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Chapter02 Chapter02 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Two Decision Making in Value Issues
  • “ Am I Sure It Is My Job to Handle This?” Review the case – does the new person have an obligation? Decision making formats require you to ask yourself: What are the facts? What values are at stake? What options are available to me? Evaluate options and select the best one Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Examining Value Issues Consequence-oriented: The right answer would maximize some good Utilitarianism Duty-oriented: Consequences are essentially irrelevant; rightness or wrongness are inherent in the act itself Kantian ethics Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Examining Value Issues (continued) Virtue ethics Emphasis is not consequences nor reasoning to a universal truth, but rather the character of the actor or the duty associated with the role Aretaic ethics Divine command ethics Right answer in a finite set of rules set forth by a divine or exemplary being Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Consequence-Oriented Theories Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill No appeal to an absolute authority or principle; the only test of rival solutions lies in the consequences The good resides in the promotion of happiness, or the greatest net increase of pleasure over pain Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Utilitarianism Act utilitarianism: “ Pig philosophy” problem Equal consideration of interest “ Hedonic calculus” problem Rule utilitarianism: Right action conforms to a rule that has been validated by the principle of utility Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Consequence-Oriented Reasoning Describe the problem List solutions Compare solutions with UTILITY Work the problem of Mr. Jimenez: case study: Act Utilitarianism Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Criticisms of Utilitarianism Impossible to calculate all possible consequences Used to sanction unfairness Lack of sensitivity to special duties Lack of respect for persons Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Criticisms of Utilitarianism (continued) May allow unacceptable intervention in private lives of individuals If followed, may recommend solutions that conflict with personal belief Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Kantian Ethics Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) Humans are rational beings Morality is derived from rationality; our obligations are grounded not in our nature or in circumstances but in pure reason Reason provides the guide to universal principles that can be applied to all people, at all times, in all situations Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Kantian Ethics (continued) Categorical imperatives: Universal application Unconditionality Demanding an action An action is either right or wrong; it cannot be both Example maxim for health care providers: “We must always treat others as ends and not as means only” Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Duty-Oriented Reasoning Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Describe problem List Solutions Compare Solutions with Principles Possible findings One Compliant Alternative Several Compliant Alternatives Compliant/Conflicting Principles Correct Answer Select Among Choices Rank Principles Select Choice Work case study: Duty-Oriented Reasoning
  • Criticisms of Duty-Oriented Reasoning Exceptionless nature – too rigid for real life Morality not derived from reason alone Disregard of consequences Question of concern for nonhumans Multiple solutions of equal merit possible Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Virtue Ethics Aretaic ethics: Taken from Greek arete, which means excellence or virtue Big question: “ Is it the action or the character of the agent acting that is the heart of the matter?” Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Virtue Ethics (continued) Virtue ethics: Emphasis placed on heart of the moral agent, not the particular action If an individual lives a life of good moral character and develops ethical habits – ethical response to a problem expected Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Virtue Ethics (continued) The question is not “what shall I do?” in a particular situation, but rather, “how shall I live?” Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Virtue Ethics (continued) Modern formulation of virtue ethics: Each profession has set of virtues that practitioners can adopt in practice When personal habits, they come forward when questions arise The question: “What would a good ( fill in specialty ) do in this situation?” Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Reasoning with Virtue Ethics Describe problem List solutions Compare solutions with professional traditions Correct answer Review case study: Virtue Ethics: Saints and Sinners Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Criticisms of Virtue Ethics Does not provide specific direction for problems New problems may require new solutions not covered by traditional practice Relying on tradition may not allow respect for individual choice or use of reason Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Criticisms of Virtue Ethics (continued) Humans may attempt to respond to several different role demands at same time Results may not maximize happiness Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Divine Command Ethics Big Idea: Divine or exemplary being has set down a finite set of rules by which one can gain guidance when making ethical decisions Specific reference to divine scripture such as the Ten Commandments Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Divine Command Ethics (continued) General evaluation of actions based on a model of perfection WWJD – if you are Christian, what would Jesus do? In a similar fashion Muslims and Buddhists turn to the life and example of Muhammad and Siddhartha Gautama Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Reasoning by Divine Command Describe problem List solutions Find appropriate scriptural reference Follow scriptural admonition Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Criticisms of Divine Command Ethics Belief in divine or exemplary beings can be questioned by non-believers Scriptures do not cover all possible cases that require moral decisions Seeming exceptionless nature Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Criticisms of Divine Command Ethics (continued) Euthyphro problem Recently several beheadings were justified in the name of God; they believed God told them to do this Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Key Concepts Several theoretical positions for solving ethical dilemmas: Consequence Duty Virtue Divine command Review the illustrations for each position in the chapter and solve a problem using the system Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Key Concepts (continued) Act utilitarianism: Purest form of utilitarian reasoning, each act evaluated for pleasure attained, pain avoided Rule utilitarianism: Develops rules for action based on previous validation by principle of utility Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Key Concepts (continued) Equal consideration of interest important concept to keep utilitarianism from becoming a purely self-serving form of reasoning Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Key Concepts (continued) Kant proposed duty-oriented system: morality based on rationality, not experience Consequences essentially irrelevant Universal truths create obligations for actions, binding for all people, for all times, in all situations Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Key Concepts (continued) The primary focus for virtue ethics is the heart of the moral agent Virtues can be formed as habits, which in times of question become our choice of action Even in virtue, the ancient Greeks counseled moderation and the golden mean Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
  • Key Concepts (continued) Divine command ethics Source of divine guidance or exemplary being: Ten Commandments (Christians and Jews) Eight-Fold Path (Buddhists) Problem of nonbelievers Euthyphro problem Copyright ©2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.