Is It Just About The Product
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Is It Just About The Product

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Independent Research Study Presentation

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Is It Just About The Product Is It Just About The Product Presentation Transcript

  • Is It Just About The Product? The association between exposure to NASCAR and purchasing habits of fans
    Brad Holloman
    Dr. Anne Marx
    Department of Leisure and Sport Management
    Elon University, Elon, NC
  • Overview
    Introduction
    Guiding Theory
    Purpose and Hypotheses
    Literature Review
    Methodology
    Results
    Discussion
  • Introduction
    Emerged as fastest growing spectator sport in the United States (Levin, Joiner & Cameron, 2001)
    Increase in fan diversity (Howard, 2001)
    Identified as the most loyal fans of any entertainment entity (Mahar, Paul & Stone, 2005)
    Loyalty to the sport and its competitors
  • Corporate Involvement
    Most commercialized sport in the United States (Pruitt, Cornwell & Clark, 2004)
    Corporations invest more than $1 billion annually into the sport (Amato, Peters & Shao, 2005)
    Driving force behind NASCAR
  • Guiding Theory: Social Identity Theory
    Individuals’ definition of their identity (Dalakis & Levin, 2005)
    Identify with groups they like
    Social Categorization process
    Sense of belonging to the group (Stets & Burke, 2000)
    Common social identification
    Members of the same category
    Reference to their groups as “us” and “them”
    Company becomes part of the group through their partnership
    Fans of NASCAR are fans of the sponsors
  • Guiding Theory: Identity Salience
    Hierarchy of salience (Shamir, 1992)
    The more a fan identifies their own self as part of the group the more they support the group
    Fans look for ways to act in agreement with the identity of the group
    The more connected a NASCAR fan is the more likely they are to purchase sponsors’ products
  • Purpose
    To examine the relationship between exposure to NASCAR and fans’ conscious purchasing habits of products that:
    Sponsor NASCAR
    Sponsor their favorite driver
  • Hypotheses
    H1: The more races a person attended during the 2007 season the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor NASCAR
    H2: The more races a person watched on television during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor NASCAR
    H3: The more races a person listened to on the radio during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor NASCAR
  • Hypotheses
    H4: The more races a person attended during the 2007 season the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor their favorite driver
    H5: The more races a person watched on television during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor their favorite driver
    H6: The more races a person listened to on the radio during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor their favorite driver
  • Evaluating Marketing Strategies
    Sponsors evaluating NASCAR partnerships
    Roush Fenway Racing new deal with Ford Motor Company
    Eastman Kodak ending its sponsorship in NASCAR
    US Navy ending its sponsorship of JR Motorsports
    Different marketing opportunities in NASCAR
    On-Site activation; television spots; radio spots
    Competing national companies are involved
    Partnerships with other sports
    Do not show as great of a return (Mahar, Paul & Stone, 2004)
    NASCAR venues draw larger crowds
  • Targeting New Audiences
    Emergence as the fastest growing spectator sport in the United States (Levin, Joiner & Cameron, 2001)
    Steady increases of new fans
    Females (Weissman, 1999)
    Minority races (Howard, 2001)
    Homosexual fans (Amato, Peters & Shao, 2005)
    Fans with higher incomes (Dunnavant, 2001)
    Companies such as Rolex and Centurion Boats target individuals with higher income levels
  • Fan Loyalty
    NASCAR fans identified as the most loyal of any sport (Spann, 2003)
    Demonstrate loyalty to their favorite driver or team when the team isn’t successful
    Loyalties affect purchasing habits of sponsors’ products
    Positive emotions when a fan’s team is successful (Dalakas & Levin, 2005)
  • Methods
    Data were obtained from 128 attendees of the 2 NASCAR events in the Southeastern United States
    83 men and 53 women were selected at random from infield campgrounds and speedway parking lots
    Sample isn’t representative of entire population
  • Instrumentation
    4 sections of Questionnaire
    Exposure to NASCAR through attendance, television, and radio broadcast
    Fans’ favorite driver
    Fans’ conscious purchasing habits of sponsor products
    Demographics
    Data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software
    Spearman’s correlation was used to examine hypotheses
  • Results: Descriptive
    More than 70% of respondents attended 1 or 2 NASCAR events during the period
    Over 60 % of respondents watched NASCAR events on television more than 14 times during the period
    Over 60 % of respondents indicated they listened to NASCAR on the radio more than 14 times during the period
  • Results: Descriptive
    More than 71% of respondents indicated they sometimes or almost always consciously purchased products that sponsor NASCAR
    Nearly 70% of respondents indicated they consciously purchased products that sponsored their favorite driver.
    Percents, Means, and Standard Deviation for Purchasing Products Sponsoring NASCAR and Purchasing Products Sponsoring Favorite Driver
    * Means were calculated such that 1=“never”, 2=“almost never”, 3=“sometimes”, 4=“almost always” and 5=“always”.
  • Results: Inferential
    *significant at the <.05 level
    **significant at the <.0001 level
  • Discussion
    Value of advertising during NASCAR events
    Weaker correlations than expected
    Fan segments and media planning
  • Future Research
    Focus study female fans, fans with higher incomes and education levels purchasing habits
    Fan behaviors at tracks in larger markets including Las Vegas, California and New England
    Continue to examine fans of NASCAR and other sports
  • Works Cited
    Amato, C. H, Peters, C. O., & Shao, A. T. (2005). An exploratory investigation into NASCAR fan culture. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14.
    Dalakas, V., & Levin, A. (2005). The balance theory domino: How sponsorships may elicit negative consumer attitudes. Advances in Consumer Research, 32.
    Dunnavant, K. (2001). Middle America at 170 mph. Mediaweek, 11.
    Howard , T. (2001). NASCAR hopes to driver up diversity in fan base. USA Today.
    Levin, A. M., Joiner, C., & Cameron, G. (2001). The impact of sports: Sponsorship on consumer's brand attitudes and recall: The case of NASCAR fans. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 23.
    Mahar, J., Paul, R., & Stone, L. (2005). An examination of stock market response to NASCAR race performance. Marketing Management Journal, 15.
    Pruitt, S. W., Cornwell, T. B., & Clark, J. M. (2004). The NASCAR phenomenon: Auto racing sponsorships and shareholder wealth. Journal of Advertising Research, 44.
    Shamir, B. (1992). Some correlates of leisure identity salience: Three exploratory studies. Journal of Leisure Research, 24.
    Spann, M. G. (2003). NASCAR racing fans: Cranking up an emperical approach. Journal of Popular Culture.
    Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63.
    Weissman. R. (1999). The green flag is up. American Demographics, 21.
  • THANK YOU!!!
    Brad Holloman
    hollomanbrad@gmail.com
    Dr. Anne Marx
    amarx@elon.edu