How do you
define
propaganda?
DINFOS Bogeymen
    Can’t propagandize


    Can’t advertise


    Can’t lobby congress


    Can’t influence the U.S. ...
BLUF: Statutory Restrictions

                 Self-aggrandizement
            1.

                 Aid a political party ...
Agenda
    What is propaganda?


    What are our constraints?


        Statutory
    

        Regulatory
    

    ...
Introduction

                COL Bryan Hilferty
            

                West Point Dir. of Communications
        ...
5/12/2009   6
A combination of factors has reversed the
       situation to the point where the bulk of the
       Western media in the ...
Define Propaganda




5/12/2009                       8
Define Propaganda
    Deliberately and deviously communicating
     untruths to manipulate the public and
     make them a...
Define Propaganda

     The systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause
      or of information reflecting the views and...
What is PA?
                Public Affairs – Those public information,
            
                command information, ...
What is PA?
              FM 3.0 Operations, Para 7-14:
            

            Although all information engagement
   ...
Statutes
                5 U.S.C. SEC. 3107 (1970). first enacted as part of the
            
                Act of Octo...
Statutory Restrictions?
                The terms ―publicity,‖ ―propaganda,‖ and ―publicity expert‖ have
            

  ...
Statutory Restrictions?
                GAO has interpreted ―publicity agent‖ to mean someone who
            
          ...
Statutory Restrictions
                 Self-aggrandizement
            1.

                 Aid a political party or
    ...
Statutory Restrictions?
    ALSO: quot;No part of any funds appropriated in this or any other Act shall be
            use...
Statutory Restrictions
                 Self-aggrandizement
            1.

                 Aid a political party or cand...
Examples
                  Self-aggrandizement
             1.

                  Aid a political party or
             2....
Regulatory Restrictions
 Paragraph 5b(5), JP 3-61. ―Although commanders must designate only
   military personnel or Depar...
Regulatory Restrictions
       DoD Principles of Information
 It is Department of Defense policy to make available timely ...
Moral & Ethical
Restrictions
    Lying


    Cheating


    Stealing

5/12/2009   23
So What?
    Worship at the altar of the truth


    Don’t be cowed into JUST providing

    information
    Fight media...
SecDef on Media
―As officers, you will have a responsibility to communicate to
  those below you that the American militar...
We endorse a political model of crisis

    management vs. the more conventional
    public relations approach. . . . the...
Journalist on Engaging Domestic
Influencers
                NY Times front page story Sunday 20Apr08
            
       ...
Journalists on Engaging Foreign
Audiences Covertly
                LA Times front page story Sunday 30Nov05
            
...
Army to spread burden of combat
            By Tom Vanden Brook, USA TODAY 27Oct06 page 1
            WASHINGTON — The pro...
Commanders Intent?
                4 chains of command with not always
            
                complimentary communi...
Framing
                A frame in social theory consists of a
            
                schema of interpretation, tha...
We are good guys
            doing good things
            for a good reason

5/12/2009                       32
British Experience
                Explicitly dislike and distrust
            
                media




5/12/2009      ...
British Experience

                Needlessly classify everything
            



                Isolate troops from th...
Snipe and Spin
                As usual at Bagram, the Defence
            
                media team had opted for a po...
British Experience
                Raise impossibly high
            
                expectations




5/12/2009         ...
This futile campaign
                    There was almost relief in Brigadier
                 Roger Lane's voice on Frida...
British Experience
                Result: Mission Failure
            




5/12/2009                                 38
Britain to withdraw Marines
            after failure to catch al-Qa'eda
                     The government is to withdra...
Conclusion
                Public Affairs is truthful mass
            

                communications in order to
     ...
BACKUP SLIDES
Commercial Media
                DoD can’t do mass
            
                communications better
                tha...
How we get media to
            publish what we want
                Say it, Say it again, Say it again,
            

  ...
Be interesting; be quotable

                      US Major Brian Hilferty, a spokesman for
                  
          ...
5/12/2009   45
5/12/2009   46
How we get media to
            publish what we want
                Keep them near you—they will
            

         ...
Strategic Communications
                    Focused United States Government efforts to
                
               ...
Strategic communication is a sustained and
               coherent set of activities that include:
                underst...
STRATCOM Lessons Learned

    Actions trump words       Relationships are critical
                         

    Partne...
PA vs IO
                  PA is IO but IO isn’t PA
              

                  IO doesn’t have to have full disclo...
What is effective PA?
                A truthful communication that has
            

                an effect on a spec...
Military PAO’s are by definition powerful,

    and we have a moral imperative to honor
    the truth-the complete truth....
How to do effective PA?
             Meet    your Commanders Intent
               Nest   task and purpose
            ...
Factors determining
                            “News Value”
     TIMELINESS: Is it new?
 

     ODDITY: Is it unusual?
 ...
GEN Casey’s 11 Flat Out
Rules for Information
Engagement
            Leaders have to lead in info engagement—PAO’s assist,...
10USC3083 Public Affairs Specialty

    There is a career field in the Army known as the
    Public Affairs Specialty. Mem...
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Wwpas Propaganda Presentation 05 May09a

  1. 1. How do you define propaganda?
  2. 2. DINFOS Bogeymen Can’t propagandize  Can’t advertise  Can’t lobby congress  Can’t influence the U.S. Public 
  3. 3. BLUF: Statutory Restrictions Self-aggrandizement 1. Aid a political party or candidate 2. Covert propaganda 3. Grassroots lobbying 4. 5/12/2009 3
  4. 4. Agenda What is propaganda?  What are our constraints?  Statutory  Regulatory  So what?  Effective PA  News stories on mil propaganda 
  5. 5. Introduction COL Bryan Hilferty  West Point Dir. of Communications  G-1 PAO 2004-2007  10th Mountain PAO 2001-2004  Afghanistan 2002, 2003-4  US Army Alaska PAO 1999-2001  5/12/2009 5
  6. 6. 5/12/2009 6
  7. 7. A combination of factors has reversed the situation to the point where the bulk of the Western media in the country are ensconced in coalition camps as little more than purveyors of propaganda. The bulk of them are at the coalition bases at Bagram, north of Kabul, and Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. They are registered, fed and accommodated by the coalition and given briefings so minimalist as to qualify as works of art. Times of London May 10, 2002 5/12/2009 7
  8. 8. Define Propaganda 5/12/2009 8
  9. 9. Define Propaganda Deliberately and deviously communicating untruths to manipulate the public and make them agree to evil 5/12/2009 9
  10. 10. Define Propaganda The systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition 5/12/2009 10
  11. 11. What is PA? Public Affairs – Those public information,  command information, and community relations activities directed toward both the external and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense. Public Information -- Information of a military nature, the dissemination of which through public news media is not inconsistent with security, and the release of which is considered desirable or nonobjectionable to the responsible releasing agency. AW FM 1-02, Operational Terms and Graphics and Joint Pub 1- 02 DoD Dictionary 5/12/2009 11
  12. 12. What is PA? FM 3.0 Operations, Para 7-14:  Although all information engagement activities are completely truthful, public affairs is unique. It has a statutory responsibility to factually and accurately inform various publics without intent to propagandize or manipulate public opinion. 5/12/2009 12
  13. 13. Statutes 5 U.S.C. SEC. 3107 (1970). first enacted as part of the  Act of October 22, 1913, CH. 32, 38 STAT. 208, 212, Provides as follows in its codified form: “Appropriated funds may not be used to pay a publicity expert unless specifically appropriated for that purpose.” H.R.5631 Department of Defense Appropriations Act,  2007 TITLE VIII GENERAL PROVISIONS SEC. 8001. No part of any appropriation contained in this Act shall be used for publicity or propaganda purposes not authorized by the Congress. 22 U.S.C. SEC. 1461–1a Ban on domestic activities by  United States Information Agency Except as provided in section 1461 of this title and this section, no funds authorized to be appropriated to the United States Information Agency shall be used to influence public opinion in the United States, and no program material prepared by the United States Information Agency shall be distributed within the United States. 5/12/2009 13
  14. 14. Statutory Restrictions? The terms ―publicity,‖ ―propaganda,‖ and ―publicity expert‖ have  been interpreted to forbid a very limited number of activities. Congress has not defined the terms ―publicity,‖ ―propaganda,‖ and ―publicity expert.‖ Thus, to GAO has gone the task of delineating what these terms encompass. GAO has done this on a case by- case basis over the past half-century. Generally speaking, GAO has narrowly defined these terms. It has held that the ―publicity or propaganda‖ prohibition in appropriations laws forbids any public relations activity that: involves ―self-aggrandizement‖ or ―puffery‖ of the agency, its personnel, or  activities; is ―purely partisan in nature‖ (i.e., it is ―designed to aid a political party or  candidate‖); or, is ―covert propaganda‖ (i.e., the communication does not reveal that  government appropriations were expended to produce it). CRS Report for Congress Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency  Activities Updated 21Mar05 5/12/2009 14
  15. 15. Statutory Restrictions? GAO has interpreted ―publicity agent‖ to mean someone who  ―extols or advertises‖ an agency, ―an activity quite different from disseminating information to the citizenry about the agency, its policies, practices, and products.‖ GAO does not view 5 U.S.C. § 3107 as prohibiting an agency's  legitimate informational functions or legitimate promotional functions where authorized by law. Thus construed, the laws prohibiting the hiring of publicity  experts and the expenditure of appropriated funds on publicity and propaganda place very few limits on agency public relations activities. CRS Report for Congress Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency  Activities Updated 21Mar05 5/12/2009 15
  16. 16. Statutory Restrictions Self-aggrandizement 1. Aid a political party or 2. candidate Covert propaganda 3. 5/12/2009 16
  17. 17. Statutory Restrictions? ALSO: quot;No part of any funds appropriated in this or any other Act shall be used by an agency of the executive branch, other than for normal and recognized executive-legislative relationships, for publicity or propaganda purposes, and for the preparation, distribution or use of any kit, pamphlet, booklet, publication, radio, television or film presentation designed to support or defeat legislation pending before the Congress, except in presentation to the Congress itself.‖ This statute prohibits overt appeals to members of the public suggesting that they in turn contact their elected representatives to indicate support of or opposition to pending legislation, thereby expressly or implicitly urging the legislators to vote in a particular manner. 5/12/2009 17
  18. 18. Statutory Restrictions Self-aggrandizement 1. Aid a political party or candidate 2. Covert propaganda 3. Grassroots lobbying 4. 5/12/2009 18
  19. 19. Examples Self-aggrandizement 1. Aid a political party or 2. candidate Covert propaganda 3. Grassroots lobbying 4. 5/12/2009 19
  20. 20. Regulatory Restrictions Paragraph 5b(5), JP 3-61. ―Although commanders must designate only military personnel or Department of Defense civilian employees as official spokespersons, they should educate and encourage all their military and civilian employees to tell the DOD story by providing them with timely information that is appropriate for public release.‖ 5/12/2009 20
  21. 21. Regulatory Restrictions DoD Principles of Information It is Department of Defense policy to make available timely and accurate information so that the public, the Congress, and the news media may assess and understand the facts about national security and defense strategy. Requests for information from organizations and private citizens shall be answered quickly. In carrying out that DoD policy, the following principles of information shall apply: Information shall be made fully and readily available, consistent with statutory requirements, unless its release is precluded by national security constraints or valid statutory mandates or exceptions. The Freedom of Information Act will be supported in both letter and spirit. A free flow of general and military information shall be made available, without censorship or propaganda, to the men and women of the Armed Forces and their dependents. Information will not be classified or otherwise withheld to protect the Government from criticism or embarrassment. Information shall be withheld when disclosure would adversely affect national security, threaten the safety or privacy of U.S. Government personnel or their families, violate the privacy of the citizens of the United States, or be contrary to law. The Department of Defense's obligation to provide the public with information on DoD major programs may require detailed Public Affairs (PA) planning and coordination in the Department of Defense and with the other Government Agencies. Such activity is to expedite the flow of information to the public; propaganda has no place in DoD public affairs programs. 5/12/2009 21
  22. 22. Moral & Ethical Restrictions Lying  Cheating  Stealing 
  23. 23. 5/12/2009 23
  24. 24. So What? Worship at the altar of the truth  Don’t be cowed into JUST providing  information Fight media BS that they are unbiased  Communicating the truth in the 21st  Century is a battle Be aggressive  Have an intent  Use Framing  Put facts into context  Break through the clutter  Understand News Value  Need flair 
  25. 25. SecDef on Media ―As officers, you will have a responsibility to communicate to those below you that the American military must be non- political and recognize the obligation we owe the Congress to be honest and true in our reporting to them. Especially when it involves admitting mistakes or problems. The same is true with the press, in my view a critically important guarantor of our freedom. When the press identifies a problem in the military, our response should be to find out if the allegations are true — and if so, say so, and then act to remedy the problem. If untrue, then be able to document that fact. The press is not the enemy, and to treat it as such is self-defeating. SecDef Gates at West Point 21Apr08 5/12/2009 25
  26. 26. We endorse a political model of crisis  management vs. the more conventional public relations approach. . . . the political model . . . assumes the threat of motivated adversaries, while the public relations model tends to view crisis as organic and resolvable through good communications. In a real crisis there are often opponents . . . These opponents don’t care whether you do the right thing; they care about defeating you.
  27. 27. Journalist on Engaging Domestic Influencers NY Times front page story Sunday 20Apr08  ―Message Machine: Behind TV Analysts, Pentagon’s Hidden Hand‖ Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Journalism  This is PA portrayed by media as IO  Was this program illegal?  Was it covert?  Was this program unethical?  For the military  For the media  For the analysts w/business connections  Was this program effective?  5/12/2009 27
  28. 28. Journalists on Engaging Foreign Audiences Covertly LA Times front page story Sunday 30Nov05  ―US Military Covertly Pays to Run Stories in Iraqi Press‖ This is IO portrayed by media as PA  Was this program illegal?  Was it covert  Was this program unethical?  For the military  For the media  Was this program effective?  5/12/2009 28
  29. 29. Army to spread burden of combat By Tom Vanden Brook, USA TODAY 27Oct06 page 1 WASHINGTON — The prospect of combat in Iraq for at least another four years is prompting the Army to realign its forces to prevent a small slice of soldiers who are shouldering much of the fighting from wearing out. Pentagon records show one-fifth of the Army's active-duty troops have served multiple tours of war duty while more than 40% haven't been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. The Army has more soldiers deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan than the other services combined. It expects to complete the realignment by 2011. About 42% of the Army's 500,000 active-duty soldiers have not deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. They include about 80,000 fresh recruits, most of whom are being trained. More than 90,000 others are in the so-called institutional Army, those who train, equip and manage soldiers. By 2011, there will be 50,000 more troops available for deployment than in 2001. Part of that will be accomplished by having civilian Army employees take 5/12/2009 over certain jobs from soldiers, freeing them up to fight. 29
  30. 30. Commanders Intent? 4 chains of command with not always  complimentary communication goals Commanders through Cbt Cdr to  CJCS/Joint Staff, SecDef & Pres Commanders through MACOM Cdr to  CSA, SA, SecDef & Pres Political appointees through SA to  OSD, & Pres Congress who writes laws & pays bills  5/12/2009 30
  31. 31. Framing A frame in social theory consists of a  schema of interpretation, that is a collection of stereotypes, that individuals rely on to understand and respond to events Choose the language to define a debate  and, more important, with fitting individual issues into the contexts of broader story lines Use emotionally appealing narratives to  rally support 5/12/2009 31
  32. 32. We are good guys doing good things for a good reason 5/12/2009 32
  33. 33. British Experience Explicitly dislike and distrust  media 5/12/2009 33
  34. 34. British Experience Needlessly classify everything  Isolate troops from the media  Lie to the media  5/12/2009 34
  35. 35. Snipe and Spin As usual at Bagram, the Defence  media team had opted for a policy of divide and rule with the natives in the press tents, and, as so often, the result was a fiasco. . . . An infuriated American reporter demanded to know why Lt. Col. Harradine had told lies to the press. The answer, insofar as I understood it, appeared to be that the British do things differently. Julian Manyon The Spectator 5/12/2009 35
  36. 36. British Experience Raise impossibly high  expectations 5/12/2009 36
  37. 37. This futile campaign There was almost relief in Brigadier Roger Lane's voice on Friday morning as he told the Today programme that they'd finally found and killed some AQT - al- Qaida/Taliban - in the remote mountain valleys of eastern Afghanistan. They had engaged their enemy, hitherto as elusive as the snow leopard, and around 1,000 British soldiers were being flown in for the battle. Twenty-four hours later, Operation Condor, as it was named, looked about as farcical as every other operation in Afghanistan has done in the past six months. Madeleine Bunting, The Guardian, May 20, 2002 5/12/2009 37
  38. 38. British Experience Result: Mission Failure  5/12/2009 38
  39. 39. Britain to withdraw Marines after failure to catch al-Qa'eda The government is to withdraw most of its fighting troops from Afghanistan following the failure of the Royal Marines to kill or capture any members of al-Qa'eda or the Taliban. All 1,560 members of 45 Commando battle group and most of the 1,300 British peacekeepers based in Kabul will be brought home by the end of July. Sean Rayment, The Telegraph (London) 09/06/2002 5/12/2009 39
  40. 40. Conclusion Public Affairs is truthful mass  communications in order to accomplish the unit mission PA is the most effective IO weapon  There are little statutory  restrictions on PA 5/12/2009 40
  41. 41. BACKUP SLIDES
  42. 42. Commercial Media DoD can’t do mass  communications better than the commercial mass media/Social Media universe Media is like terrain, it is  there and effects the battle—if you do not use or ignore it, the enemy will use it to their advantage 5/12/2009 42
  43. 43. How we get media to publish what we want Say it, Say it again, Say it again,  Say it again Marketing  Be interesting, be quotable  5/12/2009 43
  44. 44. Be interesting; be quotable US Major Brian Hilferty, a spokesman for  the US-led coalition, said the forces had secured control over the Shahi Kot valley but that some Al Qaeda and Taliban fighters remained. quot;Do you have every single bit of every place covered? No. ... But if I was an Al Qaeda guy, I wouldn’t go out for pizza,quot; he said. March 10, 2001 5/12/2009 44
  45. 45. 5/12/2009 45
  46. 46. 5/12/2009 46
  47. 47. How we get media to publish what we want Keep them near you—they will  listen to and record what you say Be a good source  React to their needs  Tell them your concerns  5/12/2009 47
  48. 48. Strategic Communications Focused United States Government efforts to  understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of United States Government interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power Real definition: Control of all communications  emanating from an organization so our people say what we want them to say and other people believe what we say Alternate Definition: Magic dust that makes sows’  ears into silk purses Hilferty’s Law: The more an organization talks  about STRATCOM, the less it communicates 5/12/2009 48
  49. 49. Strategic communication is a sustained and coherent set of activities that include: understanding identities, attitudes, behaviors, and  cultures; media rends and information flows; social and influence networks; political, social, economic, and religious motivations advising policymakers, diplomats, and military  commanders on the public opinion and communication implications of their strategic and policy choices—and on the best ways to communicate their strategies and policies engaging in a dialogue of ideas between people and  institutions that support national interests and, wherever possible, common interests and shared values influencing attitudes and behavior through  communication strategies supported by a broad range of government and civil society activities measuring the impact of activities comprehensively and over time 5/12/2009 49
  50. 50. STRATCOM Lessons Learned Actions trump words Relationships are critical   Partners count Coordination is critical   Messenger authority Trusted voices   Language matters Images matter   Speed counts Endurance counts   5/12/2009 50
  51. 51. PA vs IO PA is IO but IO isn’t PA  IO doesn’t have to have full disclosure  PA does  IO relies on the truth  PA does too  IO doesn’t need truth all the time  PA does  IO is targeted and has an intended effect  PA does too  IO targets foreign/enemy audiences  PA does too  IO doesn’t target US/Allied audiences  5/12/2009 51 PA does 
  52. 52. What is effective PA? A truthful communication that has  an effect on a specific audience Define the effect you want on your  target audience-- What do you really want to happen? Context is our goal  5/12/2009 52
  53. 53. Military PAO’s are by definition powerful,  and we have a moral imperative to honor the truth-the complete truth. There is a danger that empowered PAOs  will lie and engage in deceitful communications practices and end up destroying the republic. But the alternative, our enemies control  the information environment, is equally dangerous to the republic.
  54. 54. How to do effective PA?  Meet your Commanders Intent  Nest task and purpose  Don’t think the bureaucracy can reinvent the wheel--celebrate and use existing media  Understand the Information Environment  Understand & Use Framing Understand & Use News Value • Find what is interesting • Be quotable 5/12/2009 54
  55. 55. Factors determining “News Value” TIMELINESS: Is it new?  ODDITY: Is it unusual?  CONFLICT: Is there opposition between people or forces?  SUSPENSE: Is the outcome undecided?  IMPACT: Does it affect me? The nation/world?  PROXIMITY: Is it happening close to the audience?  PROMINENCE: Are well-known persons involved?  EMOTION: Is there human interest, sex, kids, animals?  VISUAL: Is there movement/action? # 1 for television  5/12/2009 55
  56. 56. GEN Casey’s 11 Flat Out Rules for Information Engagement Leaders have to lead in info engagement—PAO’s assist, but it  is the leaders job to market, communicate their unit/program Message, audience, frequency—think of these in order to  communicate effectively Don’t forget your internal audiences  A picture is worth a thousand words  Get your message out while interest in high  Get to know the media  Don’t overcentralize  Assessment is hard but essential.  Understand your audience  Candor in all things  You will not always get it right, but keep swinging. (All senior  leaders have been screwed by the media, so they understand) 5/12/2009 56
  57. 57. 10USC3083 Public Affairs Specialty There is a career field in the Army known as the Public Affairs Specialty. Members of the Army with the Public Affairs Specialty are (1) The Chief of Public Affairs (2) Commissioned officers of the Army in the grade of major or above who are selected and specifically educated, trained, and experienced to perform as professional public affairs officers for the remainder of their careers; and (3) Other members of the Armyh assigned to public 5/12/2009 affairs postions by the Secretary of the Army. 57

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