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History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
History of computer edit-2003
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History of computer edit-2003

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  • 1. The evolution of the modern-day computer started inThe evolution of the modern-day computer started in ChinaChina at aroundat around 500 BC500 BC. The abacus was probably the original. The abacus was probably the original counting device. It has survived centuries of technologicalcounting device. It has survived centuries of technological advancement for its widely used today.advancement for its widely used today.
  • 2. The Abacus are the earliestThe Abacus are the earliest known counting/calculationknown counting/calculation instruments.instruments. Used to aid mentalUsed to aid mental calculationscalculations 3000 BC: The3000 BC: The abacusabacus isis invented in Babyloniainvented in Babylonia Used by Greeks and RomansUsed by Greeks and Romans Refined to suit countingRefined to suit counting system of each culturesystem of each culture Abacus were also developedAbacus were also developed by Native American culturesby Native American cultures
  • 3. John NapierJohn Napier, a Scottish theologian and mathematicians,, a Scottish theologian and mathematicians, became famous for his discovery of logarithms. He inventedbecame famous for his discovery of logarithms. He invented inin 16171617 the device that could do this – the Napier’s bone – athe device that could do this – the Napier’s bone – a table of logarithms made of ivory.table of logarithms made of ivory.
  • 4. John Napier
  • 5. 1630 Slide Rule  William Oughtred, an English mathematician, invented the SLIDE RULE, a device made of wood with movable scales arrange to slide opposite each other
  • 6. InIn 16421642, a French, a French mathematician namedmathematician named BlaiseBlaise PascalPascal invented and built theinvented and built the Pascaline. His invention usedPascaline. His invention used gear-driven counting wheelsgear-driven counting wheels to do addition. He inventedto do addition. He invented this device to help his fatherthis device to help his father who was a tax collector. Awho was a tax collector. A programming language wasprogramming language was later named after the him –later named after the him – Pascal ProgrammingPascal Programming LanguageLanguage..
  • 7. 1694 Leibniz Machine  Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, a German mathematician. His machine, the LEIBNIZ MACHINE, considered of a stepped cylinder that could perform the four fundamental operations an square root.
  • 8. InIn 18011801, a French named, a French named Joseph-Marie JacquardJoseph-Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom thatinvented a weaving loom that was aptly called Jacquardwas aptly called Jacquard Weaving Loom. This device,Weaving Loom. This device, which still used at present, iswhich still used at present, is controlled by cards in whichcontrolled by cards in which holes are strategically punched.holes are strategically punched. The punched cards areThe punched cards are sequenced to indicate asequenced to indicate a particular weaving device.particular weaving device.
  • 9. Joseph Marie Jacquard
  • 10. The concepts used in modern-day computers were laid downThe concepts used in modern-day computers were laid down by the nineteenth century English visionary and Cambridgeby the nineteenth century English visionary and Cambridge professorprofessor Charles BabbageCharles Babbage. He invented the Difference. He invented the Difference Engine inEngine in 18221822, which was capable of computing, which was capable of computing mathematical tables and polynomial equations.mathematical tables and polynomial equations.
  • 11.  Charles Babbage is known to be the “Father of Modern Computer”  1833 – Charles Babbage also invented the ANALYTICAL MACHINE designed to perform complex mathematical calculations. This was considered to be the first general purpose computer.
  • 12. Charles Babbage: Difference Engine &Charles Babbage: Difference Engine & Analytical EngineAnalytical Engine In 1822, Babbage proposed building a machine called theIn 1822, Babbage proposed building a machine called the Difference EngineDifference Engine to automatically calculate mathematicalto automatically calculate mathematical tables. The Difference Engine was only partially completedtables. The Difference Engine was only partially completed when Babbage conceived the idea of another, morewhen Babbage conceived the idea of another, more sophisticated machine called ansophisticated machine called an Analytical Engine.Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine was intended to use loops ofThe Analytical Engine was intended to use loops of Jacquard's punched cardsJacquard's punched cards to control an automaticto control an automatic calculator, which could make decisions based on thecalculator, which could make decisions based on the results of previous computations.results of previous computations. The Analytical Machine was designed to be stream -drivenThe Analytical Machine was designed to be stream -driven and fully automatic rather than requiring the user toand fully automatic rather than requiring the user to mechanically input all the data as did the Differencemechanically input all the data as did the Difference Engine.Engine. Neither machine was finished because Babbage keptNeither machine was finished because Babbage kept updating his design.updating his design.
  • 13. Babbage’s ConditionalBabbage’s Conditional DecisionsDecisions The Analytical Machine was also intended to employThe Analytical Machine was also intended to employ several features subsequently used in modern computers,several features subsequently used in modern computers, including sequential control, branching, and looping.including sequential control, branching, and looping. The conditional decision meant that the path a calculationThe conditional decision meant that the path a calculation would follow could be altered depending on the answer towould follow could be altered depending on the answer to the previous step in the calculation.the previous step in the calculation. The use of a card system to ‘store’ a program and theThe use of a card system to ‘store’ a program and the development of the conditional state were significantdevelopment of the conditional state were significant contributions to the future of computingcontributions to the future of computing Augusta Ada Lovelace (LordAugusta Ada Lovelace (Lord Byron’s daughter) worked withByron’s daughter) worked with Babbage and created a programBabbage and created a program for the Analytical Machine. She isfor the Analytical Machine. She is considered to be the firstconsidered to be the first programmerprogrammer
  • 14. 1887 Census Machine  Herman Hollerith, an American statistician and founder of Tabulating Machine Company (now called International Business Machine or IBM) invented the CENSUS MACHINE
  • 15. The US government facedThe US government faced a dilemma because usinga dilemma because using the existing systemthe existing system collatingcollating census datacensus data byby making tally marks inmaking tally marks in small squares on rolls ofsmall squares on rolls of paper and then adding thepaper and then adding the marks together by handmarks together by hand was extremely timewas extremely time consuming.consuming. If the system remainedIf the system remained unchanged, the data fromunchanged, the data from the 1890 census wouldthe 1890 census would not be collated into anynot be collated into any useful form until well afteruseful form until well after the 1900 census.the 1900 census. Herman Hollerith’s Tabulating MachineHerman Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine
  • 16. The Birth of IBMThe Birth of IBM (International Business Machines)(International Business Machines) Hollerith’s system proved to beHollerith’s system proved to be both useful and efficient.both useful and efficient. It was only useful forIt was only useful for tabulation not for directtabulation not for direct complex computation.complex computation. Not a ‘real’ computerNot a ‘real’ computer The use of perforated orThe use of perforated or punched cards for datapunched cards for data entry was a major usefulentry was a major useful innovation.innovation. In February 1924, Hollerith'sIn February 1924, Hollerith's company changed its namecompany changed its name toto International BusinessInternational Business MachinesMachines, or, or IBMIBM..
  • 17. Punched Cards & TapePunched Cards & Tape The original cards had round holes (45 per row by 1900).The original cards had round holes (45 per row by 1900). The use of punched cards (and paper tape) for computerThe use of punched cards (and paper tape) for computer input lasted for many yearsinput lasted for many years Later cards (about 1929 onwards) used rectangularLater cards (about 1929 onwards) used rectangular cards and had 80 holes per row. (This is the type ofcards and had 80 holes per row. (This is the type of computer card you may have seen since they werecomputer card you may have seen since they were around for a long time.)around for a long time.)
  • 18. 1892 Adding/Calculating Machine  William Seward Burroughs, an American inventor, designed a key-driven machine that produced a hardcopy. This was called ADDING/CALCULATING MACHINE.
  • 19. Dr. John AtanasoffDr. John Atanasoff and his assistantand his assistant Clifford BerryClifford Berry design anddesign and began to build the first electronic computer during the winterbegan to build the first electronic computer during the winter ofof 1937-381937-38. Their machine, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer or. Their machine, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer or ABC provided the foundation for the next advances inABC provided the foundation for the next advances in electronic digital computers.electronic digital computers.
  • 20. InIn 19441944,, IBMIBM sponsored the building of the firstsponsored the building of the first electromechanical computer called theelectromechanical computer called the Mark IMark I. The credit for. The credit for the creation of this goes tothe creation of this goes to Howard AikenHoward Aiken, a professor at, a professor at Harvard University.Harvard University.
  • 21. During the yearsDuring the years 1943 to 19461943 to 1946,, Dr. John W. MauchlyDr. John W. Mauchly andand J.J. Presper Eckert Jr.Presper Eckert Jr. completed the ENIAC (Electroniccompleted the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), the first large scaleNumerical Integrator and Calculator), the first large scale electronic digital computer.electronic digital computer.
  • 22.  ENIAC had the capacity of 5,000 computations per second
  • 23. Was developed by [USA]Was developed by [USA] Army Ordnance toArmy Ordnance to compute World War IIcompute World War II ballistic firing tables.ballistic firing tables. Early electronic digitalEarly electronic digital computercomputer 1,800 Vacuum tubes1,800 Vacuum tubes ENIAC could discriminateENIAC could discriminate the sign of a number,the sign of a number, compare quantities forcompare quantities for equality, add, subtract,equality, add, subtract, multiply, divide, andmultiply, divide, and extract square roots.extract square roots. ENIAC stored aENIAC stored a maximum of twenty 10-maximum of twenty 10- digit decimal numbers.digit decimal numbers.
  • 24. First Generation  Awesome in size  Controlled by thousands of vacuum tubes or valves  Consumes great amount of power that often resulted in overheating and failure  The operators cannot recognize whether the breakdown was in the programming or in the machine  Information were stored on punched cards as well as on magnetic tapes  The language level used was machine language which used numbers
  • 25. During the firstDuring the first generation, computersgeneration, computers were built withwere built with vacuumvacuum tubestubes – electronic tubes– electronic tubes that were made of glassthat were made of glass and were about the sizeand were about the size of the light bulbs.of the light bulbs.
  • 26. Second Generation  Transistors replaced vacuum tubes (used less power and did not get so hot quickly)  Development of assembly or symbolic language  Development of high level language such as Fortran and Cobol allowed programmers to give more attention to solving problems
  • 27. This generation began with the with the firstThis generation began with the with the first computers built withcomputers built with transistorstransistors – small– small devices that transfer electronic signals acrossdevices that transfer electronic signals across a resistor. Because transistors are mucha resistor. Because transistors are much smaller, use less power, and create less heatsmaller, use less power, and create less heat than vacuum tubes, the new computers werethan vacuum tubes, the new computers were faster, smaller, and more reliable than thefaster, smaller, and more reliable than the first generation machines.first generation machines.
  • 28. Third Generation  Uses Integrated Circuit, commonly known as the silicon chip, which revolutionized electronic  Users interacted through keyboards & monitors and interfaces with an OS.  If later progressed to Large Scale Integration (LSI), where few chips could replace several hundred thousands of transistors
  • 29. In 1964, computer manufacturers began replacingIn 1964, computer manufacturers began replacing transistors with integrated circuits. Antransistors with integrated circuits. An integratedintegrated circuits (IC)circuits (IC) is a complete electronic circuit on ais a complete electronic circuit on a small chip made of silicon (one of the most abundantsmall chip made of silicon (one of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust). These computers wereelements in the earth’s crust). These computers were more reliable and compact that computers made withmore reliable and compact that computers made with transistors, and they cost less manufacturers,transistors, and they cost less manufacturers,
  • 30. Fourth Generation  Uses microprocessor, a chip which contains all the main electronic components of a computer  If made possible to build computers to enormous logical capacity and reliability, more cheaply and in a very small space  Very Large Space Integration (VLSI) was achieved  Development of GUIs, mouse & handheld devices  Microprocessors led to the development of microcomputers
  • 31. Many advances were made during thisMany advances were made during this generation, the most significant being thegeneration, the most significant being the microprocessormicroprocessor – a specialized chip– a specialized chip developed for computer memory anddeveloped for computer memory and logic. Use of a single chip to create alogic. Use of a single chip to create a smaller “personal” computer (as well assmaller “personal” computer (as well as digital watches, pocket calculators, copydigital watches, pocket calculators, copy machines, and so on) revolutionized themachines, and so on) revolutionized the computer industry.computer industry.
  • 32. Fifth Generation  Development of artificial intelligence such as voice recognition  Use of parallel processing and superconductors to make artificial intelligence a reality  Quantum computation & nanotechnology will change the face of computers in years to come  Develop devices that responds to natural languages input.
  • 33. Our current generation has been referred to asOur current generation has been referred to as thethe “Connected Generation”“Connected Generation” because of thebecause of the industry’s massive effort to increase theindustry’s massive effort to increase the connectivity of computers. The rapidlyconnectivity of computers. The rapidly expanding Internet, World Wide Web, andexpanding Internet, World Wide Web, and intranets have created an informationintranets have created an information superhighway that has enabled both computersuperhighway that has enabled both computer professionals and home computer users toprofessionals and home computer users to communicate with others across the globe.communicate with others across the globe.
  • 34. Dr. John W. MauchlyDr. John W. Mauchly andand J. Presper Eckert Jr.J. Presper Eckert Jr. introduce the firstintroduce the first commercially available electronic digital computer – thecommercially available electronic digital computer – the UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer)UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer) – built with vacuum– built with vacuum tubestubes which could perform 10,000 computations per second.
  • 35. Development team led Dr. Grace Hopper,Development team led Dr. Grace Hopper, former US Navy programmer, introduces theformer US Navy programmer, introduces the A6A6 CompilerCompiler – the first example of software that– the first example of software that converts high level language symbols intoconverts high level language symbols into instructions that a computer can execute.instructions that a computer can execute.
  • 36. IBMIBM adds computers to its business equipmentadds computers to its business equipment products and sells over 1000 IBM 650 systems.products and sells over 1000 IBM 650 systems.
  • 37.  The IBM again developed a machine that could perform 100,000 computations per second and can store data internally. The machine was the IBM 704.
  • 38. Introduction of first high-level programmingIntroduction of first high-level programming language –language – FORTRANFORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator)(FORmula TRANslator)
  • 39. Introduction of computers built withIntroduction of computers built with transistorstransistors – a– a 1947 Bell Laboratories invention.1947 Bell Laboratories invention.
  • 40. Introduction of theIntroduction of the removable packremovable pack, providing users, providing users with fast access to stored data.with fast access to stored data.
  • 41. General Electric Corporation introducesGeneral Electric Corporation introduces ERMAERMA (Electronic(Electronic Recording Machine Accounting)Recording Machine Accounting) – the first technology that– the first technology that can read special characters, such as digitized information.can read special characters, such as digitized information.
  • 42. Introduction of first business application programmingIntroduction of first business application programming language –language – COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language)COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) – based on English-like phrases.– based on English-like phrases.
  • 43. Introduction of the first computer industry standard characterIntroduction of the first computer industry standard character set –set – ASCII (American Standard Code for InformationASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)Interchange) that enables computers to exchangethat enables computers to exchange information.information.
  • 44. Introduction of computer built with anIntroduction of computer built with an integrated circuit (IC)integrated circuit (IC),, which incorporates multiple transistors and electronic circuitswhich incorporates multiple transistors and electronic circuits on single silicon chip.on single silicon chip.
  • 45. IBM introduces itsIBM introduces its System/360System/360 line of compatible computers,line of compatible computers, which can all use the same programs and peripherals.which can all use the same programs and peripherals.
  • 46. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the firstDigital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces the first minicomputerminicomputer
  • 47. Introduction of theIntroduction of the BASICBASIC programming language.programming language.
  • 48. Introduction ofIntroduction of ARPANETARPANET and the beginning ofand the beginning of InternetInternet..
  • 49. IBM announces its decision to offer unbundledIBM announces its decision to offer unbundled software, priced and sold separately from thesoftware, priced and sold separately from the hardware.hardware.
  • 50. Introduction of computers built with chips that usedIntroduction of computers built with chips that used LSILSI (large-scale integration)(large-scale integration)
  • 51. Dr. Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation develops aDr. Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation develops a microprogrammable computer chip – the Intel 4004microprogrammable computer chip – the Intel 4004 microprocessor.microprocessor.
  • 52. First local area network (LAN) – Ethernet – developed atFirst local area network (LAN) – Ethernet – developed at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center)Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center)
  • 53. The MITS, Inc.,The MITS, Inc., AltairAltair becomes the first commerciallybecomes the first commercially successful microcomputer, selling for less that $400 a kit.successful microcomputer, selling for less that $400 a kit.
  • 54. Apple Computer, Inc., founded byApple Computer, Inc., founded by Steve WozniakSteve Wozniak andand SteveSteve JobsJobs, and, and Apple IApple I introduced as an easy-to-use “hobbyist”introduced as an easy-to-use “hobbyist” computer.computer.
  • 55. Introduction of the first public information services –Introduction of the first public information services – Compuserve and the Source.Compuserve and the Source.
  • 56. IBM asks Microsoft founder,IBM asks Microsoft founder, Bill GatesBill Gates, to develop, to develop an operating system – MS-DOS – for the soon-to-bean operating system – MS-DOS – for the soon-to-be releasedreleased IBM personal computerIBM personal computer..
  • 57. Introduction of theIntroduction of the IBM PCIBM PC, which contains an Intel, which contains an Intel microprocessor chip and Microsoft’ MS-DOS operatingmicroprocessor chip and Microsoft’ MS-DOS operating system.system.
  • 58. Apple introduces theApple introduces the Macintosh ComputerMacintosh Computer, with unique easy-, with unique easy- to-use graphical interface.to-use graphical interface.
  • 59. Microsoft introduces their Windows graphicalMicrosoft introduces their Windows graphical user interface.user interface.
  • 60. Introduction ofIntroduction of Intel 486Intel 486 – the first 1,000,000 transistor– the first 1,000,000 transistor microprocessor.microprocessor.
  • 61. Microsoft releasesMicrosoft releases Windows 3.0Windows 3.0, with an enhanced graphical, with an enhanced graphical user interface and the ability to run multiple application.user interface and the ability to run multiple application.
  • 62. Release ofRelease of Word Wide WebWord Wide Web standards that describe thestandards that describe the framework of linking documents on different computers.framework of linking documents on different computers.
  • 63. Linus TorvaldsLinus Torvalds, a graduate student at the University of, a graduate student at the University of Helsinki, develops a version ofHelsinki, develops a version of UNIXUNIX called thecalled the LinuxLinux operating system.operating system.
  • 64. Apple introduces theApple introduces the Newton MessagePadNewton MessagePad – a personal digital– a personal digital assistant (PDA) that incorporates a pen interface and wirelessassistant (PDA) that incorporates a pen interface and wireless communications.communications.
  • 65. Introduction of computer systems built with Intel’s PentiumIntroduction of computer systems built with Intel’s Pentium microprocessor.microprocessor.
  • 66. Introduction of theIntroduction of the MosaicMosaic graphical Web browser,graphical Web browser, which led to the organization of Netscapewhich led to the organization of Netscape Communications CorporationCommunications Corporation
  • 67. Intel begins shipping theIntel begins shipping the Pentium ProPentium Pro microprocessor.microprocessor.
  • 68. Microsoft releasesMicrosoft releases Windows 95Windows 95, a major upgrade to its, a major upgrade to its Windows operating system.Windows operating system.
  • 69. More than 500 million PCs sold and more thanMore than 500 million PCs sold and more than 250 million PCs in use worldwide.250 million PCs in use worldwide.
  • 70. Microsoft releasesMicrosoft releases Office 97Office 97 with major Web enhancementswith major Web enhancements integrated into its application.integrated into its application.
  • 71. The number of Internet and World Wide WebThe number of Internet and World Wide Web users estimated at 50 million.users estimated at 50 million.
  • 72. Microsoft releasesMicrosoft releases Office 98Office 98 integrated with Internet Explorerintegrated with Internet Explorer 4.0 – antitrust legislation intensifies.4.0 – antitrust legislation intensifies.
  • 73. Microsoft releasesMicrosoft releases Office 2000Office 2000 featuring extensive Webfeaturing extensive Web integration and document collaboration – soon followed byintegration and document collaboration – soon followed by Windows 2000Windows 2000..
  • 74. A private Internet –A private Internet – Internet2Internet2 – expected to be– expected to be completed with higher speed, limited access,completed with higher speed, limited access, and tighter security is in the works. Expectedand tighter security is in the works. Expected to include advanced virtual reality interfacesto include advanced virtual reality interfaces called nanomanipulators.called nanomanipulators.
  • 75. Applicationsof Computers  In the scientific and engineering fields, it provides inexpensive and accurate computation for better designs of devices or machines and more discoveries made in less time  In the business world, it is used in the preparation of payrolls, in recording accounts receivables, in keeping tracks or inventions  In banks, insurance companies, hospitals, and government offices, records are computerized
  • 76. Applicationsof Computers  Large firms and offices such as PLDT, Meralco and MWSS prepare invoices with computers  Provide instantaneous and accurate data for airlines, hotels and check-out counters in the department stores  Now becoming an everyday tool not only in the offices but in homes as well
  • 77. Why Computers Sometimes Fail  GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out). Computer error may result from erroneously entered input.  Programs contain errors or “bugs” that do not become evident until a specific set of circumstances arises.  “Users” do not understand each other’s needs or have not communicated successfully.
  • 78.  Improper controls can lead to sabotage the company and invasion of privacy  Lack of standard results in problems when an organization obtains new equipment, hires new computer professionals, and attempts to provide some consistent set of procedures to be adopted by its computing staff  Manufacturer fails to supply needed spare parts, trained technicians, or that particular machine model is no longer in production Why Computers Sometimes Fail
  • 79. Classification of Computers  General-Purpose Computers - A computer that has the ability to store different programs of instructions and thus to perform a variety of operations.  Special-Purpose Computers - A computer designed to perform one specific task According to purpose:
  • 80.  Digital Computers – a machine that specialize in counting of items that are distinct from one another, e.g. Text, integers, Morse code  Analog Computer – machine that deals with quantities that are continuous variable. This means that no individual elements can be identified from any other element, e.g. Light, voice, and video  Hybrid Computers – machine that combines the measuring capabilities of the analog computer and the logical and control capabilities of the digital computer Classification of Computers According to Types of data handled :
  • 81. Classification of Computers According to Capacity :  Microcomputers –capable of handling small, single-business applications such as sales analysis, inventory, billing and payroll.  Minicomputers – They can do operation like airline reservations  Medium-size Computers – They can serve the needs of a university.
  • 82. Classification of Computers According to Capacity :  Large Computers –They can be used in government agencies and in the development of space technology  Supercomputers – machines that have capabilities far beyond even the traditional large-scale systems. They are essential for applications ranging from nuclear weapon development to accurate weather forecasting.

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