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Ethics chapter01
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Ethics chapter01

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  • 1. Chapter One Human Value Development
  • 2. Human Behavior Human behavior is not random We are attempting to achieve something Beyond reflexes and instincts, we seem to be attending to: Needs Values Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow – motivation based on needs: Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self-actualization Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Motivation by Values The difference between “is” and “ought”: Inner voice telling us what we ought to do, even in the face of pressing needs Consider the males on the Titanic – what was their need? What did they feel they “ought” to do? Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Value System Values: Inner set of subjective feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and opinions that guide our understanding of what ought to be Rank the following in importance to you: Freedom from constraint Privacy Group identification Freedom from disability Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Human Values The case of Neanderthal Man What tells you he was a creature of values? Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Value Theorists Jean Piaget Lawrence Kohlberg Carol Gilligan Morris Massey Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Kohlberg Model Level One – Preconventional Morality Stage 1. Reward and Punishment Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange Level Two – Conventional Morality Stage 3. Good Boy/Good Girl Stage 4. Law and Order Orientation Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Kohlberg Model (continued) Level Three – Postconventional Morality Stage 5. Social Contract Stage 6. Universal Principles Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Gilligan Challenge Boys and girls may follow different developmental paths in gaining value systems – two separate paths that lead to different highest values Highest Value: Legalistic equality for males Personal responsibility for females Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Gilligan Challenge (continued) If different paths, should this lead to differing value models? Males – a model based on equality and justice Females – a model based on caring Can one truly function without the other? Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Massey’s Value Cohorts “ You are what you are because of where you were when.” Significant emotional events happen to the society as a whole People within a historical time frame are shaped by the same significant events Time frame cohorts share similar values based on shared experiences Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Massey’s Value Cohorts (continued) Traditionalists Great Depression – World War II In-betweeners Post World War II America – Cold War Challengers Civil Rights movement – Vietnam Synthesizers Fall of Communism – Globalization Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Value Cohorts How might significant emotional events shape society values? World War II Vietnam War Cold War Assassination of President Kennedy Fall of Berlin Wall Twin Towers attack Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Personal Values What significant emotional events shaped your personal value system? Starting with “I feel a person should,” complete value statements for: Privacy Loyalty and trust Abortion Authority and social order Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Key Concepts Values-based motivation is more subjective than that based on needs Humans have an innate capacity to acquire ethical beliefs taught by our culture Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Carol Gilligan are important value development theorists Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Key Concepts (continued) The Kohlberg model provides for three general levels of value development: Preconventional Conventional Postconventional Each of these general levels is divided into two stages Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Key Concepts (continued) Kohlberg’s highest level for value development is when the individual makes a personal commitment to: Universal principles of equal rights Social justice Respect for the basic dignity of all people as individuals Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Key Concepts (continued) Carol Gilligan: Feminist value development perspective, arguing that the Kohlberg model is biased toward young men Young women follow a different developmental path, placing personal responsibility and caring as highest values Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Key Concepts (continued) Morris Massey – shaping of generational values based on historical events that shaped the group as a whole: Traditionalists In-betweeners Challengers Synthesizers Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.