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# Points To Remember

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• 1. Points to remember Brenda Holmes MSN, RN
• 2. Points to remember
• Objectives
• Be able to remember specific points in math
• Be able to identify military time
• Be able to identify abbreviation for medication administration
• Be able to state 6 things that must be done before administrating medication
• Be able to identify wrong abbreviation
• Be able to identify Roman numerals
• 3. Points to remember
• Conversion Relating to Weight
• 2.2 lb. = 1 kg
• 16 oz = 1 lb
• Weight conversions of pounds to kilograms is done often because many medications are based on kilograms of body weight
• Body weight is essential
• 4. Points to remember
• Conversions relating to weight
• To convert pounds to kilograms, divide by 2.2. Round answer to the nearest tenth
• To convert pounds and ounces to kilograms, convert ounces to the nearest tenth of a pound; add this to the total pounds. Convert the total pounds to the kilograms and round answer to the nearest tenth
• To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2. Round answer to the nearest tenth.
• 5. Points to remember
• Factors that influence drug dosages and action
• Age of client
• Nutritional status of the client
• Absorption and excretion of the drug
• Health status of the client
• Sex of the client
• Ethnicity and culture of the client
• Genetics
• 6. Points to remember
• Six Rights of Medication Administration
• The right drug
• The right dosage
• The right client
• The right route
• The right time
• The right documentation
• 7. Points to remember
• Administering a drug by a route other than what the form indicates constitutes a medication error. Regardless of the source of an error, if you administer the wrong dosage, or give a medication by a route other than what it is intended for, you are legally responsible for it.
• 8. Points to remember
• Never assume what an order states. Clarify an order when in doubt. If an order is not clear, or if the essential components are omitted, it is not a legal order and should not be implemented the nurse is accountable!
• 9. Points to remember
• Military Time
• Begins at midnight as 0000
• 1 a.m. to 12 noon remain the same
• 5 a.m. is 0500
• From 1 p.m. on, add 12
• 5 p.m. is 1700
• 10. Points to remember
• Abbreviation for medication
• Bid SQ AP
• Tid Stat R
• Qid PO P
• Ac IM BP
• Pc IV
• HS SL
• Prn R
• 11. Points to remember
• JACHO has identified several abbreviation that is not safe
• MS (morphine), MSO ч (morphine sulfate), MgSo4 (magnesium sulfate): all must be written out
• U (units)
• QD (daily) or QOD (every other day)
• IU (international unit)
• Trailing zero (1.0): do not place zero after the number
• Lack of leading zero (.1): use 0.then the number
• µg (mcq or micrograms)
• AS, AD, AU (left ear, right ear, both ears)
• OS, OD, OY (left eye, right eye, both eyes)
• 12. Points to remember
• Roman Numerals
• Most common Roman Numerals that is found in the use of medication is
• V (5)
• X (10)
• XV (15)
• 13. Points to remember
• Parts of a drug label
• TRADE NAME: the trade name is usually capitalized and written in bold print. It is the first name written on the label. The trade name is always followed by the ® registration symbol
• GENERIC NAME:
• Official name of the drug
• Only one generic name
• Appears directly under the trade name
• Physician may order a patient’s drug generic/trade name
• Nurses’ need to be familiar with both name
• Occasionally, only the generic name will appear on the label
• DOSAGE STRENGTH:
• Indicates the amount or weight of medication that is supplied in the specific unit of measure
• May be in form of capsule, tablet, or milliliter
• 14. Points to remember
• Parts of a drug label
• Form
• Tablets, capsules, liquids, suppositories, and ointments
• Route
• Label will indicate how the drug to be administered
• Oral, topical, injection (subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular), or intravenous
• Amount: total volume may be indicated on the bottle
• Suspension or capsules
• Directions:
• Some must be mixed before use
• The amounts and types of diluent will be listed along with the resulting strenghts of the medication. Sometime information will be found on package inserts.
• 15. Points to remember
• Oral route
• Plastic bubble, foil
• Plastic or glass container
• Sealed medicine cup
• Parenteral Route: must be specified to route
• Can be IM, SC, IVPB
• Ampule: glass container that must be broken to obtain the medication
• Not sterile after opening
• Vial glass container with sealed rubber top
• Plastic bags or glass vial
• Prefilled syringes: small vial with needle attached, that fits into a syringe holder
• 16. Points to remember
• Transdermal patches
• Lozenges (disklike solid that dissolves in the mouth)
• Suppositories: best to be administered to those that are unconscious
• Plastic: disposable squeezable container
• Unit dose:
• Individually wrapped dose and labeled drugs; provides a second professional containers
• Multidose
• Large stock containers
• Reconstitution: dissolving a power into solution
• Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) [usually ordered in number of inhalation or puffs]
• Can be in a vial or plastic containers
• Must be able to teach the patients to breathe in and hold breath for 10 sec then exhale
• Rinse mouth after using inhalers or updrafts
• 17. Points to remember
• Prevent cross contamination: medication that has dropper, ointments, creams, should be labeled with patient’s name. To prevent contamination of creams in jars, use tongue blade depressors or sterile gloves to remove the creams
• 18. Points to remember
• Eye medication would be listed as opthalmic but occasionally you will find one that would be uses as eyedrops
• 19. Points to remember
• Changing grams to milligrams
• 1g=1000 milligrams. To achieve in finding the amount of mg to be given, multiply 1000mg to the amount of g to be given
• Rule: to multiply by 1000, move the decimal three places to the right
• Milligrams to gram: Divide by 1000,, move decimal three places to left
• Microgram: 1mg = 1000 mcg
• Rule: to divide by 1000, move the decimal point three places to the left
• Rule: To change milligrams to micrograms: multiply by 1000, move decimal point three places to the right
• 20. Points to remember
• Grain to milligram
• Remember gr XV = 1000 mg or 1 g
• Remember gr X = 600 (650) mg or 0.6 g
• Remember gr V = 300 (325) mg or 0.3 g
• Remember gr 1 = 60 (65) mg or 0.06 g
• Remember gr ½ = 30 mg or 0.03 g
• Remember gr 1/150 = 0.4mg