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Chapt09 Holes Lecture Animation[1]

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  • 1. Edited by Brenda Holmes MSN/Ed, RN Associate Professor BIOL 2064: Anatomy & Physiology 1 Chapter 9 South Arkansas Community College
  • 2. Chapter 9 Muscular System Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 3. 9.1: Introduction Three (3) Types of Muscle Tissues
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • Usually attached to bones
      • Under conscious control
      • Somatic
      • Striated
    • Smooth Muscle
      • Walls of most viscera, blood vessels and skin
      • Not under conscious control
      • Autonomic
      • Not striated
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Wall of heart
      • Not under conscious control
      • Autonomic
      • Striated
  • 4. 9.2: Structure of Skeletal Muscle
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • Organ of the muscular system
        • Skeletal muscle tissue
        • Nervous tissue
        • Blood
        • Connective tissues
      • Fascia
      • Tendons
      • Aponeuroses
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Aponeuroses Skeletal muscles Tendons
  • 5. Connective Tissue Coverings
    • Muscle coverings:
      • Epimysium
      • Perimysium
      • Endomysium
    Bone Muscle Epimysium Perimysium Endomysium Fascicle Fascicles Muscle fibers (cells) Myofibrils Thick and thin filaments Blood vessel Muscle fiber Myofibril Sarcolemma Nucleus Filaments Tendon Fascia (covering muscle) Axon of motor neuron Sarcoplasmic reticulum Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Muscle organ
    • Fascicles
    • Muscle cells or fibers
    • Myofibrils
    • Thick and thin myofilaments
      • Actin and myosin proteins
      • Titin is an elastic myofilament
    5
  • 6. Skeletal Muscle Fibers
    • Sarcolemma
    • Sacroplasm
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
    • Transverse (‘T’) tubule
    • Triad
      • Cisternae of SR
      • T tubule
    • Myofibril
    • Actin myofilaments
    • Myosin myofilaments
    • Sarcomere
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nucleus Mitochondria Sarcolemma Sarcoplasm Nucleus Myofibrils Sarcoplasmic reticulum Openings into transverse tubules Thick and thin filaments Cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum Transverse tubule Triad
  • 7. 9.3: Skeletal Muscle Contraction
    • Movement within the myofilaments
    • I band (thin)
    • A band (thick and thin)
    • H zone (thick)
    • Z line (or disc)
    • M line
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Myofibril Sarcomere (a) Skeletal muscle fiber Z line H zone M line I band I band (b) Z line Sarcoplasmic reticulum Thick (myosin) filaments Thin (actin) filaments A band A band
  • 8. Myofilaments
    • Thick myofilaments
      • Composed of myosin protein
      • Form the cross-bridges
    • Thin myofilaments
      • Composed of actin protein
      • Associated with troponin and tropomyosin proteins
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cross-bridges Actin molecule Thin filament Myosin molecule Thick filament Troponin Tropomyosin
  • 9. Neuromuscular Junction
    • Also known as NMJ or myoneural junction
    • Site where an axon and muscle fiber meet
    • Parts to know:
      • Motor neuron
      • Motor end plate
      • Synapse
      • Synaptic cleft
      • Synaptic vesicles
      • Neurotransmitters
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Axon branches Mitochondria Acetylcholine (a) Synaptic vesicles Synaptic cleft Folded sarcolemma Motor end plate Myofibril of muscle fiber Muscle fiber nucleus Motor neuron axon 9
  • 10. Animation: Function of the Neuromuscular Junction Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  • 11. Motor Unit
    • Single motor neuron
    • All muscle fibers controlled by motor neuron
    • As few as four fibers
    • As many as 1000’s of
    • muscle fibers
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Motor neuron of motor unit 2 Motor neuron of motor unit 1 Skeletal muscle fibers Branches of motor neuron axon
  • 12. Stimulus for Contraction
    • Acetylcholine (ACh)
    • Nerve impulse causes release of ACh from synaptic vesicles
    • ACh binds to ACh receptors on motor end plate
    • Generates a muscle impulse
    • Muscle impulse eventually reaches the SR and the cisternae
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Axon branches Mitochondria Acetylcholine (a) Synaptic vesicles Synaptic cleft Folded sarcolemma Motor end plate Myofibril of muscle fiber Muscle fiber nucleus Motor neuron axon 11
  • 13. 9.1 Clinical Application Myasthenia Gravis
  • 14. Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • Muscle impulses cause SR to release calcium ions into cytosol
    • Calcium binds to troponin to change its shape
    • The position of tropomyosin is altered
    • Binding sites on actin are now exposed
    • Actin and myosin molecules bind via myosin cross-bridges
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Actin monomers Release of Ca +2 from sarcoplasmic reticulum exposes binding sites on actin: Muscle contraction Muscle relaxation Active transport of Ca +2 into sarcoplasmic reticulum, which requires ATP, makes myosin binding sites unavailable. Ca +2 binds to troponin Tropomyosin pulled aside ATP Contraction cycle P ADP + P ADP + P ADP + Ca +2 Ca +2 P ADP + P ADP + P ADP + P ADP P ADP ATP ATP ATP P ADP + P ADP + ATP Tropomyosin Troponin Thin filament Thick filament Ca +2 Binding sites on actin exposed 1 Relaxed muscle Ca +2 P ADP + Ca +2 2 Exposed binding sites on actin molecules allow the muscle contraction cycle to occur 6 ATP splits, which provides power to “ cock” the myosin cross-bridges 3 Cross-bridges bind actin to myosin 5 New ATP binds to myosin, releasing linkages 4 Cross-bridges pull thin filament (power stroke), ADP and P released from myosin 13
  • 15. The Sliding Filament Model of Muscle Contraction
    • When sarcromeres shorten, thick and thin filaments slide past one another
    • H zones and I bands narrow
    • Z lines move closer together
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Z line (a) Z line Sarcomere Contracting Fully contracted Relaxed 2 3 1 A band Thin filaments Thick filaments
  • 16. Cross Bridge Cycling
    • Myosin cross-bridge attaches to actin binding site
    • Myosin cross-bridge pulls thin filament
    • ADP and phosphate released from myosin
    • New ATP binds to myosin
    • Linkage between actin and myosin cross-bridge break
    • ATP splits
    • Myosin cross-bridge goes back to original position
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Actin monomers Release of Ca +2 from sarcoplasmic reticulum exposes binding sites on actin: Muscle contraction Muscle relaxation Active transport of Ca +2 into sarcoplasmic reticulum, which requires ATP, makes myosin binding sites unavailable. Ca +2 binds to troponin Tropomyosin pulled aside ATP Contraction cycle P ADP + P ADP + P ADP + Ca +2 Ca +2 P ADP + P ADP + P ADP + P ADP P ADP ATP ATP ATP P ADP + P ADP + ATP Tropomyosin Troponin Thin filament Thick filament Ca +2 Binding sites on actin exposed 1 Relaxed muscle Ca +2 P ADP + Ca +2 2 Exposed binding sites on actin molecules allow the muscle contraction cycle to occur 6 ATP splits, which provides power to “ cock” the myosin cross-bridges 3 Cross-bridges bind actin to myosin 5 New ATP binds to myosin, releasing linkages 4 Cross-bridges pull thin filament (power stroke), ADP and P released from myosin
  • 17. Animation: The Cross-Bridge Cycle Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  • 18. Animation: Breakdown of ATP and Cross-Bridge Movement Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  • 19. Relaxation
    • Acetylcholinesterase – rapidly decomposes Ach remaining in the synapse
    • Muscle impulse stops
    • Stimulus to sarcolemma and muscle fiber membrane ceases
    • Calcium moves back into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
    • Myosin and actin binding prevented
    • Muscle fiber relaxes
  • 20. Animation: Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  • 21. Energy Sources for Contraction
    • Creatine phosphate – stores energy that quickly converts ADP to ATP
    1 ) Creatine phosphate and 2 ) Cellular respiration Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ADP ATP ATP P When cellular Creatine Creatine ADP ATP ATP P is low Creatine Creatine When cellular is low 17
  • 22. Animation: Energy Sources for Prolonged Exercise Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer. Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  • 23. Oxygen Supply and Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular respiration:
      • Anaerobic Phase
        • Glycolysis
        • Occurs in cytoplasm
        • Produces little ATP
    • Aerobic Phase
      • Citric acid cycle
      • Electron transport system
      • Occurs in the mitochondria
      • Produces most ATP
      • Myoglobin stores extra oxygen
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ATP 2 Energy Lactic acid Glucose ATP Synthesis of 34 CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy Pyruvic acid Heat 2 1 Mitochondria Cytosol In the absence of sufficient oxygen, glycolysis leads to lactic acid accumulation. Oxygen carried from the lungs by hemoglobin in red blood cells is stored in muscle cells by myoglobin and is available to support aerobic respiration. Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain
  • 24. Oxygen Debt
    • Oxygen not available
    • Glycolysis continues
    • Pyruvic acid converted to lactic acid
    • Liver converts lactic acid to glucose
    • Oxygen debt – amount of oxygen needed by liver cells to use the accumulated lactic acid to produce glucose
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ATP Glucose Glycogen Lactic acid Pyruvic acid Energy to synthesize Energy from Glycolysis and lactic acid formation (in muscle) Synthesis of glucose from lactic acid (in liver) ATP
  • 25. Muscle Fatigue
    • Inability to contract muscle
    • Commonly caused from:
      • Decreased blood flow
      • Ion imbalances across the sarcolemma
      • Accumulation of lactic acid
    • Cramp – sustained, involuntary muscle contraction
    • Physiological vs. psychological fatigue
  • 26. Heat Production
    • By-product of cellular respiration
    • Muscle cells are major source of body heat
    • Blood transports heat throughout body core
  • 27. 9.4: Muscular Responses
    • Muscle contraction can be observed by removing a single skeletal muscle fiber and connecting it to a device that senses and records changes in the overall length of the muscle fiber.
  • 28. Threshold Stimulus
    • Threshold Stimulus
      • Minimal strength required to cause contraction
  • 29. Recording of a Muscle Contraction
    • Recording a Muscle Contraction
      • Twitch
        • Latent period
        • Period of contraction
        • Period of relaxation
      • Refractory period
      • All-or-none response
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Force of contraction Time Latent period Period of contraction Period of relaxation Time of stimulation
  • 30. Length-Tension Relationship Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Overly shortened (c) Overly stretched (a) Optimal length Muscle fiber length Force
  • 31. Animation: Length-Tension Relation in Skeletal Muscle Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  • 32. Summation
      • Process by which individual twitches combine
      • Produces sustained contractions
      • Can lead to tetanic contractions
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Time (c) (b) Force of contraction (a) Force of contraction Force of contraction
  • 33. Recruitment of Motor Units
    • Recruitment - increase in the number of motor units activated
    • Whole muscle composed of many motor units
    • More precise movements are produced with fewer muscle fibers within a motor unit
    • As intensity of stimulation increases, recruitment of motor units continues until all motor units are activated
  • 34. Sustained Contractions
    • Smaller motor units (smaller diameter axons) - recruited first
    • Larger motor units (larger diameter axons) - recruited later
    • Produce smooth movements
    • Muscle tone – continuous state of partial contraction
  • 35. Types of Contractions
    • Isotonic – muscle contracts and changes length
    • Concentric – shortening contraction
    • Eccentric – lengthening contraction
    • Isometric – muscle contracts but does not change length
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Movement Movement (a) Muscle contracts with force greater than resistance and shortens (concentric contraction) (c) Muscle contracts but does not change length (isometric contraction) (b) Muscle contracts with force less than resistance and lengthens (eccentric contraction) No movement 29
  • 36. Fast Twitch and Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers
    • Slow-twitch fibers (Type I)
      • Always oxidative
      • Resistant to fatigue
      • Red fibers
      • Most myoglobin
      • Good blood supply
    • Fast-twitch glycolytic fibers (Type IIa)
      • White fibers (less myoglobin)
      • Poorer blood supply
      • Susceptible to fatigue
    • Fast-twitch fatigue-resistant fibers (Type IIb)
      • Intermediate fibers
      • Oxidative
      • Intermediate amount of myoglobin
      • Pink to red in color
      • Resistant to fatigue
  • 37. 9.2 Clinical Application Use and Disuse of Skeletal Muscles
  • 38. 9.5: Smooth Muscles
    • Compared to skeletal muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers are:
      • Shorter
      • Single, centrally located nucleus
      • Elongated with tapering ends
      • Myofilaments randomly organized
      • Lack striations
      • Lack transverse tubules
      • Sarcoplasmic reticula (SR) not well developed
  • 39. Smooth Muscle Fibers
    • Visceral Smooth Muscle
      • Single-unit smooth muscle
      • Sheets of muscle fibers
      • Fibers held together by gap junctions
      • Exhibit rhythmicity
      • Exhibit peristalsis
      • Walls of most hollow organs
    • Multi-unit Smooth Muscle
      • Less organized
      • Function as separate units
      • Fibers function separately
      • Iris of eye
      • Walls of blood vessels
  • 40. Smooth Muscle Contraction
    • Resembles skeletal muscle contraction in that:
      • Interaction between actin and myosin
      • Both use calcium and ATP
      • Both are triggered by membrane impulses
    • Different from skeletal muscle contraction in that:
      • Smooth muscle lacks troponin
      • Smooth muscle uses calmodulin
      • Two neurotransmitters affect smooth muscle
        • Acetlycholine (Ach) and norepinephrine (NE)
      • Hormones affect smooth muscle
      • Stretching can trigger smooth muscle contraction
      • Smooth muscle slower to contract and relax
      • Smooth muscle more resistant to fatigue
      • Smooth muscle can change length without changing tautness
  • 41. 9.6: Cardiac Muscle
    • Located only in the heart
    • Muscle fibers joined together by intercalated discs
    • Fibers branch
    • Network of fibers contracts as a unit
    • Self-exciting and rhythmic
    • Longer refractory period than skeletal muscle
  • 42. Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
  • 43. 9.7: Skeletal Muscle Actions
    • Skeletal muscles generate a great variety of body movements.
    • The action of each muscle mostly depends upon the kind of joint it is associated with and the way the muscle is attached on either side of that joint.
  • 44. Body Movement
    • Four Basic Components of Levers:
      • Rigid bar – bones
      • Fulcrum – point on which bar moves; joint
      • Object - moved against resistance; weight
      • Force – supplies energy for movement; muscles
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Resistance Force Force Fulcrum Resistance Fulcrum (a) First-class lever Fulcrum Force Force Resistance Resistance Fulcrum (b) Second-class lever Force Resistance Force Fulcrum (c) Third-class lever Resistance Fulcrum
  • 45. Levers and Movement Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Radius Resistance Resistance Fulcrum Ulna (a) (b) Fulcrum Force Force Forearm movement Biceps brachii contracting muscle Relaxed muscle Triceps brachii contracting muscle Relaxed muscle Movement Movement
  • 46. Origin and Insertion
    • Origin – immovable end
    • Insertion – movable end
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Radius Coracoid process Origins of biceps brachii Tendon of long head Tendon of short head Biceps brachii Insertion of biceps brachii
  • 47. Interaction of Skeletal Muscles
    • Prime mover ( agonist ) – primarily responsible for movement
    • Synergists – assist prime mover
    • Antagonist – resist prime mover’s action and cause movement in the opposite direction of the prime mover
    • Fixators
  • 48. 9.8: Major Skeletal Muscles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Brachioradialis Frontalis Deltoid Brachialis Biceps brachii Gracilis Vastus medialis Gastrocnemius Soleus Trapezius Tibialis anterior External oblique Sartorius Rectus femoris Adductor longus Vastus lateralis Fibularis longus Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus Masseter Orbicularis oris Sternocleido- mastoid Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Rectus abdominis Extensor digitorum longus Tensor fasciae latae
  • 49. Major Skeletal Muscles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Gracilis Rhomboid Infraspinatus Gluteus medius Vastus lateralis Sartorius Soleus Fibularis longus Brachialis Temporalis Occipitalis Semimembranosus Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Teres minor Teres major Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Gastrocnemius Calcaneal tendon Deltoid Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi External oblique Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus
  • 50. Muscles of Facial Expression
  • 51. Muscles of Mastication
  • 52. Muscles of Facial Expression and Mastication Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Epicranial aponeurosis Frontalis Occipitalis Epicranius Masseter Sternocleidomastoid Temporalis Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus major Zygomaticus minor Buccinator Orbicularis oris Platysma Buccinator Medial pterygoid Lateral pterygoid Temporalis (a) (c) (b)
  • 53. Muscles That Move the Head and Vertebral Column
  • 54. Muscles That Move the Head and Vertebral Column Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Iliocostalis lumborum Quadratus lumborum Spinalis thoracis Iliocostalis thoracis Spinalis cervicis Splenius capitis Spinalis capitis Semispinalis capitis Longissimus capitis Semispinalis capitis (cut) Longissimus cervicis Iliocostalis cervicis Longissimus thoracis Splenius capitis (cut)
  • 55. Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle
  • 56. Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Trapezius Deltoid Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Levator scapulae Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Rhomboid major Rhomboid minor (a) (d) (c) (b) Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Latissimus dorsi Trapezius
  • 57. Muscles That Move the Arm
  • 58. Muscles That Move the Arm Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis major External oblique Aponeurosis of external oblique Sternocleidomastoid Pectoralis minor Internal intercostal Serratus anterior Rectus abdominis Internal oblique Transversus abdominis External intercostal Linea alba (band of connective tissue)
  • 59. Muscles That Move the Arm Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Levator scapulae Levator scapulae Supraspinatus Spine of scapula Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major (a) (d) (c) (b) Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Long head of triceps brachii Lateral head of triceps brachii Triceps brachii
  • 60. Muscles That Move the Forearm
  • 61. Muscles That Move the Forearm Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Deltoid Clavicle Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Brachialis Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Brachialis (a) (c) (d) (b) Short head of biceps brachii Long head of biceps brachii Medial border of scapula Biceps brachii (short and long heads) Trapezius
  • 62. Muscles That Move the Forearm Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Biceps brachii Brachialis Supinator Pronator teres Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor carpi ulnaris Pronator quadratus Flexor retinaculum Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Pronator teres Pronator quadratus (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Flexor digitorum superficialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Flexor digitorum superficialis
  • 63. Cross Section of the Forearm Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Abductor pollicis longus m. Flexor pollicis longus m. Radius Pronator teres m. Brachioradialis m. Radial n. Radial a. Flexor carpi radialis m. Extensor digitorum m. Ulna Ulnar n. Ulnar a. Flexor carpi ulnaris m. Median n. Palmaris longus m. Anterior Plane of section Extensor carpi radialis brevis m. Extensor carpi radialis longus m. Extensor carpi ulnaris m. Extensor pollicis longus m. Flexor digitorum profundus m. Flexor digitorum superficialis m.
  • 64. Muscles That Move the Hand
    • Flexors (anterior) and extensors (posterior)
  • 65. Muscles That Move the Hand Triceps brachii Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Extensor retinaculum Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longusand brevis (a) (b) (c) Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 66. Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
  • 67. Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) (b) (c) (d) External oblique Rectus abdominis Internal oblique Transversus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominis (e) Internal oblique Transversus abdominis External oblique Linea alba Rectus abdominis Peritoneum Skin Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 68. Muscles of the Pelvic Outlet
  • 69. Muscles of Pelvic Outlet Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Scrotum Ischiocavernosus Clitoris Urethral orifice Anus Bulbospongiosus Levator ani Gluteus maximus Penis Anus Coccyx Rectum Urethra Symphysis pubis Coccygeus Urogenital diaphragm Levator ani (b) (a) (c) Vagina External anal sphincter Superficial transversus perinei Vaginal orifice
  • 70. Muscles That Move the Thigh
  • 71. Muscles That Move the Thigh Psoas major Psoas minor Iliacus Rectus femoris Sartorius Sartorius Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Patella Adductor longus Pectineus Adductor magnus Gracilis Vastus medialis Gracilis Adductor brevis Adductor longus Adductor magnus Iliacus Psoas major Psoas minor (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Tensor fasciae latae Quadriceps femoris tendon (patellar tendon) Patellar ligament Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 72. Muscles That Move the Thigh Gluteus medius Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Iliotibial tract (band) Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae Gluteus minimus Piriformis (a) (b) (c) (d) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 73. Muscles That Move the Leg
  • 74. Muscles That Move the Leg Adductor magnus Gracilis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Semimembranosus Sartorius Gastrocnemius Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris Semitendinosus (a) (b) (c) Vastus lateralis covered by fascia Biceps femoris (short head) Biceps femoris (long head) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 75. Muscles That Move the Leg Gracilis m. Semimembranosus m. Semitendinosus m. Sartorius m. Vastus medialis m. Rectus femoris m. Adipose tissue Skin Adductor magnus m. Adductor longus m. Great saphenousv. Femoralv . and a. Vastus intermedius m. Shaft of femur Sciatic n. Vastus lateralis m. Lateral Medial Anterior Long head of biceps femoris m. Short head of biceps femoris m. Plane of section Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 76. Muscles That Move the Leg Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Gracilis Sartorius Gastrocnemius: Medial head Lateral head Soleus Calcaneal tendon Flexor retinaculum Calcaneus Biceps femoris Plantaris Soleus Gastrocnemius (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Flexor digitorum longus Fibular retinacula Fibularis brevis Fibularis longus Iliotibial tract (band) Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior
  • 77. Muscles That Move the Foot
  • 78. Muscles That Move the Foot Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis Fibularis tertius Patella Patellar ligament Gastrocnemius Soleus Extensor retinacula (a) (b) (c) (d) Tibia Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum longus Tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis longus
  • 79. Muscles That Move the Foot Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Biceps femoris Gastrocnemius Soleus Fibularis longus Fibularis longus Calcaneal tendon Head of fibula Fibularis tertius Fibularis brevis Extensor retinacula Fibularis brevis (a) (b) (c) Vastus lateralis Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Fibular retinacula
  • 80. 9.3 Clinical Application TMJ Syndrome
  • 81. 9.9: Lifespan Changes
    • Myoglobin, ATP, and creatine phosphate decline
    • By age 80, half of muscle mass has atrophied
    • Adipose cells and connective tissues replace muscle tissue
    • Exercise helps to maintain muscle mass and function
  • 82. Important Points in Chapter 9: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 9.1: Introduction
    • List various outcomes of muscle action.
    • 9.2: Structure of a Skeletal Muscle
    • Describe how connective tissue is a part of the structure of a skeletal muscle.
    • Name the major parts of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe the functions of each.
    • 9.3: Skeletal Muscle Contraction
    • Describe the neural control of skeletal muscle contraction.
    • Identify the major events that occur during skeletal muscle fiber contraction.
  • 83. Important Points in Chapter 9: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • List the energy sources for skeletal muscle fiber contraction.
    • Describe how a muscle may become fatigued.
    • Describe oxygen debt.
    • 9.4: Muscular Responses
    • Distinguish between fast and slow twitch muscle fibers.
    • Distinguish between a twitch and a sustained contraction.
    • Describe how exercise affects skeletal muscles.
    • Explain how various types of muscular contractions produce body movements and help maintain posture.
  • 84. Important Points in Chapter 9: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 9.5: Smooth Muscle
    • Distinguish between the structures and functions of multiunit smooth muscle and visceral smooth muscle.
    • Compare the contraction mechanisms of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers.
    • 9.6: Cardiac Muscle
    • Compare the contraction mechanisms of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers.
    • 9.7: Skeletal Muscle Actions
    • Explain how the attachments, locations, and interactions of skeletal muscles make possible certain movements.
  • 85. Important Points in Chapter 9: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 9.8: Major Skeletal Muscles
    • Identify and locate the skeletal muscles of each body region and describe the action (s) of each muscle.
  • 86. Quiz 9 Complete Quiz 9 now! Read Chapter 10.

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