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Chapt06 Holes Lecture Animation[1] Chapt06 Holes Lecture Animation[1] Presentation Transcript

  • Edited by Brenda Holmes MSN/Ed, RN Associate Professor South Arkansas Community College
  • Chapter 6 Integumentary System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Two or more kinds of tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions constitutes an organ .
    • The skin and its various structures make up the integumentary system .
    View slide
    • Composed of several tissue types
    • Maintains homeostasis
    • Protective covering
    • Retards water loss
    • Regulates body temperature
    • Houses sensory receptors
    • Contains immune system cells
    • Synthesizes chemicals
    • Excretes small amounts of wastes
    View slide
    • Help produce Vitamin D needed for normal bone and tooth development
    • Some cells (keratinocytes) produce substances that simulate development of some white blood cells
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous layer
      • Aka hypodermis
      • Beneath dermis
      • Some also call it the superficial fascia
      • Some consider it not part of the skin
    Stratified squamous epithelium Dense irregular connective tissue Adipose tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
    • Lacks blood vessels
    • Keratinized
    • Thickest on palms and soles (0.8-1.4mm)
    • Melanocytes provide melanin
    • Rests on basement membrane
    • Stratified squamous epithelia
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © Victor Eroschenko (a) Hair shaft Epidermis Hair follicle (b) Sebaceous gland Dermis Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct Subcutaneous layer T Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscle
    • There are five (5) layers of the epidermis:
      • Stratum corneum
      • Stratum lucidum
      • Stratum granulosum
      • Stratum spinosum
      • Stratum basale
    Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale Basement membrane Dermis Dermal papilla (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
    • Genetic Factors
      • Varying amounts of melanin
      • Varying size of melanin granules
      • Albinos lack melanin
    • Environmental Factors
      • Sunlight
      • UV light from sunlamps
      • X-rays
      • Darkens melanin
    • Physiological Factors
      • Dilation of dermal blood vessels
      • Constriction of dermal blood vessels
      • Accumulation of carotene
      • Jaundice
    • Heredity and environment determine skin color
  • Tanning and Skin Cancer
    • Contains dermal papillae
    • Binds epidermis to underlying tissues
    • Irregular dense connective tissue
    • On average 1.0-2.0mm thick
    • Muscle cells
    • Nerve cell processes
    • Specialized sensory receptors
    • Blood vessels
    • Hair follicles
    • Glands
    (a) Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct SubcutaneousSubcutaneous layer T actile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Papillary layer
      • Thin
      • Superficial
      • Dermal papillae here
    • Reticular layer
      • 80% of dermis
      • Cleavage, tension or Langer’s lines are here
    • There are actually two (2) layers to the dermis:
    (a) Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct SubcutaneousSubcutaneous layer T actile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Aka hypodermis
    • Loose connective tissue and …
    • Adipose tissue are present
    • Insulates
    • Major blood vessels present
    (a) Sweat Epidermis Dermis Hair shaft Sweat gland pore Capillary Stratum corneum Stratum basale Dermal papilla Arrector pili muscle Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle Basement membrane Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Sweat gland Nerve cell process Adipose tissue Blood vessels Muscle layer Sweat gland duct SubcutaneousSubcutaneous layer T actile (Meissner’s) corpuscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Accessory structures of the skin originate from the epidermis and include:
      • Hair follicles
      • Nails
      • Skin glands
    • Epidermal cells
    • Tube-like depression
    • Extends into dermis
    • Three (3) parts:
      • Hair root
    • Hair shaft
    • Hair papilla
    • Dead epidermal cells
    • Melanin
    • Arrector pili muscle
    (a) Hair shaft Pore Hair root (keratinized cells) Arrector pili muscle Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Region of cell division Hair papilla Eccrine sweat gland DermalDermal blood vessels Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Protective coverings
    • Three (3) parts:
      • Nail plate
    • Nail bed
    • Lunula
    Nail bed Nail plate Lunula Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • Hair Loss
    • Usually associated with hair follicles
    • Holocrine glands
    • Secrete sebum (oil)
    • Absent on palms and soles
    Hair Sebaceous gland Hair follicle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Per H. Kjeldsen
    • Aka sudoriferous glands
    • Widespread in skin
    • Originates in deeper dermis
    • or hypodermis
    • Eccrine glands
    • Apocrine glands
    • Ceruminous glands
    • Mammary glands
    Dermal papilla Sebaceous gland Duct Hair shaft Hair follicle Eccrine sweat gland Apocrine sweat gland Pore Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • Acne
    • Regulation of body temperature is vitally important because even slight shifts can disrupt metabolic reactions.
  • If body temperature continues to drop, control center signals muscles to contract involuntarily. too high too low Normal body temperature 37°C (98.6°F) Control center Hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. Control center Hypothalamus detects the deviation from the set point and signals effector organs. Stimulus Body temperature rises above normal. Effectors Dermal blood vessels dilate and sweat glands secrete. Response Body heat is lost to surroundings, temperature drops toward normal. Effectors Dermal blood vessels constrict and sweat glands remain inactive. Effectors Dermal blood vessels constrict and sweat glands remain inactive. Response Body heat is conserved, temperature rises toward normal. Stimulus Body temperature drops below normal. Receptors Thermoreceptors send signals to the control center. Receptors Thermoreceptors send signals to the control center. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • Heat is a product of cellular metabolism
      • The most active body cells are the heat producers and include:
        • Skeletal muscle
        • Cardiac muscle
        • Cells of certain glands such as the liver
    • The primary means of heat loss is radiation
      • Also there is conduction, convection and evaporation
    • Hyperthermia – abnormally high body temperature
    • Hypothermia – abnormally low body temperature
  • Elevated Body Temperature
    • Inflammation is a normal response to injury or stress.
    • Blood vessels in affected tissues dilate and become more permeable, allowing fluids to leak into the damaged tissues.
    • Inflammed skin may become:
      • Reddened
      • Swollen
      • Warm
      • Painful
  • (a) (b) (f) (g) (c) (d) (e) Scar tissue Fibroblasts Scar tissue Blood cells Site of injury Scab Blood clot Scab Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    • First degree burn – superficial, partial-thickness
    • Second degree burn – deep, partial-thickness
    • Third degree burn – full-thickness
      • Autograft
      • Homograft
      • Various skin substitutes
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior trunk 18% Posterior trunk 18% Anterior upper extremities 9% Posterior upper extremities 9% Posterior lower extremities 18% Perineum 1% Anterior and posterior upper extremities 18% Anterior and posterior lower extremities 36% 100% Anterior and posterior trunk 36% Anterior and posterior head and neck 9% Anterior head and neck 4 1 / 2 % Posterior head and neck 4 1 / 2 % Anterior lower extremities 18% 9% 9% 9% 9% 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 % 4 1 / 2 %
  • Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    • Skin becomes scaly
    • Age spots appear
    • Epidermis thins
    • Dermis becomes reduced
    • Loss of fat
    • Wrinkling
    • Sagging
    • Sebaceous glands secrete less oil
    • Melanin production slows
    • Hair thins
    • Number of hair follicles decreases
    • Nail growth becomes impaired
    • Sensory receptors decline
    • Body temperature unable to be controlled
    • Diminished ability to activate Vitamin D
  • Important Points in Chapter 6: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 6.1: Introduction
    • Define organ, and name the large organ of the integumentary system.
    • 6.2: Skin and Its Tissues
    • List the general functions of the skin.
    • Describe the structure of the layers of skin.
    • Summarize the factors that determine skin color.
    • 6.3: Accessory Structures of the Skin
    • Describe the accessory structures associated with the skin.
    • Explain the functions of each accessory structure of the skin.
  • Important Points in Chapter 6: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 6.4: Regulation of Body Temperature
    • Explain how the skin helps regulate body temperature.
    • 6.5: Healing of Wounds and Burns
    • Describe the events that are part of wound healing.
    • Distinguish among the types of burns, including a description of healing with each type.
    • 6.6: Lifespan Changes
    • Summarize lifespan changes in the integumentary system.
  • Quiz 6 Complete Quiz 6 now! Read Chapter 7.