Bhonsteven File

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Bhonsteven File

  1. 1. Definitions<br />Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the sentence. <br />I am a student. <br />The students passed all their courses.<br />As we will see on this page, verbs are classified in many ways. First, some verbs require an object to complete their meaning: " She gave _____ ?" Gave what? She gave money to the church. These verbs are called transitive. Verbs that are intransitive do not require objects: " The building collapsed." In English, you cannot tell the difference between a transitive and intransitive verb by its form; you have to see how the verb is functioning within the sentence. In fact, a verb can be both transitive and intransitive: " The monster collapsed the building by sitting on it." <br />Although you will seldom hear the term, a ditransitive verb — such as cause or give — is one that can take a direct object and an indirect object at the same time: " That horrid music gave me a headache." Ditransitive verbs are slightly different, then, from factitive verbs (see below), in that the latter take two objects. <br />Verbs are also classified as either finite or non-finite. A finite verb makes an assertion or expresses a state of being and can stand by itself as the main verb of a sentence. <br />The truck demolished the restaurant.<br />The leaves were yellow and sickly.<br />Non-finite verbs (think " unfinished" ) cannot, by themselves, be main verbs:<br />The broken window . . . <br />The wheezing gentleman . . . <br />Another, more useful term for non-finite verb is verbal. In this section, we discuss various verbal forms: infinitives, gerunds, and participles.<br />The crowd grew ugly.<br />Active and Passive Voice<br />There is now a separate section dealing with issues raised by a verb's VOICE (active/passive).<br />Mood<br />Mood in verbs refers to one of three attitudes that a writer or speaker has to what is being written or spoken. The indicative mood, which describes most sentences on this page, is used to make a statement or ask a question. The imperative mood is used when we're feeling sort of bossish and want to give a directive, strong suggestion, or order:<br />Get your homework done before you watch television tonight. <br />Please include cash payment with your order form. <br />Get out of town!<br />Notice that there is no subject in these imperative sentences. The pronoun you (singular or plural, depending on context) is the " understood subject" in imperative sentences. Virtually all imperative sentences, then, have a second person (singular or plural) subject. The sole exception is the first person construction, which includes an objective form as subject: " Let's (or Let us) work on these things together." <br />The subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses that do the following: 1) express a wish; 2) begin with if and express a condition that does not exist (is contrary to fact); 3) begin with as if and as though when such clauses describe a speculation or condition contrary to fact; and 4) begin with that and express a demand, requirement, request, or suggestion. A new section on the uses of the Conditional should help you understand the subjunctive. <br />She wishes her boyfriend were here. <br />If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player. <br />We would have passed if we had studied harder. <br />He acted as if he were guilty. <br />I requested that he be present at the hearing.<br />The subjunctive is not as important a mood in English as it is in other languages, like French and Spanish, which happen to be more subtle and discriminating in hypothetical, doubtful, or wishful expressions. Many situations which would require the subjunctive in other languages are satisfied by using one of several auxiliary verbs in English.<br />The present tense of the subjunctive uses only the base form of the verb.<br />He demanded that his students use two-inch margins. <br />She suggested that we be on time tomorrow. <br />The past tense of the subjunctive has the same forms as the indicative except (unfortunately) for the verb to be, which uses were regardless of the number of the subject.<br />If I were seven feet tall, I'd be a great basketball player. <br />He wishes he were a better student. <br />If you were rich, we wouldn't be in this mess. <br />If they were faster, we could have won that race. <br />An excellent resource for learning more about the subjunctive is available in the online American Heritage Book of English Usage.<br />Causative Verbs<br />Causative verbs designate the action necessary to cause another action to happen. In " The devil made me do it." the verb " made" causes the " do" to happen. Here is a brief list of causative verbs, in no particular order: let, help, allow, have, require, allow, motivate, get, make, convince, hire, assist, encourage, permit, employ, force. Most of them are followed by an object (noun or pronoun) followed by an infinitive: " She allows her pet cockatiel to perch on the windowsill. She hired a carpenter to build a new birdcage." <br />Three causative verbs are exceptions to the pattern described above. Instead of being followed by a noun/pronoun and an infinitive, the causative verbs have, make and let are followed by a noun/pronoun and the base form of the verb (which is actually an infinitive with the " to" left off).<br />Professor Villa had her students read four short novels in one week.<br />She also made them read five plays in one week.<br />However, she let them skip the final exam.<br />Factitive Verbs<br />Verbs like make, choose, judge, elect, select, name. are called factitive verbs. These transitive verbs can take two objects, or seem to:<br />They judged Philbert's dog Best of Show. (where " dog" is the direct object and " Best of Show" is the second complement). <br />The faculty elected Dogsbreath the new Academic Dean. (where Dogsbreath is the direct object and " Academic Dean" is the second complement). <br />U.S. News and World Report named our college the best in the northeast. (where " our college" is the direct object and " the best" is the second complement).<br />Tenses<br />Tense shows the time of a verb's action or being. There are three inflected forms reflected by changes in the endings of verbs. The present tense indicates that something is happening or being now: " She is a student. She drives a new car." The simple past tense indicates that something happened in the past: " She was a student. She drove a new car." And the past participle form is combined with auxiliary verbs to indicate that something happened in the past prior to another action: " She has been a student. She had driven a new car." <br />Unlike most other languages, English does not have inflected forms for the future tense. Instead, English future forms are created with the use of auxiliaries: " She will be a student. She is going to drive a new car." English can even create the future by using the present tense, " The bus arrives later this afternoon," or the present progressive, " He is relocating to Portland later next month." <br />For an extensive discussion of the future tense in English, click HERE.<br />Progressive VerbsThe progressive tenses, which indicate something being or happening, are formed with the present participle form (ending in -ing) along with various auxiliaries. " She is driving. She was driving. She will be driving. She has been driving. She had been driving. She will have been driving." Click HERE for more on the progressive forms. Some verbs, called stative verbs, (including, sometimes, the verb to be) do not normally create the progressive. Click here for a discussion of the difference between stative and dynamic verbs. <br />Irregular Verbs<br />Most verbs in English form their various tenses consistently: add -ed to the base of a verb to create the simple past and past participle: he walked; he has walked. There are, however, a number of so-called irregular verbs, (including, unfortunately, some very common verbs such as to be and to have) whose various forms must be memorized. An alphabetized list of Common Irregular Verbs is available in the Guide that you can copy or print out and then try to memorize or at least use in practice sentences. You should take the quizzes on irregular verbs, below, after you've looked at this list. <br />Sequence of Tenses<br />Sequence of Tenses: The relationship between verbs in a main clause and verbs in dependent clauses is important. These verb tenses don't have to be identical as long as they reflect, logically, shifts in time and meaning: " My brother had graduated before I started college." " My brother will have graduated before I start." Click HERE for a chart describing various time relationships and how those relationships determine the appropriate sequence of verb tenses.<br />Verbals<br />Verbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a true verb. The are sometimes called " nonfinite" (unfinished or incomplete) verbs. Because time is involved with all verb forms, whether finite or nonfinite, however, following a logical Tense Sequence is important. Click HERE for a chart describing the time elements involved in choosing the correct verbal form. Verbals are frequently accompanied by other, related words in what is called a verbal phrase.<br />Sequence of Tenses<br />Sequence of Tenses: The relationship between verbs in a main clause and verbs in dependent clauses is important. These verb tenses don't have to be identical as long as they reflect, logically, shifts in time and meaning: " My brother had graduated before I started college." " My brother will have graduated before I start." Click HERE for a chart describing various time relationships and how those relationships determine the appropriate sequence of verb tenses.<br />Verbals<br />Verbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a true verb. The are sometimes called " nonfinite" (unfinished or incomplete) verbs. Because time is involved with all verb forms, whether finite or nonfinite, however, following a logical Tense Sequence is important. Click HERE for a chart describing the time elements involved in choosing the correct verbal form. Verbals are frequently accompanied by other, related words in what is called a verbal phrase.<br />Participle: a verb form acting as an adjective. The running dog chased the fluttering moth. A present participle (like running or fluttering) describes a present condition; a past participle describes something that has happened: " The completely rotted tooth finally fell out of his mouth." The distinction can be important to the meaning of a sentence; there is a huge difference between a confusing student and a confused student. See the section on Adjectives for further help on this issue.<br />Infinitive: the root of a verb plus the word to. To sleep, perchance to dream. A present infinitive describes a present condition: " I like to sleep." The perfect infinitive describes a time earlier than that of the verb: " I would like to have won that game." See the section on Sequence below for other forms as well.<br />Gerund: a verb form, ending in -ing, which acts as a noun. Running in the park after dark can be dangerous. Gerunds are frequently accompanied by other associated words making up a gerund phrase (" running in the park after dark" ).<br />Because gerunds and gerund phrases are nouns, they can be used in any way that a noun can be used:<br />as subject: Being king can be dangerous for your health. <br />as object of the verb: He didn't particularly like being king. <br />as object of a preposition: He wrote a book about being king.<br />Infinitives and Gerunds and Sequence<br />Although they are not, strictly speaking, verbs, infinitives and gerunds carry within them the idea of action. Combined with auxiliary verb forms, like verbs, they also express various shades of time.<br />SimpleFormsWe had planned to watch all the events of the OlympicsSeeing those athletes perform is always a great thrill.PerfectiveFormsThe women's hockey team hoped to have won a gold medal before they were done.We were thrilled about their having been in contention in the world championships before.PassiveFormsTo be chosen as an olympian must be the biggest thrill in any athlete's life. Being chosen, however, is probably not enough.PerfectivePassiveFormsThe women did not seem satisfied simply to have been selected as players.Having been honored this way, they went out and earned it by winning the gold.PerfectiveProgressiveInfinitiveTo have been competing at that level, at their age already, was quite an accomplishment.<br />Actual and Potential Meanings<br />Although a gerund and an infinitive will often have practically the same meaning (" Running in the park after dark can be dangerous" and " To run in the park after dark can be dangerous" ), there can be a difference in meaning. Gerunds are used to describe an " actual, vivid, or fulfilled action" whereas infinitives are better used to describe " potential, hypothetical, or future events" (Frodesen & Eyring 297). This is especially true with three kinds of verbs: verbs of emotion, verbs of completion/incompletion, and verbs of remembering.<br />EMOTIONActual Event Potential EventI hated practicing my violin while the other kids were playing outside. I prefer to work during the day. COMPLETION/INCOMPLETIONActual Event Potential EventWe began working on this project two years ago. We finished working on this project a month ago. (Finish always takes a gerund.) We will continue to work on this project for the next four months. I wonder when we will start to wrap up this project.REMEMBERING(such as remember, forget, regret)Juanita forgot to do her homework. (meaning that Juanita failed to do her homework because she didn't remember to do it) Juanita forgot doing her homework. (meaning that Juanita did her homework but that she forgot she had done so)<br />List of Nouns<br />This list of nouns should help you understand nouns a little better. For definitions of the following noun categories, go to the noun page. Quick Refresher: <br />Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas.<br />Before you look at the list of nouns, it is important to note that nouns will fit into more than one category. <br />For example, the word train is a common, concrete, countable, singular noun. <br />Noun TypeExamplesCommon Nouns name people, places or things that are not specific.man, mountain, state, ocean, country, building, cat, airlineProper Nouns name specific people, places, or things.Walt Disney, Mount Kilimanjaro, Minnesota, Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Empire State Building, Fluffy, Sun CountryAbstract Nouns name nouns that you can't perceive with your five sense. love, wealth, happiness, pride, fear, religion, belief, history, communicationConcrete Nouns name nouns that you can perceive with your five senses.house, ocean, Uncle Mike, bird, photograph, banana, eyes, light, sun, dog, suitcase, flowersCountable Nouns name nouns that you can count.bed, cat, movie, train, country, book, phone, match, speaker, clock, pen, David, violinUncountalbe Nouns name nouns that you can't count.milk, rice, snow, rain, water, food, musicCompound Nouns are made up of two or more words.tablecloth, eyeglasses, New York, photograph, daughter-in-law, pigtails, sunlight, snowflakeCollective Nouns refer to things or people as a unit.bunch, audience, flock, team, group, family, band, villageSingular Nouns name one person, place, thing, or idea.cat, sock, ship, hero, monkey, baby, matchPlural Nouns name more than one person, place, thing, or idea.cats, socks, ships, heroes, monkeys, babies, matches<br />Proper Nouns and Common Nouns<br />Proper<br />Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas. <br />Examples: <br />Britney, Paris, Rover, Nike<br />Since these nouns are naming specific things, they always begin with a capital letter. <br />Pronouns<br />Personal pronouns - <br />Personal pronouns - <br />Personal pronouns <br />Possessive determiners <br />Reflexive pronouns <br />Relative pronouns - who, which, whose <br />Relative pronouns - who, which, whose or no pronouns? <br /> EXAMPLE OF PRONOUNS:<br />A pronoun takes the place of a noun or nouns.<br />Pronouns are words used as substitutes for nouns. The pronouns he, it, and them take the place of nouns.<br />He    it    themGreen cooked frost beef for the neighbors.<br />Personal pronouns are the most common and are listed below in their siWhat is a Pronoun?<br />A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like " he," " which," " none," and " you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.<br />Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.<br />Personal Pronouns<br />A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.<br />Subjective Personal Pronouns<br />A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are " I," " you," " she," " he," " it," " we," " you," " they." <br />In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence:<br />I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.<br />You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.<br />He stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.<br />When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner.<br />After many years, they returned to their homeland.<br />We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.<br />It is on the counter.<br />Are you the delegates from Malagawatch?<br />Objective Personal Pronouns<br />An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: " me," " you," " her," " him," " it," " us," " you," and " them." <br />In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is an objective personal pronoun:<br />Seamus stole the selkie's skin and forced her to live with him.<br />The objective personal pronoun " her" is the direct object of the verb " forced" and the objective personal pronoun " him" is the object of the preposition " with." <br />After reading the pamphlet, Judy threw it into the garbage can.<br />The pronoun " it" is the direct object of the verb " threw." <br />The agitated assistant stood up and faced the angry delegates and said, " Our leader will address you in five minutes." <br />In this sentence, the pronoun " you" is the direct object of the verb " address." <br />Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.<br />Here the objective personal pronoun " us" is the direct object of the compound verb " will meet." <br />Give the list to me.<br />Here the objective personal pronoun " me" is the object of the preposition " to." <br />I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.<br />Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun " you" is the object of the preposition " to." <br />Christopher was surprised to see her at the drag races.<br />Here the objective personal pronoun " her" is the object of the infinitive phrase " to see." <br />Possessive Personal Pronouns<br />A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are " mine," " yours," " hers," " his," " its," " ours," and " theirs." Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like " my," " her," and " their." <br />In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:<br />The smallest gift is mine.<br />Here the possessive pronoun " mine" functions as a subject complement.<br />This is yours.<br />Here too the possessive pronoun " yours" functions as a subject complement.<br />His is on the kitchen counter.<br />In this example, the possessive pronoun " his" acts as the subject of the sentence.<br />Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.<br />In this sentence, the possessive pronoun " theirs" is the subject of the sentence.<br />Ours is the green one on the corner.<br />Here too the possessive pronoun " ours" function as the subject of the sentence. <br />Definition: <br />A pronoun that refers to a particular person, group, or thing. These are the personal pronouns in English: <br />I, me, my, mine<br />we, us, our, ours<br />you, your, yours<br />he, she, it, him, her, his, hers, its<br />they, them, their, theirs<br />Demonstrative Pronouns<br />A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. " This" and " these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while " that" and " those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.<br />The demonstrative pronouns are " this," " that," " these," and " those." " This" and " that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and " these" and " those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that " that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.<br />In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:<br />This must not continue.<br />Here " this" is used as the subject of the compound verb " must not continue." <br />This is puny; that is the tree I want.<br />In this example " this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun " that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.<br />Three customers wanted these.<br />Here " these" is the direct object of the verb " wanted." <br />Interrogative Pronouns<br />An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are " who," " whom," " which," " what" and the compounds formed with the suffix " ever" (" whoever," " whomever," " whichever," and " whatever" ). Note that either " which" or " what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that " who," " whom," or " which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.<br />You will find " who," " whom," and occasionally " which" used to refer to people, and " which" and " what" used to refer to things and to animals.<br />" Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while " whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.<br />The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:<br />Which wants to see the dentist first?<br />" Which" is the subject of the sentence.<br />Who wrote the novel Rockbound?<br />Similarly " who" is the subject of the sentence.<br />Whom do you think we should invite?<br />In this sentence, " whom" is the object of the verb " invite." <br />To whom do you wish to speak?<br />Here the interrogative pronoun " whom " is the object of the preposition " to." <br />Who will meet the delegates at the train station?<br />In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun " who" is the subject of the compound verb " will meet." <br />To whom did you give the paper?<br />In this example the interrogative pronoun " whom" is the object of the preposition " to." <br />What did she say?<br />Here the interrogative pronoun " what" is the direct object of the verb " say." <br />Relative Pronouns<br />You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are " who," " whom," " that," and " which." The compounds " whoever," " whomever," and " whichever" are also relative pronouns.<br />You can use the relative pronouns " who" and " whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and " whom" and " whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.<br />In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun.<br />You may invite whomever you like to the party.<br />The relative pronoun " whomever" is the direct object of the compound verb " may invite." <br />The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.<br />In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb " wins" and introduces the subordinate clause " who wins the greatest popular vote." This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying " candidate." <br />In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual.<br />In this sentence " whom" is the direct object of the verb " believes" and introduces the subordinate clause " whom she believes to be the most efficient" . This subordinate clause modifies the noun " workers." <br />Whoever broke the window will have to replace it.<br />Here " whoever" functions as the subject of the verb " broke." <br />The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet.<br />In this example " which" acts as the subject of the compound verb " was left" and introduces the subordinate clause " which was left in the corridor." The subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying the noun " crate." <br />I will read whichever manuscript arrives first.<br />Here " whichever" modifies the noun " manuscript" and introduces the subordinate clause " whichever manuscript arrives first." The subordinate clause functions as the direct object of the compound verb " will read." <br />Indefinite Pronouns<br />An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.<br />The most common indefinite pronouns are " all," " another," " any," " anybody," " anyone," " anything," " each," " everybody," " everyone," " everything," " few," " many," " nobody," " none," " one," " several," " some," " somebody," and " someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.<br />The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns:<br />Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up.<br />Here " many" acts as the subject of the compound verb " were invited." <br />The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor.<br />In this example, " everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb " was thrown." <br />We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale.<br />In this sentence, " everything" is the direct object of theverb " donated." <br />Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none.<br />Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: " none" is the direct object of " found." <br />Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.<br />In this example, " everyone" is the indirect object of the verb " give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase " a copy of the amended bylaws." <br />Give a registration package to each.<br />Here " each" is the object of the preposition " to." <br />Reflexive Pronouns<br />You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence.<br />The reflexive pronouns are " myself," " yourself," " herself," " himself," " itself," " ourselves," " yourselves," and " themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.<br />Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun:<br />Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.<br />The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work.<br />After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.<br />Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.<br />Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves.<br />Intensive Pronouns<br />An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.<br />The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns:<br />I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.<br />The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.<br />They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time.<br />ngular and plural forms.<br />Personal Pronouns (singular|plural):First Person: I, me|we, us (the speaker)Second Person: you|you (anyone addressed)Third Person: he, him,she,her|they, them (anyone or anything discussed)<br />Possessive pronouns are personal pronouns that show ownership, or possession.<br />her    mine<br />I found Data's ring. She found my rinig.<br />Possessive Pronouns (singular|plural):First Person: my, mine|our, oursSecond Person: your, yours|your, yoursThird Person: his, her, hers, its|their, theirs<br />The possessive pronouns my, your, her, its, our, and their are forms used with nouns in sentences. Mine, yours, hers, ours, and theirs are forms that are used alone. His can be used either with a noun or alone.<br />Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds<br />Verbs Followed by an InfinitiveShe agreed to speak before the game.agreeaimappeararrangeask attemptbe ablebegbegincare choosecondescendconsentcontinuedaredecidedeservedetestdislikeexpectfailforgetgethappenhavehesitatehopehurryintendleapleavelikelonglovemeanneglectofferoughtplanpreferprepareproceedpromiseproposerefuseremembersayshootstartstopstriveswearthreatentryusewaitwantwish<br />Verbs Followed by an Object and an InfinitiveEveryone expected her to win.adviseallowaskbegbringbuildbuychallengechoosecommanddaredirectencourageexpectforbidforcehavehireinstructinviteleadleaveletlikelovemotivateorderpaypermitpersuadepreparepromiseremindrequiresendteachtellurgewantwarnNote: Some of these verbs are included in the list aboveand may be used without an object.<br />Verbs Followed by a GerundThey enjoyed working on the boat.admitadviseappreciateavoidcan't helpcompleteconsiderdelaydenydetestdislikeenjoyescapeexcusefinishforbidget throughhaveimaginemindmisspermitpostponepracticequitrecallreportresentresistresumeriskspend (time)suggesttoleratewaste (time)<br />Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a GerundWe concentrated on doing well.admit toapprove ofargue aboutbelieve incare aboutcomplain aboutconcentrate onconfess todepend ondisapprove ofdiscourage fromdream aboutfeel likeforget aboutinsist onobject toplan onprevent (someone) fromrefrain fromsucceed intalk aboutthink about<br />1  GERUNDS<br />A GERUND is a verb in its " ing" form (the present participle); for example, raining, dancing, laughing, thinking, creating, running, and so on. By definition, they are activities . either physical or mental. These words function as NOUNS in a sentence: <br />The subject of the verb:          Swimming is a lot of fun and good exercise.The object of the verb:            I really like swimming.The object of a preposition:   I am looking forward to swimming in the ocean.<br />1.1  GERUNDS AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE<br />Any activity that can be expressed with the " ing" form of a verb can be the subject of a sentence. All gerunds can be the subject of a sentence. <br />Breathing is necessary.Driving a car requires good vision.Helping other people feels good.<br />1.2  GERUNDS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION<br />Prepositions (for, with, about, &) must be followed by an object. The object can be a noun or a gerund (a verb acting as a noun).<br />I am tired of waking up too early.I look forward to meeting your friend.I am interested in learning baseball.She is responsible for implementing new policy. <br />1.2.1    Verb + Preposition<br />Here are some verbs plus a preposition followed by a gerund: <br />to complain about __________ing to insist on __________ing to participate in __________ing to apologize for __________ing to object to __________ing to look forward to __________ing to think of __________ing to win by __________ing to take part in __________ing<br />1.2.2    Verb + Object + Preposition<br />Here are some verbs plus an object plus a preposition followed by a gerund: <br />to have difficulty in __________ingto take advantage of __________ing to have a good reason for __________ing to prevent someone from __________ing to keep someone from __________ing to stop someone from __________ing to thank someone for __________ing to blame someone for __________ing to accuse someone of __________ing to charge someone with __________ing to fine someone for __________ing<br />1.2.3     To Be + Adjective + Preposition <br />Here are some combinations of the verb " to be" plus an adjective plus a preposition followed by a gerund: <br />to be accustomed to __________ing to be interested in __________ing to be excited about __________ing to be capable of __________ingto be responsible for __________ing to be used to __________ing to be tired of __________ing to be bored with __________ing to be good for __________ing to be good at __________ing to be bad at __________ingto be guilty of __________ing<br />1.2.4  To Be + Noun + Preposition  <br />Here are some combinations of the verb " to be" plus an object plus a preposition followed by a gerund:  <br />to be a victim of __________ingto be an advocate of __________ingto be a believer in __________ingto be a supporter of __________ingto be a critic of __________ing<br />1.3  GERUNDS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB<br />When it comes to gerunds as the object of a verb, not all verbs are equal. That is, some verbs can take a gerund as their objects, but other verbs cannot. (Some verbs can take infinitives as their objects. Some verbs never take an object at all.) These differences can only be learned, as individual vocabulary items. <br />1.3.1 Verb + Gerund: <br />Here are some verbs that are followed by a gerund.(These verbs can be followed by any gerund. The gerunds used in these sentences are only examples.)   <br />I admit losing the combination to the safe. I advise finding a good lawyer.I don't anticipate waiting very much longer.I appreciate hearing a good joke.I avoid flying as much as I can.Would you consider selling your share of the company?We will delay signing an agreement.I deny saying that.We must discuss hiring more people. I dislike eating alone.I enjoy talking with new people.I fear losing his confidence.When I finish typing this, I'll help you.I gave up explaining my position to them. I often go dancing. I can't help thinking that we could have done better. I can't imagine spending that much money.Business trips involve waiting in airports and staying in hotels.They keep saying that, but they don't do anything about it.Did I mention seeing him yesterday?I don't mind working on the weekend.I will miss seeing you around. They postponed starting construction until next year. You should practice using set phrases. I quit smoking six years ago.I recall meeting him a long time ago. I don't recollect being there. I recommend having the New York steak. I resent having to sign in each morning. I couldn't resist telling them.We should not risk losing their trust. I hope they stop making so much noise so I can get some sleep. He suggested starting my own agency. They won't tolerate trading insider information. <br />2   INFINITIVES<br />An infinitive may exist with or without the word " to" .  For example, following modal verbs (can, may, must, ... ). <br />Infinitives with the word " to" can function as either the SUBJECT or the OBJECT of a verb. <br />2.1 INFINITIVES AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE<br />To read a good book is my favorite form of relaxation.To win means everything to him.To speak a foreign language well requires practice.<br />2.2 INFINITIVES AS THE OBJECT OF THE VERB<br />Most people like to win.I don't want to go.We don't need to fight like this. <br />2.2.1 Verb + Infinitive<br />Here are some verbs that are followed by an infinitive. (These verbs can be followed by any infinitive. The infinitives used in these sentences are only examples.)   <br />We can't afford to remain outside the market.Should we agree to buy from them?It appears to be a mistake.I will arrange to talk with them as soon as possible.I asked to see the manager about it.I beg to differ with you, sir.Would you care to try a California wine?They claim to make the best potato chips in the world. We will never consent to allow your name to be put on our product. Finally, I decided to do it myself.I demand to know who is responsible for this!He deserves to get a promotion.She expects to hire an apprentice.Do not fail to let us know your decision.If you have trouble, don't hesitate to call us for help.We hope to begin by next week.I intend to go home early.He learned to speak English as a child.You managed to overlook something.Did you mean to put my report in the waste basket?I need to talk to an expert.They offered to buy the rest from us.We plan to expand our product range.Are you prepared to explain this disaster?I don. t pretend to know all the answers.I promise to do my best. He refuses to answer my calls.He seems to be the one who is in charge. We had to struggle to open the window.Do you swear to keep this a secret?They threatened to sue us if we didn't pay their fee.No one volunteered to clean up after the picnic.I cannot wait to see the expression on his face when he hears the news.I want to find the right person for this job.I do not wish to be a part of your scheme. <br />2.2.2  Verb + Pronoun/Noun + Infinitive<br />Here are some verbs plus an indirect object followed by an  infinitive.(These verbs can be followed by any infinitive. The infinitives used in these sentences are only examples.)   <br />I would advise you to say nothing about this. Will you allow me to use your telephone?She asked me to help her with her car.He begged me to let him come along.The weather caused us to take a later flight.He challenged me to find an error in his figures.We must convince them to investigate the situation.I dare you to tell him what you told me. I encouraged her to continue with the task.He expects you to finish on time.I forbid you to use that tone of voice with me.They forced him to reveal his source.We should hire someone to run our photocopying operation. I instructed them to wait for us here.I invited John to take part in our discussion.I need you to tell me what is going on here.My boss ordered me to go to London last week. We permitted them to talk to our client.He persuaded her to listen to his problem.He reminded me to bring an umbrella.This situation requires us to be very cautious.The experience taught me to buckle my seat belt.He told me to take two aspirins and go to bed.She urged me to take the job.I want you to wash my car.He warned me not to drive too fast around here. <br />3  GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES?<br />Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive. Sometimes, there is no difference in meaning. Sometimes there is.<br />3.1  VERB + INFINITIVE   =    VERB + GERUND<br />  <br />  <br />These verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, with NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING. <br />He began to shout.He started to shout.He continued to shout.I like to read.I love to read.I prefer to read.I hate to wait.I can't stand to wait.I can't bear to wait.=========He began shouting.He started shouting.He continued shouting.I like reading.I love reading.I prefer reading.I hate waiting.I can't stand waiting.I can't bear waiting.<br />1  GERUNDS<br />A GERUND is a verb in its " ing" form (the present participle); for example, raining, dancing, laughing, thinking, creating, running, and so on. By definition, they are activities . either physical or mental. These words function as NOUNS in a sentence: <br />The subject of the verb:          Swimming is a lot of fun and good exercise.The object of the verb:            I really like swimming.The object of a preposition:   I am looking forward to swimming in the ocean.<br />1.1  GERUNDS AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE<br />Any activity that can be expressed with the " ing" form of a verb can be the subject of a sentence. All gerunds can be the subject of a sentence. <br />Breathing is necessary.Driving a car requires good vision.Helping other people feels good.<br />1.2  GERUNDS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION<br />Prepositions (for, with, about, &) must be followed by an object. The object can be a noun or a gerund (a verb acting as a noun).<br />I am tired of waking up too early.I look forward to meeting your friend.I am interested in learning baseball.She is responsible for implementing new policy. <br />1.2.1    Verb + Preposition<br />Here are some verbs plus a preposition followed by a gerund: <br />to complain about __________ing to insist on __________ing to participate in __________ing to apologize for __________ing to object to __________ing to look forward to __________ing to think of __________ing to win by __________ing to take part in __________ing<br />1.2.2    Verb + Object + Preposition<br />Here are some verbs plus an object plus a preposition followed by a gerund: <br />to have difficulty in __________ingto take advantage of __________ing to have a good reason for __________ing to prevent someone from __________ing to keep someone from __________ing to stop someone from __________ing to thank someone for __________ing to blame someone for __________ing to accuse someone of __________ing to charge someone with __________ing to fine someone for __________ing<br />1.2.3     To Be + Adjective + Preposition <br />Here are some combinations of the verb " to be" plus an adjective plus a preposition followed by a gerund: <br />to be accustomed to __________ing to be interested in __________ing to be excited about __________ing to be capable of __________ingto be responsible for __________ing to be used to __________ing to be tired of __________ing to be bored with __________ing to be good for __________ing to be good at __________ing to be bad at __________ingto be guilty of __________ing<br />1.2.4  To Be + Noun + Preposition  <br />Here are some combinations of the verb " to be" plus an object plus a preposition followed by a gerund:  <br />to be a victim of __________ingto be an advocate of __________ingto be a believer in __________ingto be a supporter of __________ingto be a critic of __________ing<br />1.3  GERUNDS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB<br />When it comes to gerunds as the object of a verb, not all verbs are equal. That is, some verbs can take a gerund as their objects, but other verbs cannot. (Some verbs can take infinitives as their objects. Some verbs never take an object at all.) These differences can only be learned, as individual vocabulary items. <br />1.3.1 Verb + Gerund: <br />Here are some verbs that are followed by a gerund.(These verbs can be followed by any gerund. The gerunds used in these sentences are only examples.)   <br />I admit losing the combination to the safe. I advise finding a good lawyer.I don't anticipate waiting very much longer.I appreciate hearing a good joke.I avoid flying as much as I can.Would you consider selling your share of the company?We will delay signing an agreement.I deny saying that.We must discuss hiring more people. I dislike eating alone.I enjoy talking with new people.I fear losing his confidence.When I finish typing this, I'll help you.I gave up explaining my position to them. I often go dancing. I can't help thinking that we could have done better. I can't imagine spending that much money.Business trips involve waiting in airports and staying in hotels.They keep saying that, but they don't do anything about it.Did I mention seeing him yesterday?I don't mind working on the weekend.I will miss seeing you around. They postponed starting construction until next year. You should practice using set phrases. I quit smoking six years ago.I recall meeting him a long time ago. I don't recollect being there. I recommend having the New York steak. I resent having to sign in each morning. I couldn't resist telling them.We should not risk losing their trust. I hope they stop making so much noise so I can get some sleep. He suggested starting my own agency. They won't tolerate trading insider information. <br />2   INFINITIVES<br />An infinitive may exist with or without the word " to" .  For example, following modal verbs (can, may, must, ... ). <br />Infinitives with the word " to" can function as either the SUBJECT or the OBJECT of a verb. <br />2.1 INFINITIVES AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE<br />To read a good book is my favorite form of relaxation.To win means everything to him.To speak a foreign language well requires practice.<br />2.2 INFINITIVES AS THE OBJECT OF THE VERB<br />Most people like to win.I don't want to go.We don't need to fight like this. <br />2.2.1 Verb + Infinitive<br />Here are some verbs that are followed by an infinitive. (These verbs can be followed by any infinitive. The infinitives used in these sentences are only examples.)   <br />We can't afford to remain outside the market.Should we agree to buy from them?It appears to be a mistake.I will arrange to talk with them as soon as possible.I asked to see the manager about it.I beg to differ with you, sir.Would you care to try a California wine?They claim to make the best potato chips in the world. We will never consent to allow your name to be put on our product. Finally, I decided to do it myself.I demand to know who is responsible for this!He deserves to get a promotion.She expects to hire an apprentice.Do not fail to let us know your decision.If you have trouble, don't hesitate to call us for help.We hope to begin by next week.I intend to go home early.He learned to speak English as a child.You managed to overlook something.Did you mean to put my report in the waste basket?I need to talk to an expert.They offered to buy the rest from us.We plan to expand our product range.Are you prepared to explain this disaster?I don. t pretend to know all the answers.I promise to do my best. He refuses to answer my calls.He seems to be the one who is in charge. We had to struggle to open the window.Do you swear to keep this a secret?They threatened to sue us if we didn't pay their fee.No one volunteered to clean up after the picnic.I cannot wait to see the expression on his face when he hears the news.I want to find the right person for this job.I do not wish to be a part of your scheme. <br />2.2.2  Verb + Pronoun/Noun + Infinitive<br />Here are some verbs plus an indirect object followed by an  infinitive.(These verbs can be followed by any infinitive. The infinitives used in these sentences are only examples.)   <br />I would advise you to say nothing about this. Will you allow me to use your telephone?She asked me to help her with her car.He begged me to let him come along.The weather caused us to take a later flight.He challenged me to find an error in his figures.We must convince them to investigate the situation.I dare you to tell him what you told me. I encouraged her to continue with the task.He expects you to finish on time.I forbid you to use that tone of voice with me.They forced him to reveal his source.We should hire someone to run our photocopying operation. I instructed them to wait for us here.I invited John to take part in our discussion.I need you to tell me what is going on here.My boss ordered me to go to London last week. We permitted them to talk to our client.He persuaded her to listen to his problem.He reminded me to bring an umbrella.This situation requires us to be very cautious.The experience taught me to buckle my seat belt.He told me to take two aspirins and go to bed.She urged me to take the job.I want you to wash my car.He warned me not to drive too fast around here. <br />3  GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES?<br />Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive. Sometimes, there is no difference in meaning. Sometimes there is.<br />3.1  VERB + INFINITIVE   =    VERB + GERUND<br />  <br />  <br />These verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, with NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING. <br />He began to shout.He started to shout.He continued to shout.I like to read.I love to read.I prefer to read.I hate to wait.I can't stand to wait.I can't bear to wait.=========He began shouting.He started shouting.He continued shouting.I like reading.I love reading.I prefer reading.I hate waiting.I can't stand waiting.I can't bear waiting.<br />`*Gerund and infinitive quiz!*<br />Chapter test....<br />1 I am interested ______ your class. to take to taking in taking in took <br />2 They enjoy_______ movies. watching watch to watch to watching <br />3 She refuses_____ to her mother listen to listening to listen listening <br />4 We agreed ______ together. working to work worked to working <br />5 I need ______. studying to study in study to studying <br />6 I'm curious ______ to Africa. about traveling to travel traveling on travel <br />7 They postponed _______ the game because of rain. playing to playing at play at playing <br />8 They want ______ good grades. getting to get to getting get <br />9 Michael Jordan is good  _______ basketball. playing at playing with playing in paly <br />10 I regret not _______ my parents. hug with hugging to hug hugging <br />11 The criminal admits _________ the money. on taking take to take taking <br />12 Many drivers avoid ______ in traffic. driving to drive to driving drive <br />13 The gambler was angry _______ his money. with lose to losing to lose at losing <br />14 Good teachers always offer ______ their students. help to help helping to helping <br />15 I would like _______ a movie. to see seeing to seeing see <br />16 The president wishes ______ violence. to ending on ending ending to end <br />17 She is sick _________ in traffic. of driving to drive driving at driving <br />18 We feel like ________ pizza. eat with eating to eat eating <br />19 We look forward ________  the Olympics. at watching to watching with watch watching <br />20 I am bad __________. on ice skating at ice skate at ice skating with ice skating<br />

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