Leadbeater Creative Capital

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  • 1. Swarms of Innovation Creative Capital Conference, Amsterdam March 2005 Charles Leadbeater
  • 2. Open Innovation The Curitiba Model
    • Design for mass self-organisation
    • Where is creativity?
    • What is it about?
    • Who is creative?
  • 3. Open Innovation Open Innovation Sources
    • Clusters and cities: the milieu
    • Networks
    • Open and user-led companies
    • Open source and peer-to-peer
    • Community led development
    • Social movements
    • Mutuals, cooperatives
  • 4. Open Innovation Common Themes
    • Distributed (resources, tools intelligence, contribution)
    • Co-created (users are producers, designers)
    • Collaborative (peer-to-peer, team based)
    • Shared platforms (commons, milieu, forums)
    • Cumulative (modular, evolutionary, never complete)
  • 5. Open Innovation The Pipeline Model
    • Hire bright people
    • Put them in special conditions
    • Free from market pressures
    • Pipeline of ideas to products
    • Delivered to passive waiting consumers
    • Value comes from transfer and transaction
  • 6. Open Innovation The Pipeline Assumptions
    • Knowledge is created, codified, sent and received
    • Authors of inventions can define their use
    • Intellectual property should be protected to create incentives
    • Consumption is passive - a yes/no choice
    • Design solutions are complete, users can add little
    • Innovation comes from within, self-reflective process
  • 7. Open Innovation Pipeline Organisations
    • The R & D Lab: Thomas J Watson, Bell Labs
    • Specialist creative activities in companies
    • Professional disciplines of architecture and design
    • Elite university education
    • Professional public services
  • 8. Open Innovation Swarm Organisations
    • Linux and open source
    • eBay
    • The Sims
    • The Public Human Genome Project
    • The Grameen Bank
    • Modern astronomy
  • 9. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Generation
    • Multiplying sources of ideas
    • Technology costs down, experimentation is cheap
    • Combining ideas in networks easier
    • Skilled labour more mobile, wants to be autonomous
    • End of knowledge monopolies
  • 10. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Propagation
    • Pro Am culture: Consumers are innovators
    • Radical innovations: the users work out what innovation is for
    • Disruptive innovation: passionate users innovate, producers follow
    • New markets and business models start in margins
    • Users as investors and contributors = increased productive resource
    • Who invented the mountain bike?
    • Blogging vs Big Media
  • 11. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Assumptions
    • Innovation is social and dynamic
    • Authorship joint, complex and evolutionary
    • Knowledge created by interaction
    • Innovation as a mass activity
    • Use is creative
    • Organised without being an organisation
  • 12. Open Innovation Swarm Model
    • Community has to start with something, who provides the kernel/core?
    • Communities are structured: membership, decision making.
    • Motivated by problem solving, very practical not idealistic
    • Provide people with easy to use tools, allow decentralised initiative
    • Governance to manage conflict, uphold values, set direction
  • 13. Open Innovation Swarm Model
    • Fast feedback, allows trial and error
    • Designed to be incomplete, and so to evolve
    • Good ideas drive out bad according to clear yardsticks
    • Distribution of labour, not division of labour
    • Ownership blurred between community and host organisation
  • 14. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation: Advantages
    • Increase diversity of parallel experiments: faster learning
    • Public platforms, shared development, lower cost
    • Better at dealing with technological and market uncertainty
    • Users as co-producers increase the systems resources
    • Communities build momentum, scale behind products
    • Innovation central to modern economy, this is new model of innovation
  • 15. Open Innovation Swarm Innovation Questions
    • Who gets the kernel going? How is that funded?
    • Good for mass incremental innovation but what about big leaps?
    • What if experimentation is complex and costly?
    • What if speed of feedback much slower?
    • Is it just for geeks?
    • Does open style of work require open source ownership/licensing?
  • 16. Open Innovation The Future?
    • Can we apply this approach in mainstream public services?
    • Education, health, social welfare, community safety.
    • What’s in the space between the pipeline and the swarm?
  • 17. Swarms of Innovation Creative Capital Conference, Amsterdam March 2005 Charles Leadbeater