Chapt02 Holes Lecture

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Chapt02 Holes Lecture

  1. 1. Edited by Brenda Holmes MSN/Ed, RN BIOL 2064 - 91 Anatomy & Physiology 1 Chapter 2 South Arkansas Community College
  2. 2. Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  3. 3. 2.1: Introduction Why study chemistry in an Anatomy and Physiology class? - Body functions depend on cellular functions - Cellular functions result from chemical changes - Biochemistry helps to explain physiological processes
  4. 4. 2.2: Structure of Matter Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). It is composed of elements. <ul><li>Elements – composed of chemically identical atoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk elements – required by the body in large amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace elements - required by the body in small amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultratrace elements – required by the body in very minute amounts </li></ul></ul>Atoms – smallest particle of an element
  5. 5. Table 2.1 Some Particles of Matter
  6. 6. Elements and Atoms <ul><li>All matter is composed of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are the parts of compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultratrace elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The smallest parts of atoms are elements </li></ul>
  7. 7. Atomic Structure <ul><li>Atoms - composed of subatomic particles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton – carries a single positive charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron – carries no electrical charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron – carries a single negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central part of atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of protons and neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons move around the nucleus </li></ul></ul>Electron (e – ) Lithium (Li) Proton (p + ) Neutron (n 0 ) Nucleus 0 0 + + 0 + 0 - - - Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  8. 8. Atomic Number and Atomic Weight <ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each element has a unique atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equals the number of electrons in the atom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in one atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons do not contribute to the weight of the atom </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Isotopes <ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms with the same atomic numbers but with different atomic weights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen often forms isotopes (O 16 , O 17 , and O 18 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable isotopes are radioactive; they emit energy or atomic fragments </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Molecules and Compounds Molecule – particle formed when two or more atoms chemically combine Compound – particle formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine <ul><li>Molecular formulas – depict the elements present and the number of each atom present in the molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Bonding of Atoms <ul><li>Bonds form when atoms combine with other atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons of an atom occupy regions of space called electron shells which circle the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>For atoms with atomic numbers of 18 or less, the following rules apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second shell can hold up to 8 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third shell can hold up to 8 electrons </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 2.1 From Science to Technology Radioactive Isotopes Reveal Physiology
  13. 13. 2.2 From Science to Technology Ionizing Radiation: From the Cold War to Yucca Mountain
  14. 14. Bonding of Atoms <ul><li>Lower shells are filled first </li></ul><ul><li>If the outermost shell is full, the atom is stable </li></ul>Lithium (Li) Helium (He) Hydrogen (H) + - - - 0 0 + + - - - 0 0 + + 0 0 + Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  15. 15. Bonding of Atoms: Ions <ul><li>Ion </li></ul><ul><li>An atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable </li></ul><ul><li>An electrically charged atom </li></ul><ul><li>Cation </li></ul><ul><li>A positively charged ion </li></ul><ul><li>Formed when an atom loses electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Anion </li></ul><ul><li>A negatively charged ion </li></ul><ul><li>Formed when an atom gains electrons </li></ul>11p + 12n 0 Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) (a) Separate atoms If a sodium atom loses an electron to a chlorine atom, the sodium atom becomes a sodium ion (Na + ), and the chlorine atom becomes a chloride ion (Cl – ). 17p + 18n 0
  16. 16. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>An attraction between a cation and an anion </li></ul>Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom </li></ul>+ – 11p + 12n 0 Chloride ion (Cl – ) Sodium ion (Na + ) (b) Bonded ions These oppositely charged particles attract electrically and join by an ionic bond. Sodium chloride 17p + 18n 0 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Na + Cl – (c) Salt crystal Ionically bonded substances form arrays such as a crystal of NaCl. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  17. 17. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Formed when atoms share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atoms form single bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen atoms form two bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen atoms form three bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon atoms form four bonds </li></ul>H ― H O = O N ≡ N O = C = O Hydrogen atom + H Hydrogen molecule H 2 Hydrogen atom H + + + + - - - - Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  18. 18. Bonding of Atoms: Structural Formula <ul><li>Structural formulas show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. O O O CO 2 H 2 O O 2 H 2 C H H O O H H
  19. 19. Bonding of Atoms: Polar Molecules <ul><li>Polar Molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule with a slightly negative end and a slightly positive end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results when electrons are not shared equally in covalent bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is an important polar molecule </li></ul></ul>Slightly negative end Slightly positive ends (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  20. 20. Hydrogen Bonds <ul><li>Hydrogen Bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A weak attraction between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed between water molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for protein and nucleic acid structure </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O Hydrogen bonds (b)
  21. 21. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules Reactants are the starting materials of the reaction - the atoms, ions, or molecules Products are substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction NaCl ’ Na + + Cl - Reactant Products
  22. 22. Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis Reaction – more complex chemical structure is formed A + B ’ AB Decomposition Reaction – chemical bonds are broken to form a simpler chemical structure AB ’ A + B Exchange Reaction – chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed AB + CD ’ AD + CB Reversible Reaction – the products can change back to the reactants A + B  AB
  23. 23. Acids, Bases, and Salts Electrolytes – substances that release ions in water Acids – electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water HCl  H + + Cl - Bases – substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions NaOH  Na + + OH - Salts – electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base NaCl  Na + + Cl - HCl + NaOH  H 2 O + NaCl
  24. 24. Acid and Base Concentration pH scale - indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Neutral – pH 7; indicates equal concentrations of H + and OH - Acidic – pH less than 7; indicates a greater concentration of H + Basic or alkaline – pH greater than 7; indicates a greater concentration of OH - OH – concentration increases H + concentration increases Acidic H + Relative Amounts of H + (red) and OH – (blue) Basic OH – 2.0 gastric juice 6.0 corn 7.0 Distilled water 8.0 Egg white 10.5 milk of magnesia 11.5 Household ammonia pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 Basic (alkaline) Neutral Acidic 3.0 apple juice 4.2 tomato juice 5.3 cabbage 6.6 cow’s milk 7.4 Human blood 8.4 Sodium biocarbonate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  25. 25. 2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells <ul><li>Organic v. Inorganic Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Organic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain C and H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually larger than inorganic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve in water and organic liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally do not contain C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually smaller than organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually dissociate in water, forming ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Inorganic Substances <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most abundant compound in living material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of the weight of an adult human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of all body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium for most metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important role in transporting chemicals in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs and transports heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by organelles to release energy from nutrients in order to drive cell’s metabolic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for survival </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Inorganic Substances <ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste product released during metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be removed from the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inorganic salts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant in body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of necessary ions (Na + , Cl - , K + , Ca 2+ , etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play important roles in metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Organic Substances Carbohydrates <ul><li>Provide energy to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Supply materials to build cell structures </li></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain C, H, and O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of H to O close to 2:1 (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides – sucrose, lactose </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides – glycogen, cellulose </li></ul>
  29. 29. Organic Substances Carbohydrates (a) Some glucose molecules (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) have a straight chain of carbon atoms. C C C C C C H O H O O O H H O H H H H H O H H H H C H O O H H O H O H H H H C O H C C C O C H (b) More commonly, glucose molecules form a ring structure. O (c) This shape symbolizes the ring structure of a glucose molecule. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  30. 30. Organic Substances Carbohydrates O (a) Monosaccharide O O O (b) Disaccharide O O O (c) Polysaccharide Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  31. 31. Organic Substances Lipids <ul><li>Soluble in organic solvents; insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Fats (triglycerides) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used primarily for energy; most common lipid in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain C, H, and O but less O than carbohydrates (C 57 H 110 O 6 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks are 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids per molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated and unsaturated </li></ul></ul>Glycerol portion Fatty acid portions C O O H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C O O H C C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C O O H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  32. 32. Organic Substances Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks are 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate per molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic and hydrophobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of cell membranes </li></ul></ul>C H C O H C H H Glycerol portion (a) A fat molecule O O Fatty acid Fatty acid Fatty acid H C H H H H C H H N O O Fatty acid Fatty acid O P O C H O – Phosphate portion (b) A phospholipid molecule (the unshaded portion may vary) H C H C H H O (c) Schematic representation of a phospholipid molecule Water-insoluble (hydrophobic) “ tail” Water-soluble (hydrophilic) “ head” Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  33. 33. Organic Substances Lipids <ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four connected rings of carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely distributed in the body, various functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component of cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to synthesize hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul></ul>(a) General structure of a steroid C C C H 2 C H 2 C C H (b) Cholesterol C CH CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 H C HC H 2 H 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 C H 2 C H CH 3 HO C CH 3 CH 2 CH C Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  34. 34. Organic Substances Proteins <ul><li>Structural material </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Protein building blocks are amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids held together with peptide bonds </li></ul>H N H C H C O OH S C H H H H N H C H C O OH C C C H H C H C H H C H C H H N H C H C O OH R (a) General structure of an amino acid. The portion common to all amino acids is within the oval. It includes the amino group (—NH 2 ) and the carboxyl group (—COOH). The &quot;R&quot; group, or the &quot;rest of the molecule,“ is what makes each amino acid unique. (b) Cysteine. Cysteine has an R group that contains sulfur. Phenylalanine. Phenylalanine has a complex R group. Improper metabolism of phenylalanine occurs in the disease phenylketonuria. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  35. 35. Organic Substances Proteins Four Levels of Protein Structure Pleated structure Coiled structure Amino acids N N N N N H H H H H C C C C O O O C C C C C C O C O N N H H C O C C O C H N N H O O C C C C N N N N H H H O C C C O O C C C H O C C C N C N H O C C H O C C N N N N H H H O C O O C C C H O C H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H H R H H R H R H R H H R R H H R R C H C H (b) Secondary structure—The polypeptide chain of a protein molecule is often either pleated or twisted to form a coil. Dotted lines represent hydrogen bonds. R groups (see fig. 2.17) are indicated in bold. (a) Primary structure—Each oblong shape in this polypeptide chain represents an amino acid molecule. The whole chain represents a portion of a protein molecule. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Three-dimensional folding H H (c) Tertiary structure— The pleated and coiled polypeptide chain of a protein molecule folds into a unique three- dimensional structure. (d) Quaternary structure—Two or more polypeptide chains may be connected to form a single protein molecule.
  36. 36. Organic Substances Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Carry genes </li></ul><ul><li>Encode amino acid sequences of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Building blocks are nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – double polynucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>RNA (ribonucleic acid) – single polynucleotide </li></ul>S P B Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  37. 37. Organic Substances Nucleic Acids S P S P S P S P S P S P B B B B B B S S S S S S P P P P P P B B B B B B (b) S P S P S P S P S P S P B B B B B B (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  38. 38. 2.3 From Science to Technology CT Scanning and PET Imaging
  39. 39. Important Points in Chapter 2: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>2.1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of how the study of living materials requires and understanding of chemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2: Structure of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how atomic structure determines how atoms interact. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationships among matter, atoms, and molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how molecular and structural formulas symbolize the composition of compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three types of chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what acids, bases, and buffers are. </li></ul><ul><li>Define pH. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Important Points in Chapter 2: Outcomes to be Assessed Continued <ul><li>2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells </li></ul><ul><li>List the major groups of inorganic chemicals common in cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the general functions of the main classes of organic molecules in cells. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Quiz 2 Complete Quiz 2 now! Read Chapter 3.

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