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  • สถาบันพระมหากษัตริย์ เป็นสถาบันหนึ่งที่ช่วยให้เราได้มีแผ่นดินอยู่จนถึงลูกหลานเราถึงทุกวันนี้

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Chapt22 reproductive Chapt22 reproductive Presentation Transcript

  • HOLE’S HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY TWELFTH EDITION SHIER  BUTLER  LEWIS Chapter 22 Reproductive Systems Edited by B. Holmes MSN/Ed, RN Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 22.1: INTRODUCTION
    • Male and female reproductive systems are connected by a series of organs and glands that produce and nurture sex cells and transport them to sites of fertilization
    • Male sex cells are sperm
    • Female sex cells are eggs or oocytes
    • Sex cells are produced by a special type of division called meiosis
    • Meiosis includes two successive divisions , called the first (meiosis I) and second (meiosis II) meiotic divisions
  • First meiotic division (46 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) (23 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) Paired homologous chromosomes Second meiotic division (23 chromosomes, each chromatid now an independent chromosome) (23 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION
    • Meiosis I separates homologous (the same, gene for gene) pairs
    • They may not be identical because a gene may have variants
    • There are four phases in this division
      • Prophase I
      • Metaphase I
      • Anaphase I
      • Telophase I
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) (b) (c)
  • SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION
    • Meiosis II begins after telophase I
    • This division is similar to mitosis
    • There are four phases in this division:
      • Prophase II
      • Metaphase II
      • Anaphase II
      • Telophase II
    • This division completes with each sex cell having one set of genetic instructions, or 23 chromosomes (compared to two sets (46 chromosomes) in other cells)
  • Parent cell Paternal chromatids Gene for blood type Gene for eye color Gene for hair color Result of crossing over Maternal chromatids Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 22.2: ORGANS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Urinary bladder Ureter Large intestine Seminal vesicle Urethra Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Anus Epididymis Scrotum Corpus cavernosum Corpus spongiosum Penis Glans penis Prepuce (a) Superior pubic ramus (cut) Ductus (vas) deferens Bulbourethral gland Urogenital diaphragm Testis
  • TESTES Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ampulla Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Epididymis Testis Penis Urethra Glans penis (b) Ureter Urinary bladder Prostate gland Ductus (vas) deferens Bulbourethral gland Bulb of penis Crus of penis Root of penis Body of penis
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Rectum Gubernaculum Gubernaculum Spermatic cord Inguinal canal Gubernaculum Lower abdominal cavity Abdominal wall Developing penis (a) Testis Symphysis pubis Peritoneum Vaginal process (cavity) (b) Ductus deferens Tunica vaginalis Scrotum (c) Testis Testis Descent of the Testes
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Plane of section Epididymis Ductus deferens Rete testis Seminiferous tubules Spermatogonia Sperm cells Basement membrane (a) (b) Tunica albuginea Testis Interstitial cells (Cells of Leydig) Lumen of seminiferous tubule Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spermatogonia Sperm cells Interstitial cells (cells of Leydig) Spermatogenic cells Basement membrane Seminiferous tubule © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Structure of the Testes
  • Spermatids Sperm cells Secondary spermatocyte Second meiotic division First meiotic division (23 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) Paired homologous chromosomes (46 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) (23 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) (23 chromosomes, each chromatid now an independent chromosome) Primary spermatocyte Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Formation of Sperm Cells
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sustentacular cells Meiosis I Developmental sequence Wall of seminiferous tubule Meiosis II Changes in chromosome structure Spermatozoa (Sperm cells, 23 chromosomes, 1 chromatid per chromosome) Nucleus of sustentacular cell Spermatid (23 chromosomes, 1 chromatid per chromosome) Secondary spermatocyte (23 chromosomes, 2 chromatids per chromosome) Primary spermatocyte (46 chromosomes, 2 chromatids per chromosome) Tight junction between sustentacular cells (blood-testis barrier) Daughter cell in late interphase ( Type B Spermatogonium, 46 chromosomes 2 chromatids per chromosome) Daughter cell in late interphase (New type A spermatogonium, 46 chromosomes 2 chromatids per chromosome) Spermatogonium mitosis Basement membrane Lumen of seminiferous tubule Formation of Sperm Cells
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Brand X Pictures/CORBIS Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Acrosome Mitochondria Golgi apparatus Mitochondria Midpiece Head Acrosome Centriole Nucleus Head Nucleus Flagellum (a) (b) Tail Midpiece (with mitochondria) Excess cytoplasm Excess cytoplasm and most organelles lost Tail Structure of a Sperm Cell
  • MALE INTERNAL ACCESSORY ORGANS
    • The male internal accessory organs include:
      • Epididymides
      • Ductus deferentia
      • Seminal vesicles
      • Prostate gland
      • Bulbourethral glands
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ampulla Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Epididymis Testis Penis Urethra Glans penis (b) Ureter Urinary bladder Prostate gland Ductus (vas) deferens Bulbourethral gland Bulb of penis Crus of penis Root of penis Body of penis
    • Tightly coiled tubes
    • Connected to ducts within the testis
    • Promote maturation of sperm cells
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Image Source Sperm cells Epithelial cells Nonmotile cilia Epididymides
    • Are muscular tubes
    • About 45 centimeters each
    • Extends from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lumen Smooth muscle (a) (b) Sperm in lumen of ductus deferens Pseudostratified colum- nar epithelium Epithelium Smooth muscle © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Ductus Deferentia
    • Attached to the vas deferens near base of the urinary bladder
    • Secrete alkaline fluid
    • Secrete fructose and prostaglandins
    • Contents empty into the ejaculatory duct
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ampulla Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Epididymis Testis Penis Urethra Glans penis (b) Ureter Urinary bladder Prostate gland Ductus (vas) deferens Bulbourethral gland Bulb of penis Crus of penis Root of penis Body of penis Seminal Vesicles
    • Surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra
    • The ducts of the gland open into the urethra
    • Secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid
    • Secretion enhances fluid mobility
    • Composed of tubular glands in connective tissue
    • Also contains smooth muscle
    Smooth muscle Lumen of urethra Secretory cells of the prostate gland Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Manfred Kage/Peter Arnold Prostate Gland
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ampulla Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Epididymis Testis Penis Urethra Glans penis (b) Ureter Urinary bladder Prostate gland Ductus (vas) deferens Bulbourethral gland Bulb of penis Crus of penis Root of penis Body of penis Bulbourethral Glands
    • Inferior to the prostate gland
    • Secrete mucus-like fluid
    • Fluid released in response to sexual stimulation
    • The fluid the urethra conveys to the outside during ejaculation is called semen
    • Semen consists of:
      • Sperm cells
      • Secretions of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
      • It is slightly alkaline
      • Contains prostaglandins
      • Contains nutrients
      • Volume is 2-5 milliliters of semen per ejaculation
      • Average 120 million sperm cells per milliliter of semen
    Semen
  • 22.1 CLINICAL APPLICATION Prostate Enlargement
  • 22.2 CLINICAL APPLICATION Male Infertility
  • MALE EXTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
    • Includes the:
      • Scrotum
        • two testes
      • Penis
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Urinary bladder Ureter Large intestine Seminal vesicle Urethra Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Anus Epididymis Scrotum Corpus cavernosum Corpus spongiosum Penis Glans penis Prepuce (a) Superior pubic ramus (cut) Ductus (vas) deferens Bulbourethral gland Urogenital diaphragm Testis
    • Pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue
    • Dartos muscle – smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue; contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum
    • Medial septum divides the scrotum into two chambers
    • Each chamber is lined with a serous membrane
    • Each chamber houses a testis and epididymis
    Scrotum
    • Conveys urine and semen
    • Specialized to become erect for insertion into the vagina
    (a) (b) Skin External urethral orifice Superficial dorsal vein Deep dorsal vein Dorsal nerve Dorsal artery Deep artery Corpora cavernosa Tunica albuginea Urethra Corpus spongiosum Prepuce Glans penis Subcutaneous tissue Connective tissue (fascia) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Penis
    • The erection:
      • Parasympathetic nerve impulses
      • Blood accumulates in the erectile tissues
    • The orgasm:
      • Culmination of sexual stimulation
      • Accompanied by emission and ejaculation
    • The ejaculation:
      • Emission is the movement of semen into the urethra
      • Ejaculation is the movement of semen out of the urethra
      • This is largely dependent on sympathetic nerve impulses
    Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation
  • Sexual stimulation Penis swells and becomes erect Parasympathetic neurons release nitric oxide, causing dilation of small arteries to penis Blood accumulates in the vascular spaces within erectile tissues of penis Veins are compressed, reducing blood flow away from penis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Emission—semen moves into urethra Sympathetic impulses contract smooth muscle Culmination of intense sexual stimulation Peristaltic contractions in testicular ducts, epididymides, ductus deferentia, and ejaculatory ducts Rhythmic contractions in erectile columns of penis Rhythmic contractions in bulbourethral glands, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles Ejaculation—semen is forcefully expelled from urethra Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation
  • 22.3: HORMONAL CONTROL OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS
    • Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the testes control male reproductive functions
    • Hormones initiate and maintain sperm cell production and oversee the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics
  • HYPOTHALAMIC AND PITUITARY HORMONES
    • The hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics
    • Negative feedback among the hypothalamus, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and the testes controls the concentration of testosterone
  • MALE SEX HORMONES
    • The male sex hormones are called androgens
    • Interstitial cells in the testes produce most of them, but small amounts are made in the adrenal cortex
    • Testosterone is the most important
  • ACTIONS OF TESTOSTERONE
    • Increased growth of body hair
    • Sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair
    • Enlargement of the larynx and thickening of the vocal cords
    • Thickening of the skin
    • Increased muscular growth
    • Thickening and strengthening of the skeletal bones
  • REGULATION OF MALE SEX HORMONES Bloodstream Hypothalamus GnRH FSH LH Inhibin T estes + + – – + Stimulation Inhibition Androgens prevent oversecretion of GnRH Androgens prevent over- secretion of LH Inhibin prevents oversecretion of FSH Androgens stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics and maturation of sperm cells Testosterone and other androgens FSH stimulates meiosis in primary spermatocytes to form immature sperm cells; FSH stimulates secretion of inhibin by supporting cells LH stimulates interstitial cells to secrete androgens (primarily testosterone) Pituitary gland Release into bloodstream Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 22.4: ORGANS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM External os of Cervix Anus Symphysis pubis Rectum Fornix Fimbriae Uterine tube Ovary Uterus Urinary bladder Urethra Glans of Clitoris Labium minus Labium majus (a) Rectouterine pouch Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vagina Vaginal orifice
  • 22.4: ORGANS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Anterior (b) Level of section Coccyx Sciatic nerve Femur Ureter Ischium Gluteus maximus m. Rectum Levator ani m. Uterus Urinary bladder Symphysis pubis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Femoral nerve, artery, and vein Inferior gluteal vein and artery
    • Several ligaments hold each ovary in position
    • The largest is called the broad ligament and is attached to the uterine tubes and uterus
    • The suspensory ligament holds the ovary at the upper end
    • The ovarian ligament is a rounded, cord-like thickening of the broad ligament
    Ovarian Attachments
  • OVARIES Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Uterus Left ovary Suspensory ligament of ovary Fimbriae of uterine tube Broad ligament Uterine tube (retracted) Ovarian ligament Round ligament of uterus
    • Like the testes in the male fetus, the ovaries develop from masses of tissue posterior to the parietal peritoneum, near the developing kidney
    • They descend to locations just inferior to the pelvic brim where they remain attached to the lateral pelvic wall
    Ovarian Descent
    • The tissues of an ovary can be divided into an inner medulla and an outer cortex
      • The ovarian medulla is mostly composed of loose connective tissue and contains many blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers
      • The ovarian cortex consists of more compact tissue and has a granular appearance due to tiny masses of cells called ovarian follicles
    Ovary Structure
    • During prenatal development of a female, oogonia divide by mitosis to produce more oogonia
    • The oogonia develop into primary oocytes
    • Each primary oocyte is closely surrounded by a layer of flattened epithelial cells called follicular cells, forming a primordial follicle
    Primordial Follicles
    • The process of egg cell formation
    (a) Polar bodies degenerating Primary oocyte Fertilization Zygote 46 chromosomes, 23 from sperm cell and 23 from egg cell (each chromatid now an independent chromosome) Second meiotic division Secondary oocyte Second polar body degenerating Sperm nucleus Sperm cell (23 chromosomes) (23 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) First polar body degenerating Second meiotic division First polar body (23 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) (46 chromosomes, each with 2 chromatids) First meiotic division (b) Courtesy of R.J. Blandau Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Oogenesis
    • At puberty, the anterior pituitary gland secretes increased amounts of FSH, and the ovaries enlarge in response
    • With each reproductive cycle, some of the primordial follicles mature
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Primary oocyte Primordial follicles Maturing follicle © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer (a) (b) Theca externa Theca interna Granulosa cells Fluid-filled antrum Corona radiata Zona pellucida Secondary oocyte Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer Follicle Maturation
    • As many as twenty primary follicles may begin maturing at any one time
    • One dominant follicle usually out-grows the others
    • Typically only the dominant follicle fully develops and the others degenerate
    Follicle Maturation
    • As a follicle matures, its primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I, giving rise to a secondary oocyte and a first polar body
    • The process of ovulation releases these cells from the follicle
    Uterine tube Ovary Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Secondary oocyte © 2007 Landrum B. Shettles Ovulation
  • Ovary Follicular fluid Time Time Ovulation Corpus luteum Uterine tube Secondary oocyte Zona pellucida Corona radiata First polar body Primary oocyte Follicular cells Primordial follicle Corpus albicans Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Time Time Time Primary follicle Ovulation
  • External os of Cervix Anus Symphysis pubis Rectum Fornix Fimbriae Uterine tube Ovary Uterus Urinary bladder Urethra Glans of Clitoris Labium minus Labium majus (a) Rectouterine pouch Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vagina Vaginal orifice Female Internal Accessory Organs
    • The female internal accessory organs include:
      • Uterine tubes
      • Uterus
      • Vagina
  • Infundibulum Fimbriae Secondary oocyte Follicle Endometrium Myometrium Perimetrium Cervix Cervical orifice Uterine tube Body of uterus Ovary Ureter Ovarian ligament Suspensory ligament with ovarian blood vessels and nerves Round ligament Broad ligament Uterine blood vessels Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vagina Uterine Tubes
  • (a) (b) Cilia Cytoplasm Nucleus Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer; b: © Mediscan/Visuals Unlimited Connective tissue layer Basement membrane Uterine Tubes
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lumen Endometrium Myometrium Perimetrium © McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Inc./Carol D. Jacobson, PhD., Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy, Iowa State University Uterine Wall
    • A fibromuscular tube that conveys uterine secretions, receives the penis during intercourse, and provides an open channel for offspring
    Glans of Clitoris Mons pubis Vestibule Perineum Anus Urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Labium majus Labium minus Opening of vestibular gland Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vagina
  • Glans of Clitoris Mons pubis Vestibule Perineum Anus Urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Labium majus Labium minus Opening of vestibular gland Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Female External Reproductive Organs
    • The female external reproductive organs surround the openings of the urethra and vagina and is known as the vulva, and include:
      • Labia majora
      • Labia minora
      • Clitoris
      • Vestibular glands
    • Rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin
    • Enclose and protect the other external reproductive parts
    • Ends form a rounded elevation over the symphysis pubis
    Clitoris Mons pubis V estibule Perineum Anus Urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Labium majus Labium minus Opening of vestibular gland Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Labia Majora
    • Flattened, longitudinal folds between the labia majora
    • Well supplied with blood vessels
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Labia Minora Clitoris Mons pubis V estibule Perineum Anus Urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Labium majus Labium minus Opening of vestibular gland
    • Glans of clitoris is the small projection at the anterior end of the vulva
    • Analogous to the male penis
    • Composed of two columns of erectile tissue
    • Root is attached to the sides of the pubic arch
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Clitoris Clitoris Mons pubis V estibule Perineum Anus Urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Labium majus Labium minus Opening of vestibular gland
    • Space between the labia minora that encloses the vaginal and the urethral openings
    • The vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulation
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vestibule Clitoris Mons pubis V estibule Perineum Anus Urethral orifice Vaginal orifice Labium majus Labium minus Opening of vestibular gland
  • Sexual stimulation Sexual stimulation intensifies Arteries in the erectile tissue dilate; vagina expands and elongates Engorged and swollen vagina increases friction from movement of the penis Parasympathetic nerve impulses from the sacral portion of the spinal cord Orgasm-—rhythmic contraction of muscles of the perineum; muscular walls of uterus and uterine tubes contract Vestibular glands secrete mucus to lubricate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Erection, Orgasm, Ejaculation
  • 22.5: HORMONAL CONTROL OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS
    • Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the ovaries control development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics, maturation of female sex cells, and changes during the monthly reproductive cycle
  • FEMALE SEX HORMONES Bloodstream Hypothalamus Ovaries Estrogens Breasts develop Gonadotropins GnRH + + – Stimulation Inhibition Increased vascularization of the skin Accessory reproductive organs enlarge Stimulates endometrium of uterus to thicken Increased deposition of adipose tissue in breasts, thighs, and buttocks Estrogens inhibit oversecretion of gonadotropins Release into bloodstream FSH, LH (gonadotropins) Pituitary gland Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Days Days Menstruation Menstruation Proliferative phase Secretory phase 1 LH Estrogens Estrogens Progesterone Progesterone Follicular phase Luteal phase Ovulation Ovarian events Thickness of endometrium FSH FSH LH Ovarian activity Uterine activity 7 1 3 5 9 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 21 28 1 3 7 14 Plasma hormonal concentration Plasma hormonal concentration Developing follicle Mature follicle Early corpus luteum Regressive corpus luteum Corpus albicans 11
  • MENOPAUSE
    • Usually occurs in the late 40s or the early 50s
    • The reproductive cycles stop
    • The ovaries no longer produce as much estrogens and progesterone as previously
    • Some female secondary sex characteristics may disappear
    • It may produce hot flashes and fatigue
    • Migraine headaches, backaches and fatigue is possible
    • Hormone therapy may prevent effects on bone tissue
  • 22.3 CLINICAL APPLICATION Female Infertility
  • 22.6: MAMMARY GLANDS
    • The mammary glands are accessory organs of the female reproductive system specialized to secrete milk following pregnancy
  • LOCATION OF THE GLANDS
    • Located in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thorax within the breasts
    • Composed of lobes
    • Estrogens stimulate breast development in females
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nipple Areola Ampulla Rib Clavicle (a) (b) Adipose tissue Intercostal muscles Pectoralis major m. Pectoralis minor m. Alveolar glands Lactiferous duct Alveolar duct Alveolar duct
  • STRUCTURE OF THE GLANDS
    • A mammary gland is composed of fifteen to twenty irregularly shaped lobes
    • Each lobe contains glands (alveolar glands), drained by alveolar ducts, which drain into a lactiferous duct that leads to the nipple and opens to the outside
    • Dense strands of connective tissue form suspensory ligaments that support the breast
  • DEVELOPMENT OF THE BREASTS
    • The mammary glands of males and females are similar
    • As puberty is reached, ovarian hormones stimulate development of the glands in females
  • 22.4 CLINICAL APPLICATION Treating Breast Cancer
  • 22.7: BIRTH CONTROL
    • Birth control is the voluntary regulation of the number of offspring produced and the time they are conceived
    • This control requires a method of contraception
  • COITUS INTERRUPTUS
    • The practice of withdrawing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation, preventing entry of sperm cells into the female reproductive tract
  • RHYTHM METHOD
    • Requires abstinence from sexual intercourse two days before and one day after ovulation
  • MECHANICAL BARRIERS
    • Mechanical barriers include the use of a:
      • Condom
      • Diaphragm
      • Cervical cap
      • Spermicidal foams or jellies
  • CHEMICAL BARRIERS
    • Chemical barriers include:
      • Spermicides
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a,b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer; c: © Photolink/Getty Images; d: © Don Farrall/Getty Images; e: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
  • COMBINED HORMONE CONTRACEPTIVES
    • These deliver estrogen and progesterone to prevent pregnancy
    • Various methods are used to deliver hormones including:
      • A flexible chemical ring (Nuvaring)
      • A plastic patch (Ortho Evra)
      • The pill orally
      • (Similar to these combined hormones is the “minipill” which contains only progestin)
  • INJECTABLE CONTRACEPTION
    • An intramuscular injection of Depo-Provera protects against pregnancy for three months by preventing maturation and release of a secondary oocyte
  • INTRAUTERINE DEVICES
    • An intrauterine device, or IUD, is a small, solid object that a physician places in the uterine cavity
    • An IUD interferes with implantation of a blastocyst
  • SURGICAL METHODS Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ovary Uterus Cervix V agina Path of sperm Path of egg Scrotum (a) (b) Cut and ligated uterine tubes Cut and ligated ductus (vas) deferens
  • 22.8: SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
    • These are silent infections
    • Most are bacterial and can be cured
    • Herpes, warts, and AIDS are viral and cannot be cured
    • Many cause infertility
    • AIDS causes death
    • Symptoms of STDs include:
      • Burning sensation during urination
      • Pain in the lower abdomen
      • Fever or swollen glands
      • Discharge from the vagina or the penis
      • Pain, itch, or inflammation in the genital or the anal area
      • Sores, blisters, bumps or rashes
      • Itchy, runny eyes
  • PAGE 868 Integumentary System Skeletal System Muscular System Nervous System Endocrine System Urinary System Respiratory System Digestive System L ymphatic System Cardiovascular System Skin sensory receptors play a role in sexual pleasure. Blood pressure is necessary for the normal function of erectile tissue in the male and female. Special mechanisms inhibit the female immune system from attacking sperm as foreign invaders. Bones can be a temporary source of calcium during lactation. Proper nutrition is essential for the formation of normal gametes. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles all play a role in reproductive processes and sexual activity . Breathing provides oxygen that assists in the production of ATP needed for egg and sperm development. The nervous system plays a major role in sexual activity and sexual pleasure. Male urinary and reproductive systems share common structures. Kidneys help compensate for fluid loss from the reproductive systems. Hormones control the production of eggs in the female and sperm in the male. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • Important Points in Chapter 22: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 22.1: Introduction
    • State the general functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
    • Outline the process of meiosis and explain how it mixes up parental genes.
    • 22.2: Organs of the Male Reproductive System
    • Describe the function(s) of each part of the male reproductive system.
    • Outline the process of spermatogenesis.
    • Describe semen production and exit from the body.
    • Describe the structure of the penis, and explain how its parts produce an erection.
  • Important Points in Chapter 22 : Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 22.3: Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions
    • Explain how hormones control the activities of the male reproductive organs and the development of male secondary sex characteristics.
    • 22.4: Organs of the Female Reproductive System
    • Describe the function(s) of each part of the female reproductive system.
    • Outline the process of oogenesis.
    • 22.5: Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions
    • Explain how hormones control the activities of the female reproductive organs and the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
  • Important Points in Chapter 22 : Outcomes to be Assessed
    • Describe the major events that occur during a reproductive cycle.
    • 22.6: Mammary Glands
    • Review the structure of the mammary glands.
    • 22.7: Birth Control
    • Describe several methods of birth control, including the relative effectiveness of each method.
    • 22.8: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • List the general symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases.