• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Ch5 Ppt Lect
 

Ch5 Ppt Lect

on

  • 10,520 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
10,520
Views on SlideShare
10,357
Embed Views
163

Actions

Likes
12
Downloads
575
Comments
2

5 Embeds 163

http://blackboard.southark.edu 70
http://onlinereferencenotes.blogspot.com 64
http://www.slideshare.net 27
https://nclc.blackboard.com 1
http://onlinereferencenotes.blogspot.ae 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

12 of 2 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • very well done
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • nice presentation
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Ch5 Ppt Lect Ch5 Ppt Lect Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 5 Tissues PowerPoint Presentation to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10 th edition , edited by S.C. Wache for Biol2064.01 Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • You are responsible for the following figures and tables : Tab. 5.1 - Tissues. Tab. 5.4 - Epithelial Tissues (ET) including glandular ET. Tab. 5.3 - Types of glandular exocrine secretions. Tab. 5.7 - Connective Tissues (CT). Tab. 5.8 - Muscle Tissues (MT) and Nervous Tissues (NT). Study all corresponding figures. It is important to correlate structural and functional characteristics of each tissue type. Characteristics of ET Characteristics of CT Characteristics of MT Characteristics of NT
    • Tissues
      • Cells are organized into sheets or groups called tissues .
      • There are four major tissue types found in the body: epithelial tissue (ET), connective tissue (CT), muscle tissue, and nervous tissue (Tab. 5.1).
      • These tissues associate and interact to form organs with specialized functions .
    • Tissues and Cell-to-Cell Communication
      • Cells are often connected to each other by intercellular junctions providing a tissue with a mechanism to become specialized (for example: cardiac muscle).
      • Tight junctions occur when cell membranes of adjacent cells are tightly fused.
      • Desmosomes form small reinforced regions of cell membranes of cells.
      • Gap junctions connect the cell membranes of adjacent cells, but have channels to allow ions to move.
    • Figure 3.8
    • Epithelial Tissue (ET)
      • Epithelia are sheets of cells (Fig. 3.2b) that function in protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion.
      • Epithelium is composed of tightly packed cells anchored to a basement membrane .
      • It lacks blood vessels and rapidly divides .
      • ET are classified by cell shape and number of cell layers .
    • secretion lining the ducts of glands simple cuboidal GLANDULAR distensibility lining of urinary bladder and ureters several layers of cells; change shape TRANSITIONAL protection keratinized = epidermis; non-keratinized = lining of vagina, anus, mouth many layers of flattened cells STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS protection, secretion lining of trachea, lining of fallopian tube a single layer of tall cells with scattered nuclei, cilia, & goblet cells PSEUDO- STRATIFIED COLUMNAR protection, absorption, secretion lining of digestive tract single layer of tall cells with basally located nuclei, goblet cells SIMPLE COLUMNAR absorption, secretion linings of kidney tubules, ducts of glands a single layer of cube-shaped cells with large centrally located nuclei SIMPLE CUBOIDAL diffusion, cushioning linings of air sacs, capillaries, lymph vessels, & body cavities single layer of flat cells SIMPLE SQUAMOUS FUNCTION LOCATION STRUCTURE NAME OF ET
    • Simple Squamous Epithelium (Fig. 5.1)
      • It consists of a single layer of thin, flat cells that fit tightly.
    • Simple Squamous Epithelium
      • consists of a single layer of thin, flat cells that fit tightly.
      • functions in filtration, diffusion, osmosis, and covers surfaces.
      • found in air sacs of the lung, walls of capillaries, lines blood vessels , and covers the membranes that line body cavities .
      • * Since it is only one layer of cells and very thin it allows diffusion of small
      • molecules unlike stratified squamous epithelium
    • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium (Fig. 5.2)
      • It consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells.
    • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
      • consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells.
      • functions in secretion and absorption.
      • found on the surface of the ovaries, linings of kidney tubules , linings of the ducts of certain glands.
    • Simple Columnar Epithelium (Fig. 5.3)
      • It is a single layer of elongated, column-shaped cells.
    • Simple Columnar Epithelium
      • single layer of elongated, column-shaped cells.
      • functions in protection, secretion, and absorption and can be ciliated or nonciliated.
      • specialized goblet cells secrete mucus.
      • found as lining of the uterus, stomach, and intestines .
    • Pseudostratified Columnar ET (Fig.5.5)
      • It is a single layer of elongated cells that appears to be more than one layer .
      • often ciliated and contains goblet cells.
      • functions in protection, secretion, and movement of mucus and cells.
      • found lining the respiratory passages, trachea .
      Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium (Fig. 5.6)
      • It consists of many layers of cells with flat cells on the outer layers.
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
      • consists of many layers of cells with flat cells on the outer layers.
      • functions in protection.
      • found in the outer layer of the skin , linings of the oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal cavity .
      • * Since it consists of many layers it acts as a barrier which prevents entry of pathogens into the human body through the epithelium
    • Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium (Fig. 5.7)
      • It consists of two to three layers of cubed-shaped cells.
    • Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
      • consists of two to three layers of cubed-shaped cells.
      • functions in protection.
      • found in the linings of the mammary glands, sweat glands , salivary glands, and pancreas
      • * see also glandular epithelium , textbook p. 138
    • Glandular Epithelium
      • It is composed of cells that produce and secrete substances.
      • Exocrine glands secrete products into ducts.
      • Endocrine glands secrete products into tissue fluid or blood.
      • * A unicellular exocrine gland is the mucous-secreting goblet cell.
    • Stratified Columnar Epithelium (Fig. 5.8)
      • It consists of a top layer of elongated cells, and lower layers of cube-shaped cells.
    • Stratified Columnar Epithelium
      • consists of a top layer of elongated cells, and lower layers of cube-shaped cells.
      • functions in protection and secretion.
      • found in the vas deferens, part of the male urethra , and parts of the pharynx.
    • Transitional Epithelium (Fig. 5.9a)
      • It consists
      • of many layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells.
    • Transitional Epithelium
      • It consists of many layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells.
      • functions in distensibility and protection.
      • found in the inner lining of the urinary bladder , ureters and part of the urethra.
    • Glandular Epithelium
      • It is composed of cells that produce and secrete substances.
      • Exocrine glands secrete products into ducts.
      • Endocrine glands secrete products into tissue fluid or blood.
      • * A unicellular exocrine gland is the mucous-secreting goblet cell.
    • e
    • Multicellular Glands (Fig. 5.10)
      • Simple glands communicatewith the surface through one unbranched duct.
    • Multicellular Glands
      • Simple glands communicate with the surface through one unbranched duct.
      • A compound gland communicates with the surface through a branched duct.
      • Tubular glands are epithelial-lined tubes.
      • Alveolar (acinar) glands have saclike endings.
    • Glandular Secretion (Fig. 5.11)
      • Merocrine glands release fluid through exocytosis. Ex : salivary glands .
      • Apocrine glands release cellular product by pinching off the free end of the cell. Ex : mammary glands .
      Glandular Secretion (Fig. 5.11)
      • Holocrine glands secrete the entire cell full of the secretory product. Ex : sebaceous glands .
      Glandular Secretion (Fig. 5.11)
    • Merocrine Secretion
      • Most exocrine glands are merocrine.
      • There are two types of merocrine cells, serous and mucous:
      • Serous fluid is watery with a high enzyme concentration.
      • Mucous cells secrete a mucus, a thick fluid rich in the glycoprotein, mucin.
    • Connective Tissues (CT)
      • Connective tissue is the most abundant tissue in the body.
      • Extracellular material, a matrix, makes up the bulk of the tissue.
      • Matrix is composed of fibers and ground substance.
      • Connective tissue cells usually can divide .
    • transport of nutrients, wastes & gases in heart, and blood vessels red and white cells; platelets in plasma BLOOD support, protection, movement, Ca ++ store, hematopoiesis bones concentric circles of calcified matrix BONE shape maintenance plus flexibility external ear, epiglottis above plus elastic fibers ELASTIC CARTILAGE tensile strength, shock absorber intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis less firm than above FIBRO- CARTILAGE support embryo skeleton, costal cartilage, tip of nose, trachea, larynx chondrocytes in lacunae in amorphous matrix HYALINE CARTILAGE durability with stretch lung tissue, wall of aorta matrix of elastic fibers ELASTIC CT tensile strength dermis of skin loose matrix of collagen fibers DENSE IRREGULAR attachment (high tensile strength) tendons, ligaments dense matrix of collagen fibers DENSE REGULAR support basement membrane, lymph organs reticular net of fibers in loose matrix; lymphocytes and reticulocytes RETICULAR insulation, energy store, protection beneath skin, breasts, around kidneys & eyeballs closely packed adipocytes with nuclei pushed to side ADIPOSE cushions, diffusion, inflammation beneath ET (serous membranes around organs & lining cavities) gel-like matrix with fibroblasts, collagen and elastic fibers AREOLAR gives rise to all other CT’s Embryo precursor matrix MESENCHYME FUNCTION LOCATION DESCRIPTION NAME
    • CT Cell Types
      • Fibroblasts secrete protein into the matrix, usually collagen which is a fibrous protein resulting in fibers.
      Figure 5.13
    • CT Cell Types
      • Macrophages originate as white blood cells. They can move and phagocytize foreign particles.
      Figure 5.14
    • CT Cell Types
      • Mast cells or basophils release heparin, which prevents blood clotting, and histamine, which aids in the inflammatory response.
      Figure 5.15
    • CT Fibers (Fig. 5.16)
      • White collagenous fibers , are made of thick threads of collagen . They are strong, flexible, and inelastic.
      • Elastic fibers , yellow fibers, are made of bundles of elastin.
      • Reticular fibers are thin,collagenous fibers that form branched networks for support.
    • Loose CT (Fig. 5.18)
      • Loose CT or areolar tissue binds organs together and holds tissue fluids.
    • Loose Connective Tissue
      • Loose CT or areolar tissue binds organs together and holds tissue fluids.
      • It consists of cells (fibroblasts) in a fluid-gel matrix.
      • It forms thin membranes found beneath the skin, between muscles, and beneath epithelial tissue .
    • Adipose Tissue
      • Adipose tissue protects, insulates, and stores fat in droplets inside the cells.
      Figure 5.19
    • Adipose Tissue
      • Adipose tissue protects, insulates, and stores fat in droplets inside the cells.
      • It consists of cells (adipocytes) in a fluid-gel matrix.
      • It is found beneath the skin , around the kidneys, behind the eyes, and on the heart.
    • Reticular Connective Tissue
      • Reticular connective tissue supports organs.
      Figure 5.20
    • Reticular Connective Tissue
      • Reticular connective tissue supports organs.
      • It is composed of thin, collagenous fibers and cells in a fluid-gel matrix.
      • It is found in the walls of the liver, spleen, and lymphatic organs .
    • Dense Connective Tissue
      • Dense connective tissue binds organs together.
      Figure 5.21
    • Dense Connective Tissue
      • Dense connective tissue binds organs together.
      • It is composed thick collagenous fibers, thin elastic fibers and fibroblasts in a fluid-gel matrix.
      • It is found in tendons, ligaments, and the dermis of the skin.
    • Elastic Connective Tissue
      • Elastic connective tissue supports, protects, and provides a flexible framework.
      Figure 5.22
    • Elastic Connective Tissue
      • Elastic connective tissue supports, protects, and provides a flexible framework.
      • It consists of elastic fibers and fibroblasts in a solid-gel matrix.
      • It connects vertebrae and is found in the walls of arteries and airways .
    • Cartilage, a CT
      • Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue.
      • The matrix consists of collagenous fibers in a gel-like ground substance.
      • Cartilage cells, chondrocytes , are found in small chambers, lacunae.
      • Cartilage is covered with a thin layer of CT, the perichondrium.
      • Cartilage lacks blood vessels.
    • Hyaline Cartilage
      • It supports, protects, and provides a framework.
      • It is the most common type of cartilage.
      Figure 5.23
    • Hyaline Cartilage
      • It supports, protects, and provides a framework.
      • It is the most common type of cartilage.
      • It is found in the ends of bones, nose, and rings in the respiratory passages.
      • Hyaline cartilage provides the embryonic model for the skeleton.
    • Elastic Cartilage
      • It supports, protects, and provides a flexible framework.
      Figure 5.24
    • Elastic Cartilage
      • It supports, protects, and provides a flexible framework.
      • Its matrix contains many elastic fibers.
      • It is found in the outer ear and part of the larynx.
    • Fibrocartilage
      • It supports, protects, and absorbs shock during body movement.
      Figure 5.25
    • Fibrocartilage
      • It supports, protects, and absorbs shock during body movement.
      • It is the toughest type of cartilage.
      • It is found between the vertebrae (intervertebral discs), in the knee and parts of the pelvic girdle.
    • Bone
      • Bone supports, protects, provides a framework for muscle attachment.
      Figure 5.26 Bone
    • Bone
      • Bone supports, protects, provides a framework for muscle attachment.
      • It is composed of cells ( osteocytes ) in a hard calcified matrix. The osteocytes are located in layers, lamellae, organized into osteons.
      • It is found in the skeleton and middle ear.
    • Blood
      • Blood transports gases, nutrients, and wastes, defends against disease, and acts in clotting.
      Figure 5.27
    • Blood
      • Blood transports gases, nutrients, and wastes, defends against disease, and acts in clotting.
      • It is composed of cells and platelets in a fluid matrix, the blood plasma.
      • It is found within the blood vessels.
    • Muscle Tissue (MT)
      • There are three types of muscle tissue:
      • skeletal, smooth, and cardiac .
      • Properties :
      • It is contractile (muscle fibers can shorten and thicken).
      • It is excitable.
    • pump blood to lungs and body heart involuntary a network of striated cells with one centrally located nucleus attached by intercalated discs CARDIAC MUSCLE to move substances through passageways (i.e. food, urine, semen), constrict blood vessels, etc walls of visceral hollow organs, irises of eyes, walls of blood vessels involuntary spindle shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus, lacking striations SMOOTH MUSCLE to move bones attached to bones voluntary long, thin fibers with many nuclei and striations SKELETAL MUSCLE FUNCTION LOCATION TYPE OF CONTROL DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE MUSCLE TISSUE
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • It attaches to bones and is controlled by conscious effort.
      • It is also called voluntary muscle.
      Figure 5.28
    • Skeletal Muscle
      • It attaches to bones and is controlled by conscious effort.
      • It is also called voluntary muscle .
      • The muscle cells have many nuclei and exhibit light and dark banding patterns called striations.
      • Skeletal muscles contract in response to nerve signals.
    • Smooth Muscle
      • It appears smooth because it lacks striations.
      • Smooth muscle action is not under conscious control and it is called involuntary.
      Figure 5.29
    • Smooth Muscle
      • It appears smooth because it lacks striations.
      • Smooth muscle action is not under conscious control and it is called involuntary.
      • The cells are spindle-shaped with a central nucleus.
      • Smooth muscle is found in the stomach, intestines, uterus, and blood vessels.
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart.
      Figure 5.30
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • It is found only in the heart .
      • The striated cells are joined end to end with a specialized intercellular junction called an intercalated disk.
      • Cardiac muscle is under involuntary control.
    • Nervous Tissue (NT)
      • It is excitable, but not contractile.
      Figure 5.31
    • Nervous Tissues
      • Nervous tissue is excitable like muscle tissue.
      • It is found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral neurons .
      • Nerve cells or neurons sense changes and transmit signals.
      • Neuroglia are cells that support and bind nervous tissue. They supply nutrients, carry on phagocytosis, and play a role in cell to cell communication.
    •  
    • Epithelial Membranes
      • They consist of two tissues: a thin, sheet like epithelial tissue (ET) that covers body surfaces together with the underlying connective tissue (CT).
      • Two or more types of tissues with differing function form an organ. Epithelial membranes are organs .
      • There are three types of EM :
      • Serous / Mucous / Cutaneous
      • Serous membranes line body cavities that lack an opening to the outside. They line the thorax and the abdomen.
      • Mucous membranes line cavities and tubes that open to the outside, including nose, mouth, digestive, urinary, respiratory, and reproductive systems openings.
      • The cutaneous membrane or skin is an organ of the integumentary system (Ch.6).
      Epithelial Membranes