Points To Remember

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  • 1. Points to remember Brenda Holmes MSN, RN
  • 2. Points to remember
    • Objectives
      • Be able to remember specific points in math
      • Be able to identify military time
      • Be able to identify abbreviation for medication administration
      • Be able to state 6 things that must be done before administrating medication
      • Be able to identify wrong abbreviation
      • Be able to identify Roman numerals
  • 3. Points to remember
    • Conversion Relating to Weight
      • 2.2 lb. = 1 kg
      • 16 oz = 1 lb
        • Weight conversions of pounds to kilograms is done often because many medications are based on kilograms of body weight
        • Body weight is essential
  • 4. Points to remember
    • Conversions relating to weight
      • To convert pounds to kilograms, divide by 2.2. Round answer to the nearest tenth
      • To convert pounds and ounces to kilograms, convert ounces to the nearest tenth of a pound; add this to the total pounds. Convert the total pounds to the kilograms and round answer to the nearest tenth
      • To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2. Round answer to the nearest tenth.
  • 5. Points to remember
    • Factors that influence drug dosages and action
      • Route of administration
      • Time of administration
      • Age of client
      • Nutritional status of the client
      • Absorption and excretion of the drug
      • Health status of the client
      • Sex of the client
      • Ethnicity and culture of the client
      • Genetics
  • 6. Points to remember
    • Six Rights of Medication Administration
      • The right drug
      • The right dosage
      • The right client
      • The right route
      • The right time
      • The right documentation
  • 7. Points to remember
    • Administering a drug by a route other than what the form indicates constitutes a medication error. Regardless of the source of an error, if you administer the wrong dosage, or give a medication by a route other than what it is intended for, you are legally responsible for it.
  • 8. Points to remember
    • Never assume what an order states. Clarify an order when in doubt. If an order is not clear, or if the essential components are omitted, it is not a legal order and should not be implemented the nurse is accountable!
  • 9. Points to remember
    • Military Time
      • Begins at midnight as 0000
      • 1 a.m. to 12 noon remain the same
        • 5 a.m. is 0500
      • From 1 p.m. on, add 12
        • 5 p.m. is 1700
  • 10. Points to remember
    • Abbreviation for medication
      • Bid SQ AP
      • Tid Stat R
      • Qid PO P
      • Ac IM BP
      • Pc IV
      • HS SL
      • Prn R
  • 11. Points to remember
    • JACHO has identified several abbreviation that is not safe
      • MS (morphine), MSO ч (morphine sulfate), MgSo4 (magnesium sulfate): all must be written out
      • U (units)
      • QD (daily) or QOD (every other day)
      • IU (international unit)
      • Trailing zero (1.0): do not place zero after the number
      • Lack of leading zero (.1): use 0.then the number
      • µg (mcq or micrograms)
      • AS, AD, AU (left ear, right ear, both ears)
      • OS, OD, OY (left eye, right eye, both eyes)
  • 12. Points to remember
    • Roman Numerals
      • Most common Roman Numerals that is found in the use of medication is
        • V (5)
        • X (10)
        • XV (15)
  • 13. Points to remember
    • Parts of a drug label
      • TRADE NAME: the trade name is usually capitalized and written in bold print. It is the first name written on the label. The trade name is always followed by the ® registration symbol
        • Official name of the drug
        • Only one generic name
        • Appears directly under the trade name
        • Physician may order a patient’s drug generic/trade name
        • Nurses’ need to be familiar with both name
        • Occasionally, only the generic name will appear on the label
        • Indicates the amount or weight of medication that is supplied in the specific unit of measure
        • May be in form of capsule, tablet, or milliliter
  • 14. Points to remember
    • Parts of a drug label
      • Form
        • Tablets, capsules, liquids, suppositories, and ointments
      • Route
        • Label will indicate how the drug to be administered
        • Oral, topical, injection (subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular), or intravenous
      • Amount: total volume may be indicated on the bottle
        • Suspension or capsules
      • Directions:
        • Some must be mixed before use
        • The amounts and types of diluent will be listed along with the resulting strenghts of the medication. Sometime information will be found on package inserts.
  • 15. Points to remember
    • Types of administration
      • Oral route
        • Plastic bubble, foil
        • Plastic or glass container
        • Sealed medicine cup
      • Parenteral Route: must be specified to route
        • Can be IM, SC, IVPB
        • Ampule: glass container that must be broken to obtain the medication
          • Not sterile after opening
          • Vial glass container with sealed rubber top
          • Plastic bags or glass vial
          • Prefilled syringes: small vial with needle attached, that fits into a syringe holder
  • 16. Points to remember
    • Types of administration
      • Topical Administration
        • Transdermal patches
        • Lozenges (disklike solid that dissolves in the mouth)
        • Suppositories: best to be administered to those that are unconscious
        • Plastic: disposable squeezable container
      • Unit dose:
        • Individually wrapped dose and labeled drugs; provides a second professional containers
      • Multidose
        • Large stock containers
      • Reconstitution: dissolving a power into solution
      • Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) [usually ordered in number of inhalation or puffs]
        • Can be in a vial or plastic containers
        • Must be able to teach the patients to breathe in and hold breath for 10 sec then exhale
        • Rinse mouth after using inhalers or updrafts
  • 17. Points to remember
    • Prevent cross contamination: medication that has dropper, ointments, creams, should be labeled with patient’s name. To prevent contamination of creams in jars, use tongue blade depressors or sterile gloves to remove the creams
  • 18. Points to remember
    • Eye medication would be listed as opthalmic but occasionally you will find one that would be uses as eyedrops
  • 19. Points to remember
    • Changing grams to milligrams
      • 1g=1000 milligrams. To achieve in finding the amount of mg to be given, multiply 1000mg to the amount of g to be given
        • Rule: to multiply by 1000, move the decimal three places to the right
      • Milligrams to gram: Divide by 1000,, move decimal three places to left
      • Microgram: 1mg = 1000 mcg
        • Rule: to divide by 1000, move the decimal point three places to the left
        • Rule: To change milligrams to micrograms: multiply by 1000, move decimal point three places to the right
  • 20. Points to remember
    • Grain to milligram
      • Remember gr XV = 1000 mg or 1 g
      • Remember gr X = 600 (650) mg or 0.6 g
      • Remember gr V = 300 (325) mg or 0.3 g
      • Remember gr 1 = 60 (65) mg or 0.06 g
      • Remember gr ½ = 30 mg or 0.03 g
      • Remember gr 1/150 = 0.4mg