Is It Just About The Product? The association between exposure to NASCAR and purchasing habits of fans<br />Brad Holloman<...
Overview<br />Introduction<br />Guiding Theory<br />Purpose and Hypotheses<br />Literature Review<br />Methodology<br />Re...
Introduction<br />Emerged as fastest growing spectator sport in the United States (Levin, Joiner & Cameron, 2001)<br />Inc...
Corporate Involvement<br />Most commercialized sport in the United States (Pruitt, Cornwell & Clark, 2004)<br />Corporatio...
Guiding Theory: Social Identity Theory<br />Individuals’ definition of their identity (Dalakis & Levin, 2005)<br />Identif...
Guiding Theory: Identity Salience<br />Hierarchy of salience (Shamir, 1992)<br />The more a fan identifies their own self ...
Purpose<br />To examine the relationship between exposure to NASCAR  and fans’ conscious purchasing habits of products tha...
Hypotheses<br />H1: The more races a person attended during the 2007 season the more often a person will purchase products...
Hypotheses<br />H4: The more races a person attended during the 2007 season the more often a person will purchase products...
Evaluating Marketing Strategies<br />Sponsors evaluating NASCAR partnerships<br />Roush Fenway Racing new deal with Ford M...
Targeting New Audiences<br />Emergence as the fastest growing spectator sport in the United States (Levin, Joiner & Camero...
Fan Loyalty<br />NASCAR fans identified as the most loyal of any sport (Spann, 2003)<br />Demonstrate loyalty to their fav...
Methods<br />Data were obtained from 128 attendees of the 2 NASCAR events in the Southeastern United States<br />83 men an...
Instrumentation<br />4 sections of Questionnaire<br />Exposure to NASCAR through attendance, television, and radio broadca...
Results: Descriptive<br />More than 70% of respondents attended 1 or 2 NASCAR events during the period<br />Over 60 % of r...
Results: Descriptive<br />More than 71% of respondents indicated they sometimes or almost always consciously purchased pro...
Results: Inferential<br />*significant at the &lt;.05 level<br />**significant at the &lt;.0001 level<br />
Discussion<br />Value of advertising during NASCAR events<br />Weaker correlations than expected<br />Fan segments and med...
Future Research<br />Focus study female fans, fans with higher incomes and education levels purchasing habits<br />Fan beh...
Works Cited<br />Amato, C. H, Peters, C. O., & Shao, A. T.  (2005).  An exploratory investigation into NASCAR fan culture....
THANK YOU!!!<br />Brad Holloman<br />hollomanbrad@gmail.com<br />Dr. Anne Marx<br />amarx@elon.edu<br />
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Is It Just About The Product

  1. 1. Is It Just About The Product? The association between exposure to NASCAR and purchasing habits of fans<br />Brad Holloman<br />Dr. Anne Marx<br />Department of Leisure and Sport Management<br />Elon University, Elon, NC<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Introduction<br />Guiding Theory<br />Purpose and Hypotheses<br />Literature Review<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Discussion<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Emerged as fastest growing spectator sport in the United States (Levin, Joiner & Cameron, 2001)<br />Increase in fan diversity (Howard, 2001)<br />Identified as the most loyal fans of any entertainment entity (Mahar, Paul & Stone, 2005)<br />Loyalty to the sport and its competitors<br />
  4. 4. Corporate Involvement<br />Most commercialized sport in the United States (Pruitt, Cornwell & Clark, 2004)<br />Corporations invest more than $1 billion annually into the sport (Amato, Peters & Shao, 2005)<br />Driving force behind NASCAR<br />
  5. 5. Guiding Theory: Social Identity Theory<br />Individuals’ definition of their identity (Dalakis & Levin, 2005)<br />Identify with groups they like<br />Social Categorization process<br />Sense of belonging to the group (Stets & Burke, 2000)<br />Common social identification <br />Members of the same category<br />Reference to their groups as “us” and “them”<br />Company becomes part of the group through their partnership<br />Fans of NASCAR are fans of the sponsors<br />
  6. 6. Guiding Theory: Identity Salience<br />Hierarchy of salience (Shamir, 1992)<br />The more a fan identifies their own self as part of the group the more they support the group<br />Fans look for ways to act in agreement with the identity of the group<br />The more connected a NASCAR fan is the more likely they are to purchase sponsors’ products<br />
  7. 7. Purpose<br />To examine the relationship between exposure to NASCAR and fans’ conscious purchasing habits of products that:<br />Sponsor NASCAR<br />Sponsor their favorite driver<br />
  8. 8. Hypotheses<br />H1: The more races a person attended during the 2007 season the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor NASCAR<br />H2: The more races a person watched on television during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor NASCAR <br />H3: The more races a person listened to on the radio during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor NASCAR<br />
  9. 9. Hypotheses<br />H4: The more races a person attended during the 2007 season the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor their favorite driver<br />H5: The more races a person watched on television during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor their favorite driver <br />H6: The more races a person listened to on the radio during the 2007 season, the more often a person will purchase products that sponsor their favorite driver<br />
  10. 10. Evaluating Marketing Strategies<br />Sponsors evaluating NASCAR partnerships<br />Roush Fenway Racing new deal with Ford Motor Company<br />Eastman Kodak ending its sponsorship in NASCAR<br />US Navy ending its sponsorship of JR Motorsports<br />Different marketing opportunities in NASCAR<br />On-Site activation; television spots; radio spots<br />Competing national companies are involved<br />Partnerships with other sports<br />Do not show as great of a return (Mahar, Paul & Stone, 2004)<br />NASCAR venues draw larger crowds<br />
  11. 11. Targeting New Audiences<br />Emergence as the fastest growing spectator sport in the United States (Levin, Joiner & Cameron, 2001)<br />Steady increases of new fans<br />Females (Weissman, 1999)<br />Minority races (Howard, 2001)<br />Homosexual fans (Amato, Peters & Shao, 2005)<br />Fans with higher incomes (Dunnavant, 2001)<br />Companies such as Rolex and Centurion Boats target individuals with higher income levels<br />
  12. 12. Fan Loyalty<br />NASCAR fans identified as the most loyal of any sport (Spann, 2003)<br />Demonstrate loyalty to their favorite driver or team when the team isn’t successful<br />Loyalties affect purchasing habits of sponsors’ products<br />Positive emotions when a fan’s team is successful (Dalakas & Levin, 2005)<br />
  13. 13. Methods<br />Data were obtained from 128 attendees of the 2 NASCAR events in the Southeastern United States<br />83 men and 53 women were selected at random from infield campgrounds and speedway parking lots<br />Sample isn’t representative of entire population<br />
  14. 14. Instrumentation<br />4 sections of Questionnaire<br />Exposure to NASCAR through attendance, television, and radio broadcast<br />Fans’ favorite driver<br />Fans’ conscious purchasing habits of sponsor products<br />Demographics<br />Data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software<br />Spearman’s correlation was used to examine hypotheses<br />
  15. 15. Results: Descriptive<br />More than 70% of respondents attended 1 or 2 NASCAR events during the period<br />Over 60 % of respondents watched NASCAR events on television more than 14 times during the period<br />Over 60 % of respondents indicated they listened to NASCAR on the radio more than 14 times during the period<br />
  16. 16. Results: Descriptive<br />More than 71% of respondents indicated they sometimes or almost always consciously purchased products that sponsor NASCAR<br />Nearly 70% of respondents indicated they consciously purchased products that sponsored their favorite driver. <br />Percents, Means, and Standard Deviation for Purchasing Products Sponsoring NASCAR and Purchasing Products Sponsoring Favorite Driver<br />* Means were calculated such that 1=“never”, 2=“almost never”, 3=“sometimes”, 4=“almost always” and 5=“always”.<br />
  17. 17. Results: Inferential<br />*significant at the &lt;.05 level<br />**significant at the &lt;.0001 level<br />
  18. 18. Discussion<br />Value of advertising during NASCAR events<br />Weaker correlations than expected<br />Fan segments and media planning<br />
  19. 19. Future Research<br />Focus study female fans, fans with higher incomes and education levels purchasing habits<br />Fan behaviors at tracks in larger markets including Las Vegas, California and New England<br />Continue to examine fans of NASCAR and other sports<br />
  20. 20. Works Cited<br />Amato, C. H, Peters, C. O., & Shao, A. T. (2005). An exploratory investigation into NASCAR fan culture. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14.<br />Dalakas, V., & Levin, A. (2005). The balance theory domino: How sponsorships may elicit negative consumer attitudes. Advances in Consumer Research, 32.<br />Dunnavant, K. (2001). Middle America at 170 mph. Mediaweek, 11.<br />Howard , T. (2001). NASCAR hopes to driver up diversity in fan base. USA Today.<br />Levin, A. M., Joiner, C., & Cameron, G. (2001). The impact of sports: Sponsorship on consumer&apos;s brand attitudes and recall: The case of NASCAR fans. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 23.<br />Mahar, J., Paul, R., & Stone, L. (2005). An examination of stock market response to NASCAR race performance. Marketing Management Journal, 15.<br />Pruitt, S. W., Cornwell, T. B., & Clark, J. M. (2004). The NASCAR phenomenon: Auto racing sponsorships and shareholder wealth. Journal of Advertising Research, 44.<br />Shamir, B. (1992). Some correlates of leisure identity salience: Three exploratory studies. Journal of Leisure Research, 24.<br />Spann, M. G. (2003). NASCAR racing fans: Cranking up an emperical approach. Journal of Popular Culture.<br />Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63.<br />Weissman. R. (1999). The green flag is up. American Demographics, 21.<br />
  21. 21. THANK YOU!!!<br />Brad Holloman<br />hollomanbrad@gmail.com<br />Dr. Anne Marx<br />amarx@elon.edu<br />

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