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  • 1. Edited by Brenda Holmes MSN/Ed, RN BIOL 2064 - 91 Anatomy & Physiology 1 Chapter 2 South Arkansas Community College
  • 2. Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 3. 2.1: Introduction Why study chemistry in an Anatomy and Physiology class? - Body functions depend on cellular functions - Cellular functions result from chemical changes - Biochemistry helps to explain physiological processes
  • 4. 2.2: Structure of Matter Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). It is composed of elements.
    • Elements – composed of chemically identical atoms:
      • Bulk elements – required by the body in large amounts
      • Trace elements - required by the body in small amounts
      • Ultratrace elements – required by the body in very minute amounts
    Atoms – smallest particle of an element
  • 5. Table 2.1 Some Particles of Matter
  • 6. Elements and Atoms
    • All matter is composed of elements
    • Elements are the parts of compounds
    • Elements are:
      • Bulk elements
      • Trace elements
      • Ultratrace elements
    • The smallest parts of atoms are elements
  • 7. Atomic Structure
    • Atoms - composed of subatomic particles:
      • Proton – carries a single positive charge
      • Neutron – carries no electrical charge
      • Electron – carries a single negative charge
    • Nucleus
      • Central part of atom
      • Composed of protons and neutrons
      • Electrons move around the nucleus
    Electron (e – ) Lithium (Li) Proton (p + ) Neutron (n 0 ) Nucleus 0 0 + + 0 + 0 - - - Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 8. Atomic Number and Atomic Weight
    • Atomic Number
      • Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom
      • Each element has a unique atomic number
      • Equals the number of electrons in the atom
    • Atomic Weight
      • The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in one atom
      • Electrons do not contribute to the weight of the atom
  • 9. Isotopes
    • Isotopes
      • Atoms with the same atomic numbers but with different atomic weights
      • Atoms with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons
      • Oxygen often forms isotopes (O 16 , O 17 , and O 18 )
      • Unstable isotopes are radioactive; they emit energy or atomic fragments
  • 10. Molecules and Compounds Molecule – particle formed when two or more atoms chemically combine Compound – particle formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine
    • Molecular formulas – depict the elements present and the number of each atom present in the molecule
      • H 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O
  • 11. Bonding of Atoms
    • Bonds form when atoms combine with other atoms
    • Electrons of an atom occupy regions of space called electron shells which circle the nucleus
    • For atoms with atomic numbers of 18 or less, the following rules apply:
      • The first shell can hold up to 2 electrons
      • The second shell can hold up to 8 electrons
      • The third shell can hold up to 8 electrons
  • 12. 2.1 From Science to Technology Radioactive Isotopes Reveal Physiology
  • 13. 2.2 From Science to Technology Ionizing Radiation: From the Cold War to Yucca Mountain
  • 14. Bonding of Atoms
    • Lower shells are filled first
    • If the outermost shell is full, the atom is stable
    Lithium (Li) Helium (He) Hydrogen (H) + - - - 0 0 + + - - - 0 0 + + 0 0 + Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 15. Bonding of Atoms: Ions
    • Ion
    • An atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable
    • An electrically charged atom
    • Cation
    • A positively charged ion
    • Formed when an atom loses electrons
    • Anion
    • A negatively charged ion
    • Formed when an atom gains electrons
    11p + 12n 0 Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) (a) Separate atoms If a sodium atom loses an electron to a chlorine atom, the sodium atom becomes a sodium ion (Na + ), and the chlorine atom becomes a chloride ion (Cl – ). 17p + 18n 0
  • 16. Ionic Bonds
    • An attraction between a cation and an anion
    Ionic Bonds
    • Formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom
    + – 11p + 12n 0 Chloride ion (Cl – ) Sodium ion (Na + ) (b) Bonded ions These oppositely charged particles attract electrically and join by an ionic bond. Sodium chloride 17p + 18n 0 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Na + Cl – (c) Salt crystal Ionically bonded substances form arrays such as a crystal of NaCl. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 17. Covalent Bonds
    • Formed when atoms share electrons
    • Hydrogen atoms form single bonds
    • Oxygen atoms form two bonds
    • Nitrogen atoms form three bonds
    • Carbon atoms form four bonds
    H ― H O = O N ≡ N O = C = O Hydrogen atom + H Hydrogen molecule H 2 Hydrogen atom H + + + + - - - - Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 18. Bonding of Atoms: Structural Formula
    • Structural formulas show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. O O O CO 2 H 2 O O 2 H 2 C H H O O H H
  • 19. Bonding of Atoms: Polar Molecules
    • Polar Molecules
      • Molecule with a slightly negative end and a slightly positive end
      • Results when electrons are not shared equally in covalent bonds
      • Water is an important polar molecule
    Slightly negative end Slightly positive ends (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 20. Hydrogen Bonds
    • Hydrogen Bonds
      • A weak attraction between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
      • Formed between water molecules
      • Important for protein and nucleic acid structure
    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O Hydrogen bonds (b)
  • 21. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules Reactants are the starting materials of the reaction - the atoms, ions, or molecules Products are substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction NaCl ’ Na + + Cl - Reactant Products
  • 22. Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis Reaction – more complex chemical structure is formed A + B ’ AB Decomposition Reaction – chemical bonds are broken to form a simpler chemical structure AB ’ A + B Exchange Reaction – chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed AB + CD ’ AD + CB Reversible Reaction – the products can change back to the reactants A + B  AB
  • 23. Acids, Bases, and Salts Electrolytes – substances that release ions in water Acids – electrolytes that dissociate to release hydrogen ions in water HCl  H + + Cl - Bases – substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions NaOH  Na + + OH - Salts – electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base NaCl  Na + + Cl - HCl + NaOH  H 2 O + NaCl
  • 24. Acid and Base Concentration pH scale - indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Neutral – pH 7; indicates equal concentrations of H + and OH - Acidic – pH less than 7; indicates a greater concentration of H + Basic or alkaline – pH greater than 7; indicates a greater concentration of OH - OH – concentration increases H + concentration increases Acidic H + Relative Amounts of H + (red) and OH – (blue) Basic OH – 2.0 gastric juice 6.0 corn 7.0 Distilled water 8.0 Egg white 10.5 milk of magnesia 11.5 Household ammonia pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 Basic (alkaline) Neutral Acidic 3.0 apple juice 4.2 tomato juice 5.3 cabbage 6.6 cow’s milk 7.4 Human blood 8.4 Sodium biocarbonate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 25. 2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells
    • Organic v. Inorganic Molecules
    • Organic molecules
      • Contain C and H
      • Usually larger than inorganic molecules
      • Dissolve in water and organic liquids
      • Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
    • Inorganic molecules
      • Generally do not contain C
      • Usually smaller than organic molecules
      • Usually dissociate in water, forming ions
      • Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts
  • 26. Inorganic Substances
    • Water
      • Most abundant compound in living material
      • Two-thirds of the weight of an adult human
      • Major component of all body fluids
      • Medium for most metabolic reactions
      • Important role in transporting chemicals in the body
      • Absorbs and transports heat
    • Oxygen (O 2 )
      • Used by organelles to release energy from nutrients in order to drive cell’s metabolic activities
      • Necessary for survival
  • 27. Inorganic Substances
    • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
      • Waste product released during metabolic reactions
      • Must be removed from the body
    • Inorganic salts
      • Abundant in body fluids
      • Sources of necessary ions (Na + , Cl - , K + , Ca 2+ , etc.)
      • Play important roles in metabolism
  • 28. Organic Substances Carbohydrates
    • Provide energy to cells
    • Supply materials to build cell structures
    • Water-soluble
      • Contain C, H, and O
      • Ratio of H to O close to 2:1 (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
    • Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose
    • Disaccharides – sucrose, lactose
    • Polysaccharides – glycogen, cellulose
  • 29. Organic Substances Carbohydrates (a) Some glucose molecules (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) have a straight chain of carbon atoms. C C C C C C H O H O O O H H O H H H H H O H H H H C H O O H H O H O H H H H C O H C C C O C H (b) More commonly, glucose molecules form a ring structure. O (c) This shape symbolizes the ring structure of a glucose molecule. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 30. Organic Substances Carbohydrates O (a) Monosaccharide O O O (b) Disaccharide O O O (c) Polysaccharide Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 31. Organic Substances Lipids
    • Soluble in organic solvents; insoluble in water
    • Fats (triglycerides)
      • Used primarily for energy; most common lipid in the body
      • Contain C, H, and O but less O than carbohydrates (C 57 H 110 O 6 )
      • Building blocks are 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids per molecule
      • Saturated and unsaturated
    Glycerol portion Fatty acid portions C O O H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C O O H C C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C O O H C C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 32. Organic Substances Lipids
    • Phospholipids
      • Building blocks are 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate per molecule
      • Hydrophilic and hydrophobic
      • Major component of cell membranes
    C H C O H C H H Glycerol portion (a) A fat molecule O O Fatty acid Fatty acid Fatty acid H C H H H H C H H N O O Fatty acid Fatty acid O P O C H O – Phosphate portion (b) A phospholipid molecule (the unshaded portion may vary) H C H C H H O (c) Schematic representation of a phospholipid molecule Water-insoluble (hydrophobic) “ tail” Water-soluble (hydrophilic) “ head” Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 33. Organic Substances Lipids
    • Steroids
      • Four connected rings of carbon
      • Widely distributed in the body, various functions
      • Component of cell membrane
      • Used to synthesize hormones
      • Cholesterol
    (a) General structure of a steroid C C C H 2 C H 2 C C H (b) Cholesterol C CH CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 H C HC H 2 H 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 C H 2 C H CH 3 HO C CH 3 CH 2 CH C Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 34. Organic Substances Proteins
    • Structural material
    • Energy source
    • Hormones
    • Receptors
    • Enzymes
    • Antibodies
    • Protein building blocks are amino acids
    • Amino acids held together with peptide bonds
    H N H C H C O OH S C H H H H N H C H C O OH C C C H H C H C H H C H C H H N H C H C O OH R (a) General structure of an amino acid. The portion common to all amino acids is within the oval. It includes the amino group (—NH 2 ) and the carboxyl group (—COOH). The "R" group, or the "rest of the molecule,“ is what makes each amino acid unique. (b) Cysteine. Cysteine has an R group that contains sulfur. Phenylalanine. Phenylalanine has a complex R group. Improper metabolism of phenylalanine occurs in the disease phenylketonuria. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 35. Organic Substances Proteins Four Levels of Protein Structure Pleated structure Coiled structure Amino acids N N N N N H H H H H C C C C O O O C C C C C C O C O N N H H C O C C O C H N N H O O C C C C N N N N H H H O C C C O O C C C H O C C C N C N H O C C H O C C N N N N H H H O C O O C C C H O C H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H R H H R H H R H R H R H H R R H H R R C H C H (b) Secondary structure—The polypeptide chain of a protein molecule is often either pleated or twisted to form a coil. Dotted lines represent hydrogen bonds. R groups (see fig. 2.17) are indicated in bold. (a) Primary structure—Each oblong shape in this polypeptide chain represents an amino acid molecule. The whole chain represents a portion of a protein molecule. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Three-dimensional folding H H (c) Tertiary structure— The pleated and coiled polypeptide chain of a protein molecule folds into a unique three- dimensional structure. (d) Quaternary structure—Two or more polypeptide chains may be connected to form a single protein molecule.
  • 36. Organic Substances Nucleic Acids
    • Carry genes
    • Encode amino acid sequences of proteins
    • Building blocks are nucleotides
    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – double polynucleotide
    • RNA (ribonucleic acid) – single polynucleotide
    S P B Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 37. Organic Substances Nucleic Acids S P S P S P S P S P S P B B B B B B S S S S S S P P P P P P B B B B B B (b) S P S P S P S P S P S P B B B B B B (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • 38. 2.3 From Science to Technology CT Scanning and PET Imaging
  • 39. Important Points in Chapter 2: Outcomes to be Assessed
    • 2.1: Introduction
    • Give examples of how the study of living materials requires and understanding of chemistry.
    • 2.2: Structure of Matter
    • Describe how atomic structure determines how atoms interact.
    • Describe the relationships among matter, atoms, and molecules.
    • Explain how molecular and structural formulas symbolize the composition of compounds.
    • Describe three types of chemical reactions.
    • Explain what acids, bases, and buffers are.
    • Define pH.
  • 40. Important Points in Chapter 2: Outcomes to be Assessed Continued
    • 2.3: Chemical Constituents of Cells
    • List the major groups of inorganic chemicals common in cells.
    • Describe the general functions of the main classes of organic molecules in cells.
  • 41. Quiz 2 Complete Quiz 2 now! Read Chapter 3.

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