ul><li>When the producers and consumers of the electric energy desire to produce and consume in total that would cause the transmission system to operate at or beyond one or more transfer limit, the system is said to be congested. </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion is a consequence of network constraints characterizing a finite network capacity that prevent the simultaneous delivery of power from an associated set of power transactions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Constraints <ul><li>Thermal limit :- The maximum amount of electrical energy that transmit on transmission line without overheating. </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage limit :- System voltage and change in voltage must </li></ul><ul><li> be maintained with the range of acceptable </li></ul><ul><li> deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Stability limit :- Transmission system capable of surviving disturbances through the transient and dynamic period </li></ul>
  10. 10. Graph showing congestion
  11. 11. Objective of Congestion Management <ul><li>Minimized interference of the transmission network in the market for electric energy </li></ul><ul><li>Secure operation of the power system </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of market efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Manage power flow with existing Transmission line </li></ul>
  12. 12. Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) “ ATC is a measure of the Transfer Capability Remaining in the transmission network for further commercial activity* over and above already committed uses” (* while ensuring system security) Mathematically, ATC = TTC – TRM – (ETC+CBM) [In accordance with the recent FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 888 (Promoting Utility Competition Through Open Access, Non discriminatory Transmission service by Public Utility)& 889(OASIS , Open Access Same time Information system) , ATC must be calculated for electric utility] .
  13. 13. <ul><li>ATC = TTC – TRM – (ETC+CBM) </li></ul><ul><li>ETC is the existing transfer commitments </li></ul><ul><li>TTC is the maximum amount of power which can be transferred over the network while satisfying all security constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>TRM is the margin required for uncertainties in the system conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>CBM is the margin reserved by load serving entities for generation reliability requirements. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pre- Contingency Situation Bart. SE Nrth Barth . N.E.S . Delaware Flow 900 Flow 50 Rating 210 Contingency Element CONTINGENCY Flow gate direction
  15. 15. Post contingency situation 50 + 0.18 * 900 Flow gate direction Bart SE Nrth Bart N.E.S. Delaware Flow 0 Flow 212 Rating 210 contingency
  16. 16. <ul><li>Transfer Capacity… on 28/1/2010 </li></ul>• Present Status: Transfer Capacity state NORMAL <ul><li>Transfer capacity state </li></ul><ul><li>Normal- No Violation- color Green </li></ul><ul><li>Alert- ATC Violation- color Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency- TTC Violation- color Red </li></ul>1. Congestion charges applicable NO 2. Total transfer capacity(TTC) of NR 4250 MW 3. Available transfer capacity(ATC) of NR 3750 MW 4. IR Schedule 2749 MW 5. IR Actual 2930 MW 6. TTC Violation -1320 MW 7. ATC Violation -820 MW
  17. 18. Role of ISO <ul><li>ATC is a measure of how much additional electric power could be transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Each ISO is responsible for monitoring its own regional transmission system and calculating ATC for potentially congested paths. </li></ul><ul><li>ATC values would be placed on a website known as ‘Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) operated by ISO. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone wishing to do transaction, would access OASIS web pages and use ATC information available there to determine if system could accommodate the transaction. </li></ul>
  18. 20. AC Load flow based Approach <ul><li>A.C. based approach utilized two sets of sensitivity factors terms as Real Power Transmission Congestion Factor (PTCDF) & Reactive Power Transmission Congestion Factor (QTCDF) </li></ul><ul><li>Most sensitive transmission line can be found & manage this line with use of FACTS device. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Real Power Transfer Congestion Distribution Factor ( PTCDF) <ul><li>For ATC determination the MW flow must be allocated to each line or group of lines in proportion to MW being transmitted by each transaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A transaction is a specific amount of power that is injected in to the system at one bus by a generator & removed at the another bus by load. </li></ul><ul><li>PTCDF is defined as the change in real power flow ( Δ Pij) in a transmission line –k, connected between bus i & j, due to unit change in the power injection( Δ Pn) at bus-n. </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>QTCDF is defined as the change in reactive power flow ( Δ Qij) in a transmission line –k, connected between bus i & j, due to unit change in the reactive power injection( Δ Qn) at bus-n </li></ul><ul><li>It is also called sensitivity because it relates the amount of one change – transaction amount – to another change – line flow. </li></ul>1 5 2 3 4 7 6
  21. 23. Mathematical Formulation
  22. 24. … ..continue
  23. 25. … ..continue
  24. 26. … ..continue
  25. 27. … ..continue
  26. 28. … ..continue
  27. 29. … ..continue
  28. 30. ATC Calculation using PTCDF <ul><li>Recognizing new flow on line from bus i to bus j (line k) due to transaction at bus n. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Line Outage Distribution Factor (LODF) <ul><li>ATC is also limited by the effects of contingencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The line flows could be used to calculate the effect of each line outage, then PTCDF applied to find transfer limit. </li></ul><ul><li>LODF’s & PTCDF’s can be combined to calculate the first contingency incremental transfer capability, which is the maximum increase in transaction amount from one bus to another bus. </li></ul><ul><li>LODF can be defined as the measure of redistribution because of line outage. </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6
  30. 32. Calculation of LODF
  31. 33. … ..continue
  32. 38. ATC using PTCDF & LODF
  33. 40. Congestion Management by FACTS devices <ul><li>For efficient utilization of the existing network with penetration of additional power FACTS devices are used. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective FACTS based power flow control can be applied to relieve transmission congestion & Improve the transfer capability of the network with high penetration of power. While voltage security & voltage stability constraint are satisfied & transmission net work can be effectively utilized. </li></ul>
  34. 41. Principle of Control <ul><li>The inserted series voltage can be regulated to change the impedance (X) of Transmission line hence power flow of the line can be controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>FACTS is power Electronics based system that provide dynamic control of the power transfer parameters transmission voltage, line impedance & phase angle, active and reactive power when storage becomes viable storage then they can supply & absorbed active power as well </li></ul><ul><li>Consider unity power factor load, real power transferred is given by </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly Reactive power transferred is given by </li></ul>
  35. 42. FACTS Technology and their potential <ul><li>Definition[3] of FACTS by IEEE as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Alternating current transmission system incorporating power Electronics based & other static controller to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability” </li></ul><ul><li>FACTS controller [14] :- “It is power electronic-based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or more AC transmission parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>For ATC enhancement the FACTS devices are placed at weak-bus . </li></ul>
  36. 43. FACTS Devices <ul><li>1 . Shunt controller : </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting the system voltage by means of shunt reactive elements is known as shunt compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Series Controller : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting the system voltage by means of series reactive elements is known as shunt compensation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Combined shunt-series controller (Unified Power Flow Controller) :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides independent series reactive compensation for each line bus also transfer real power among the line via d.c. power link (Inter line power flow controller). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in multiple line </li></ul></ul>
  37. 44. Conclusion & Future Scope <ul><li>It conclude that ATC calculation is very important & mandatory for Open Access in power system in Deregulated Electrical Market . </li></ul><ul><li>In future with the help of some optimization techniques like genetic algorithm, Particle Swam Optimization, we can optimized reactive power injection at weak bus. </li></ul>
  38. 45. References <ul><li>S.A.Kapharde, “Congestion management” </li></ul><ul><li>A.R Abhayankar,prof.S.A.Khaparde’ “Introduction to deregulation in power industry. </li></ul><ul><li>J.Bailek, “Tracing of the Flow of Electricity” IEE Proc-Generation, transmission, Distribution, Vol. 143, pp 313-320, July 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>G.C.Ejebe, j.Tong, J.G.Waight, J.G.Frame, X. Wang & W.F. Tinney “Available transfer capability Calculations” PE-321-PWRS-0-10-97, IEEE transaction on power system,vol-13,No.4 pp 1521 to 1527, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Mark H. Gravener, Chika Nwankpa, Tai-sim Yeoh , “ATC computational issues” Proceedings of 32nd Hawali International Conference on system Sciences-1999 </li></ul><ul><li>R.D.Christie, B.F.Wollenberg, I.Wangensteen, “Transmission management in deregulated environment” Proceeding of IEEE, 88, No.2 , pp 449-451, Feb 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>G. Hamoud, “Assessment of Available Transfer capability of transmission system:, IEEE transaction on Power system vol-15, No-1, pp 27-32, February,2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Mohamed Shaaban, Yaxin Ni, Felix F.Wu, “Transfer Capability Computation in Deregulated Power systems” Proceddings of 32nd Hawali International Conference on system Sciences-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>S.N. Singh ,A.K. David, ”Optimum Location of FACTS devices for congestion management”, Electric Power system Research 58 (2001), pp 71-79, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Sarika Kushalani, S.A Khaparde, S.A. Soman, “Congestion management in the Emerging Energy Market Structure”,Cigre Regional Meeting on Bulk Power Transmission System Integration in Developing countries, pp-VII-16 to 24 New Delhi Nov.2001 </li></ul>
  39. 46. <ul><li>E.A Leonidaki, N.D.Hatziargyriou, G.A. Manos,”A Systematic Approach for Effective Location of Series compensation to increased Available Transfer capability” IEEE , Portio Power tech Conference , September 2001,Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>N. Schnurr and W.H. Wellssow,” Determination and Enhancement of the Available Transfer Capability in FACTS”. IEEE , Portio Power tech Conference , September 2001,Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashwani Kumar, S. C. Srivastav , “Power Transaction Allocation in a Deregulated Market using AC Power Transfer Distribution Factors” Cigre Regional Meeting on Bulk Power Transmission System Integration in Developing countries, pp-VIII-9 to 17 New Delhi Nov.2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Chen-Ching Liu, Gerald T. Heydt, Abedal-Aty Edris, “Impact of FACTS controller on Transfer capability of Power grid”, IEEE, 2002, pp 556-261 </li></ul><ul><li>Armando M. Leite da Silva , Fellow, IEEE , João Guilherme de Carvalho Costa, Luiz Antônio da Fonseca Manso, and George J. Anders , Fellow, IEEE, “Transmission Capacity: Availability, Maximum Transfer and Reliability” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 3, AUGUST 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Ying Xiao,Y.H.Song,Chen-Ching Liu and Y.Z. Sun, “Available Transfer Capability Enhancement using FACTS Devices, IEEE transaction on power system,vol-18,No.1 pp 305 to 312 , February 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>H.Y. Yamina a, S.M. Shahidehpour ,”Congestion management coordination in the deregulated power market” Electric Power Systems Research 65 (2003) 119/127 </li></ul><ul><li>Ashwani Kumar , S.C. Srivastava , S.N. Singh , A zonal congestion management approach using ac transmission congestion distribution factors”, Electric Power Systems Research 72 (2004) 85–93 </li></ul><ul><li>Roberto Mendez and Huge Rudnick, “Congestion Management and Transmission Rights in Centralized Electric Markets”, IEEE transaction on power system Vol. 19 No.2, pp 889-896, May 2004. </li></ul>
  40. 47. <ul><li>B.Mozafari, A.M.Rajbar, A.R. Shirani & A.Barkeseh,“A comprehensive Method forATC calculation in deregulated power system”IEEE International conference on Electric Utility Deregulation , Restructuring & Power Technology April 2004 , pp 680 to 685. </li></ul><ul><li>A Kazemi, H. Andami, “FACTS Devices in Deregulated Electric Power system: A Review, international conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power technologies(DRPT2004), April 2004, Honkong. </li></ul><ul><li>H. Farahmand, Rasid-Nejad and M. Fotuhi-Firozabad “Implement of FACTS Devices for ATC Enhancement Using RPF techniques”, IEEE ,2004, pp 30-35 </li></ul><ul><li>Linzhong Yao, Phill Cartwright. Laurent Schimitt, Xiao-Ping Zhang,” Congestion Management of Transmission System Usin FACTS” IEEE /PES transmission and Distribution conference and exhibition: Asia and Pacific Dalian, China, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Naresh Acharya,N. Mithulananthan, “ Locating Series FACTS devices for congestion management in deregulated electricity markets”, Electric Power system Research 2332 (2006), pp 1-9. </li></ul><ul><li>A.S. Nayak and M.A. Pai “Congestion management in Restructured Power system using an optimal Power flow Frame work”, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign </li></ul><ul><li>K. Bhattacharya, M.H.J.Bollen, J.E.Dalder, “Operation of restructured power system”,Kulwar Acadamic Publishers, Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood & Woolen breg , “Power generation Operation & control” </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Independent System Operator (ISO) Dr Sanjay Gupta </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Consultant Energy & Utilities Group Infosys Technologies Limited Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>N.G. Hingorani, “Flexible A.C. transmission” IEEE spectrum, April 1993, pp 40-45 </li></ul><ul><li>Abhijit chakravarti & Sunita Haldar “Power system Analysis”. </li></ul>
  41. 48. Reference Websites <ul><li>www. power ex india .com </li></ul><ul><li>www.iex india .com </li></ul><ul><li>www. pserc .cornell.edu/tcc </li></ul><ul><li>www. powergrid india.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.nldc.in </li></ul><ul><li>www.erldc.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.wrldc.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.spp.org </li></ul><ul><li>Atc_jan2010_powergrid </li></ul>

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