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Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
Chapt02 Holes Lecture
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  • 1. Edited by Brenda Holmes MSN/Ed, RN BIOL 2064 - 91 Anatomy & Physiology 1 Chapter 2 South Arkansas Community College
  • 2. Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 3. 2.1: Introduction Why study chemistry in an Anatomy and Physiology class? - Body functions depend on cellular functions - Cellular functions result from chemical changes - Biochemistry helps to explain physiological processes
  • 4. 2.2: Structure of Matter Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). It is composed of elements. <ul><li>Elements – composed of chemically identical atoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk elements – required by the body in large amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace elements - required by the body in small amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultratrace elements – required by the body in very minute amounts </li></ul></ul>Atoms – smallest particle of an element
  • 5. Table 2.1 Some Particles of Matter
  • 6. Elements and Atoms <ul><li>All matter is composed of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are the parts of compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultratrace elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The smallest parts of atoms are elements </li></ul>
  • 7. Atomic Structure <ul><li>Atoms - composed of subatomic particles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton – carries a single positive charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron – carries no electrical charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron – carries a single negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central part of atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons move around the nucleus </li></ul></ul>Electron (e – ) Lithium (Li) Proton (p + ) Neutron (n 0 ) Nucleus 0 0 + + 0 + 0 - - - Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 8. Atomic Number and Atomic Weight <ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each element has a unique atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equals the number of electrons in the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in one atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons do not contribute to the weight of the atom </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms with the same atomic numbers but with different atomic weights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen often forms isotopes (O 16 , O 17 , and O 18 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable isotopes are radioactive; they emit energy or atomic fragments </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Molecules and Compounds Molecule – particle formed when two or more atoms chemically combine Compound – particle formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine <ul><li>Molecular formulas – depict the elements present and the number of each atom present in the molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Bonding of Atoms <ul><li>Bonds form when atoms combine with other atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons of an atom occupy regions of space called electron shells which circle the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>For atoms with atomic numbers of 18 or less, the following rules apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second shell can hold up to 8 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third shell can hold up to 8 electrons </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. 2.1 From Science to Technology Radioactive Isotopes Reveal Physiology
  • 13. 2.2 From Science to Technology Ionizing Radiation: From the Cold War to Yucca Mountain
  • 14. Bonding of Atoms <ul><li>Lower shells are filled first </li></ul><ul><li>If the outermost shell is full, the atom is stable </li></ul>Lithium (Li) Helium (He) Hydrogen (H) + - - - 0 0 + + - - - 0 0 + + 0 0 + Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 15. Bonding of Atoms: Ions <ul><li>Ion </li></ul><ul><li>An atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable </li></ul><ul><li>An electrically charged atom </li></ul><ul><li>Cation </li></ul><ul><li>A positively charged ion </li></ul><ul><li>Formed when an atom loses electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Anion </li></ul><ul><li>A negatively charged ion </li></ul><ul><li>Formed when an atom gains electrons </li></ul>11p + 12n 0 Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) (a) Separate atoms If a sodium atom loses an electron to a chlorine atom, the sodium atom becomes a sodium ion (Na + ), and the chlorine atom becomes a chloride ion (Cl – ). 17p + 18n 0
  • 16. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>An attraction between a cation and an anion </li></ul>Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom </li></ul>+ – 11p + 12n 0 Chloride ion (Cl – ) Sodium ion (Na + ) (b) Bonded ions These oppositely charged particles attract electrically and join by an ionic bond. Sodium chloride 17p + 18n 0 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Na + Cl – (c) Salt crystal Ionically bonded substances form arrays such as a crystal of NaCl. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 17. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Formed when atoms share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atoms form single bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen atoms form two bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen atoms form three bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon atoms form four bonds </li></ul>H ― H O = O N ≡ N O = C = O Hydrogen atom + H Hydrogen molecule H 2 Hydrogen atom H + + + + - - - - Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 18. Bonding of Atoms: Structural Formula <ul><li>Structural formulas show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. O O O CO 2 H 2 O O 2 H 2 C H H O O H H
  • 19. Bonding of Atoms: Polar Molecules <ul><li>Polar Molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule with a slightly negative end and a slightly positive end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results when electrons are not shared equally in covalent bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is an important polar molecule </li></ul></ul>Slightly negative end Slightly positive ends (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 20. Hydrogen Bonds <ul><li>Hydrogen Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A weak attraction between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed between water molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for protein and nucleic acid structure </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O Hydrogen bonds (b)
  • 21. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules Reactants are the starting materials of the reaction - the atoms, ions, or molecules Products are substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction NaCl ’ Na + + Cl - Reactant Products
  • 22. Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis Reaction – more complex chemical structure is formed A + B ’ AB Decomposition Reaction – chemical bonds are broken to form a simpler chemical structure AB ’ A + B Exchange Reaction – chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed AB + CD ’ AD + CB Reversible Reaction – the products can change back to the reactants A + B  AB
  • 23. Acids, Bases, and Salts Electrolytes – substances that release ions in water Acids – electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water HCl  H + + Cl - Bases – substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions NaOH  Na + + OH - Salts – electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base NaCl  Na + + Cl - HCl + NaOH  H 2 O + NaCl
  • 24. Acid and Base Concentration pH scale - indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Neutral – pH 7; indicates equal concentrations of H + and OH - Acidic – pH less than 7; indicates a greater concentration of H + Basic or alkaline – pH greater than 7; indicates a greater concentration of OH - OH – concentration increases H + concentration increases Acidic H + Relative Amounts of H + (red) and OH – (blue) Basic OH – 2.0 gastric juice 6.0 corn 7.0 Distilled water 8.0 Egg white 10.5 milk of magnesia 11.5 Household ammonia pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 Basic (alkaline) Neutral Acidic 3.0 apple juice 4.2 tomato juice 5.3 cabbage 6.6 cow’s milk 7.4 Human blood 8.4 Sodium biocarbonate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 25. 2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells <ul><li>Organic v. Inorganic Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Organic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain C and H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually larger than inorganic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve in water and organic liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally do not contain C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually smaller than organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually dissociate in water, forming ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Inorganic Substances <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most abundant compound in living material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of the weight of an adult human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of all body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium for most metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important role in transporting chemicals in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs and transports heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by organelles to release energy from nutrients in order to drive cell’s metabolic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for survival </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Inorganic Substances <ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste product released during metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be removed from the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic salts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant in body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of necessary ions (Na + , Cl - , K + , Ca 2+ , etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play important roles in metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Organic Substances Carbohydrates <ul><li>Provide energy to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Supply materials to build cell structures </li></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain C, H, and O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of H to O close to 2:1 (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides – sucrose, lactose </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides – glycogen, cellulose </li></ul>
  • 29. Organic Substances Carbohydrates (a) Some glucose molecules (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) have a straight chain of carbon atoms. C C C C C C H O H O O O H H O H H H H H O H H H H C H O O H H O H O H H H H C O H C C C O C H (b) More commonly, glucose molecules form a ring structure. O (c) This shape symbolizes the ring structure of a glucose molecule. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 30. Organic Substances Carbohydrates O (a) Monosaccharide O O O (b) Disaccharide O O O (c) Polysaccharide Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 31. Organic Substances Lipids <ul><li>Soluble in organic solvents; insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Fats (triglycerides) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used primarily for energy; most common lipid in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain C, H, and O but less O than carbohydrates (C 57 H 110 O 6 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks are 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids per molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated and unsaturated </li></ul></ul>Glycerol portion Fatty acid portions C O O H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C O O H C C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C O O H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 32. Organic Substances Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks are 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate per molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic and hydrophobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of cell membranes </li></ul></ul>C H C O H C H H Glycerol portion (a) A fat molecule O O Fatty acid Fatty acid Fatty acid H C H H H H C H H N O O Fatty acid Fatty acid O P O C H O – Phosphate portion (b) A phospholipid molecule (the unshaded portion may vary) H C H C H H O (c) Schematic representation of a phospholipid molecule Water-insoluble (hydrophobic) “ tail” Water-soluble (hydrophilic) “ head” Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 33. Organic Substances Lipids <ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four connected rings of carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely distributed in the body, various functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component of cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to synthesize hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul></ul>(a) General structure of a steroid C C C H 2 C H 2 C C H (b) Cholesterol C CH CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 H C HC H 2 H 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 C H 2 C H CH 3 HO C CH 3 CH 2 CH C Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 34. Organic Substances Proteins <ul><li>Structural material </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Protein building blocks are amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids held together with peptide bonds </li></ul>H N H C H C O OH S C H H H H N H C H C O OH C C C H H C H C H H C H C H H N H C H C O OH R (a) General structure of an amino acid. The portion common to all amino acids is within the oval. It includes the amino group (—NH 2 ) and the carboxyl group (—COOH). The &quot;R&quot; group, or the &quot;rest of the molecule,“ is what makes each amino acid unique. (b) Cysteine. Cysteine has an R group that contains sulfur. Phenylalanine. Phenylalanine has a complex R group. Improper metabolism of phenylalanine occurs in the disease phenylketonuria. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 35. Organic Substances Proteins Four Levels of Protein Structure Pleated structure Coiled structure Amino acids N N N N N H H H H H C C C C O O O C C C C C C O C O N N H H C O C C O C H N N H O O C C C C N N N N H H H O C C C O O C C C H O C C C N C N H O C C H O C C N N N N H H H O C O O C C C H O C H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H H R H H R H R H R H H R R H H R R C H C H (b) Secondary structure—The polypeptide chain of a protein molecule is often either pleated or twisted to form a coil. Dotted lines represent hydrogen bonds. R groups (see fig. 2.17) are indicated in bold. (a) Primary structure—Each oblong shape in this polypeptide chain represents an amino acid molecule. The whole chain represents a portion of a protein molecule. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Three-dimensional folding H H (c) Tertiary structure— The pleated and coiled polypeptide chain of a protein molecule folds into a unique three- dimensional structure. (d) Quaternary structure—Two or more polypeptide chains may be connected to form a single protein molecule.
  • 36. Organic Substances Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Carry genes </li></ul><ul><li>Encode amino acid sequences of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Building blocks are nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – double polynucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>RNA (ribonucleic acid) – single polynucleotide </li></ul>S P B Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 37. Organic Substances Nucleic Acids S P S P S P S P S P S P B B B B B B S S S S S S P P P P P P B B B B B B (b) S P S P S P S P S P S P B B B B B B (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 38. 2.3 From Science to Technology CT Scanning and PET Imaging
  • 39. Important Points in Chapter 2: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>2.1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of how the study of living materials requires and understanding of chemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2: Structure of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how atomic structure determines how atoms interact. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationships among matter, atoms, and molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how molecular and structural formulas symbolize the composition of compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three types of chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what acids, bases, and buffers are. </li></ul><ul><li>Define pH. </li></ul>
  • 40. Important Points in Chapter 2: Outcomes to be Assessed Continued <ul><li>2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells </li></ul><ul><li>List the major groups of inorganic chemicals common in cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the general functions of the main classes of organic molecules in cells. </li></ul>
  • 41. Quiz 2 Complete Quiz 2 now! Read Chapter 3.

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