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Chapter 1

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  • NEW FIGURE 12.1
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 1 Edited by Brenda Holmes MSN/Ed, RN South Arkansas Community College Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition
    • 2. Success Tips…
      • Hole’s 12 th Edition Text has available:
        • Student Study Guide
        • MediaPhys CD
        • Anatomy & Physiology Revealed CD
        • Text Website www.mhhe.com/shier12
        • External link located within Blackboard
      • Know how to use the text… xxi to xxvii.
      • Read the text BEFORE exams!!
    • 3. Important Points in Chapter 1: Outcomes to be Assessed
      • 1.1: Introduction
      • Identify some of the early discoveries that lead to our current understanding of the human body.
      • 1.2: Anatomy and Physiology
      • Define anatomy and physiology and explain how they are related.
      • 1.3: Levels of Organization
      • List the levels of organization in the human body and the characteristics of each.
      • 1.4: Characteristics of Life
      • List and describe the major characteristics of life.
      • Define and give examples of metabolism.
    • 4. Important Points in Chapter 1: Outcomes to be Assessed Continued
      • 1.5: Maintenance of Life
      • List and describe the major requirements of organisms.
      • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to survival.
      • Describe the parts of a homeostatic mechanism and explain how they function together.
      • 1.6: Organization of the Human Body
      • Identify the locations of the major body cavities.
      • List the organs located in each major body cavity.
      • Name and identify the locations of the membranes associated with the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
    • 5. Important Points in Chapter 1: Outcomes to be Assessed Continued
      • Name the major organ systems and list the organs associated with each.
      • Describe the general function of each organ system.
      • 1.7: Lifespan Changes
      • Define aging.
      • Identify the levels of organization in the body at which aging occurs.
      • 1.8: Anatomical Terminology
      • Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions.
    • 6. 1.1: Introduction
      • Questions and observations that have led to knowledge.
      • Knowledge about structure and function of the human body.
    • 7. Understanding the Human Body
      • Our earliest ancestors were interested in the way their bodies worked; posterior view of biped human
      • showing the muscles.
    • 8. 1.2: Anatomy & Physiology
      • Anatomy – the study of the structure of the human body
      • Physiology – the study of the function of the human body
      “ The complementarity of structure and function.”
    • 9. Anatomy and Physiology
      • Anatomy – study of structure
      • (Greek – “a cutting up”)
      • Physiology – study of function
      • (Greek – “relationship to nature”)
      “ Structure dictates function.”
    • 10. 1.3: Levels of Organization
      • Subatomic Particles – electrons, protons, and neutrons
      • Atom – hydrogen atom, lithium atom, etc.
      • Molecule – water molecule, glucose molecule, etc.
      • Macromolecule – protein molecule, DNA molecule, etc.
      • Organelle – mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, etc.
      • Cell – muscle cell, nerve cell, etc.
      • Tissue – epithelia, connective, muscle and nerve
      • Organ – skin, femur, heart, kidney, etc.
      • Organ System – skeletal system, digestive system, etc.
      • Organism – the human
    • 11. Characteristics of Living Organisms Unlike Non-Living Matter
      • Movement
      • Responsiveness
      • Growth
      • Reproduction
      • Respiration
      • Digestion
      • Absorption
      • Circulation
      • Assimilation
      • Excretion
    • 12. 1.4: Characteristics of Life ( 10 )
      • Movement – change in position; motion
      • Responsiveness – reaction to a change
      • Growth – increase in body size; no change in shape
      • Respiration – obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods
      • Reproduction – production of new organisms and new cells
    • 13. Characteristics of Life Continued
      • Absorption – passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids
      • Circulation – movement of substances in body fluids
      • Assimilation – changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms
      • Excretion – removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
      • Digestion – breakdown of food substances into simpler forms
    • 14. Levels of Organization Subatomic particles Atom Molecule Macromolecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 15. Can you name the organ systems? Test your knowledge and name the organ system before proceeding. There are eleven (11). Levels of Organization
    • 16. Organ Systems
      • Consist
        • Skin
        • Assessory organs
          • Hair
          • Nails
          • Sweat glands
          • Sebaceous glands
      • Purpose
        • Regulate body temperature
        • Houses variety of sensory receptors
        • Synthesis certain products
      Integumentary system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 17. Organ Systems
      • Purpose
        • Support
        • Move body parts
        • Provide framework and protective shields for softer tissues,
        • Serve as an attachment
      • Consist
        • Bones, ligaments and cartilage
      • Tissues: produce blood cells and store inorganic salts
      • Purpose
        • Provide the forces that move body parts by contracting and pulling their ends together.
        • Maintain posture
        • Primary source of body heat
      Skeletal system Muscular system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 18. Organ Systems Nervous system Endocrine system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 19. Organ Systems Cardiovascular system Lymphatic system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 20. Organ Systems Digestive system Respiratory system Urinary system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 21. Organ Systems Male reproductive system Female reproductive system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 22. 1.1 Clinical Application
      • Ultrasound (US)
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • 23. 1.5: Maintenance of Life
      • Life depends on five (5) environmental factors:
          • Water
          • Food
          • Oxygen
          • Heat
          • Pressure
    • 24. Requirements of Organisms
      • Water
      • - most abundant substance in body
      • - required for metabolic processes
      • - required for transport of substances
      • - regulates body temperature
      • Food
      • - provides necessary nutrients
      • - supplies energy
      • - supplies raw materials
    • 25. Requirements of Organisms
      • Oxygen (gas)
      • - one-fifth of air
      • - used to release energy from nutrients
      • Heat
      • - form of energy
      • - partly controls rate of metabolic reactions
      • Pressure
      • - application of force on an object
      • - atmospheric pressure – important for breathing
      • - hydrostatic pressure – keeps blood flowing
    • 26. Homeostasis* * Maintaining of a stable internal environment
      • Homeostatic Control Mechanisms – monitors aspects of the internal environment and corrects as needed. Variations are within limits. There are three (3) parts:
        • Receptor - provides information about the stimuli
        • Control Center - tells what a particular value should be (called the set point)
        • Effector - elicits responses that change conditions in the internal environment
    • 27. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Stimulus (Change occurs in internal environment.) Response (Change is corrected.) Receptors Effectors (muscles or glands) Control center (set point) (Change is compared to the set point.) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 28. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Receptors Thermoreceptors send signals to the control center. too high too low Normal body temperature 37°C (98.6°F) Control center The hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. Control center The hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. If body temperature continues to drop, control center signals muscles to contract Involuntarily. Stimulus Body temperature rises above normal. Effectors Skin blood vessels dilate and sweat glands secrete. Response Body heat is lost to surroundings, temperature drops toward normal. Receptors Thermoreceptors send signals to the control center. Effectors Skin blood vessels constrict and sweat glands remain inactive. Stimulus Body temperature drops below normal. Effectors Muscle activity generates body heat. Response Body heat is conserved, temperature rises toward normal. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 29.
      • There are two (2) types:
        • Negative feedback mechanisms
        • Positive feedback mechanisms
      Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
    • 30.
      • Negative feedback summary :
      • Prevents sudden, severe changes in the body
      • Reduces the actions of the effectors
      • Corrects the set point
      • Causes opposite of bodily disruption to occur, i.e. the ‘negative’
      • Limits chaos in the body by creating stability
      • Most common type of feedback loop
      • Examples: body temperature, blood pressure & glucose regulation
      Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
    • 31. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
      • Positive feedback summary :
      • Increases (accelerates) the actions of the body
      • Produces more instability in the body
      • Produces more chaos in the body
      • There are only a few types necessary for our survival
      • Positive feedback mechanisms are short-lived
      • Controls only infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments
      • Considered to be the uncommon loop
      • Examples: blood clotting and child birth
    • 32. 1.6: Organization of the Human Body
      • Body cavities
      Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Diaphragm Pelvic cavity Cranial cavity V ertebral canal (a) Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Right pleural cavity Mediastinum Left pleural cavity Pericardial cavity Diaphragm Vertebral canal Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 33. Thoracic & Abdominal Serous Membranes
      • Thoracic Membranes
        • Visceral pleura
        • Parietal pleura
        • Visceral pericardium
        • Parietal pericardium
      • Visceral layer – covers an organ
      • Parietal layer – lines a cavity or body wall
      • Abdominopelvic Membranes
        • Parietal peritoneum
        • Visceral peritoneum
        • Parietal perineum
        • Visceral perineum
    • 34. Thoracic Serous Membranes Vertebra Aorta Esophagus Right lung Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Parietal pleura Sternum Plane of section Spinal cord Mediastinum Left lung Rib Left ventricle of heart Visceral pericardium Pericardial cavity Parietal pericardium Anterior Azygos v. Right atrium of heart Right ventricle of heart Fibrous pericardium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 35. Abdominal Serous Membranes V ertebra Right kidney Pancreas Large intestine Liver Gallbladder Duodenum Peritoneal cavity Parietal peritoneum Plane of section Left kidney Spinal cord Spleen Rib Small intestine Large intestine Stomach Anterior Visceral peritoneum Costal cartilage Aorta Inferior vena cava Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 36. 1.7: Lifespan Changes Aging occurs from the microscopic level to the whole-body level. Can you think of some examples?
    • 37. 1.8: Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Position – standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at the sides, palms facing forward and thumbs out Integumentary system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 38. Anatomical Terminology: Orientation and Directional Terms
      • Terms of Relative Position ( based on anatomical position ):
        • Superior versus Inferior
        • Anterior versus Posterior
        • Medial versus Lateral
        • Ipsi-lateral versus Contra-lateral
        • Proximal versus Distal (only in the extremities)
        • Superficial versus Deep
        • Internal versus External
    • 39. Body Sections or Planes ( 3 )
      • Sagittal or Median – divides body into left and right portions
        • Mid-sagittal – divides body into equal left and right portions
      • Transverse or Horizontal – divides body into superior and inferior portions
      • Coronal or Frontal – divides body into anterior and posterior portions
    • 40. Body Sections A section along a frontal plane A section along a transverse plane A section along the median plane Transverse (horizontal) plane Frontal (coronal) plane Parasagittal plane Median (midsagittal) plane Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Inc./Joe De Grandis, photographer
    • 41. Body Sections (a) (b) (c) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a: © Patrick J. Lynch/Photo Researchers, Inc.; b: © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.; c: © A. Glauberman/Photo Researchers, Inc. Sagittal Plane Transverse Plane Frontal Plane
    • 42. Other Body Sections (a) (b) (c) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cross Section Oblique Section Longitudinal Section
    • 43. Abdominal Subdivisions ( 2 )
      • Regions (9)
      • Quadrants (4)
      Right hypochondriac region Right lumbar region Right iliac region Epigastric region Umbilical region Hypogastric region Left hypochondriac region Left lumbar region Left iliac region (a) Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 44. Body Regions Otic (ear) Cervical (neck) Acromial (point of shoulder) Mammary (breast) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Antebrachial (forearm) Genital (reproductive organs) Cephalic (head) Orbital (eye cavity) Mental (chin) Sternal Pectoral (chest) Inguinal (groin) Coxal (hip) Umbilical (navel) Pedal (foot) Occipital (back of head) Acromial (point of shoulder) Brachial (arm) Dorsum (back) Cubital (elbow) Gluteal (buttocks) Perineal Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Plantar (sole) (a) (b) Patellar (front of knee) Vertebral (spinal column) Sacral (between hips) Lumbar (lower back) Abdominal (abdomen) Carpal (wrist) Palmar (palm) Digital (finger) Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Frontal (forehead) Buccal (cheek) T arsal (instep) Digital (toe) Axillary (armpit) Crural (leg) Sural (calf) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • 45. Quiz 1 Complete Quiz 1 now! Read Chapter 2.