The modern world


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The modern world

  1. 1. The Modern World From the Middle Ages to the Post-modern 500 - 1950
  2. 2. The Medieval Situation <ul><li>A united culture of Christendom. </li></ul><ul><li>An age of respect for authority. </li></ul><ul><li>An age of enchantment and engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>An age of speculative philosophy, rather than scientific research. </li></ul><ul><li>An age of elaborate systems: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Love = courtship </li></ul><ul><li>ii) War = chivalry </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Society = the Great Chain of Being </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Universe = the four elements </li></ul><ul><li>v) Medicine = the four humours </li></ul><ul><li>vi) Philosophy = scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>vii) Religion = Christianity </li></ul>
  3. 3. It was an age of synthesis and engagement : European culture in the middle ages adopted and perfected a coherent model of the universe. Individuals were engaged in the social and cosmic order.
  4. 4. The synthesis of theology, science and history created a single, complex, harmonious mental model from: <ul><li>Platonic </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotelian </li></ul><ul><li>Stoical Models </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan </li></ul><ul><li>Christian </li></ul>
  5. 5. The renaissance in Europe was sparked by the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman texts. The values and ideas they contained led to a series of revolutions in European culture. The movement is called renaissance humanism . The new culture in Europe was human-centred or anthropocentric.
  6. 6. Humanism <ul><li>Asserted the primacy of reason and free will. </li></ul><ul><li>Asserted the individual over the collective. </li></ul><ul><li>Asserted a personal, rationally understood religious understanding based on virtue and discipline over the collective ritual and Christian agape. </li></ul><ul><li>Asserted an understanding of human flourishing that involved no relation to a higher order. </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigms had shifted from a vertical axis (spiritual and transcendent) to a horizontal (materialist and immanent). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Renaissance humanism was the philosophical and cultural catalyst that initiated a new human centred (anthropocentric) understanding of our place in the cosmos. It affected: <ul><li>Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Political thought </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul>
  8. 8. Revolution and Emancipation <ul><li>Revolutions inflame the feeling that life in society is perpetual constraint, the eternal cause of discontent. </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation is the immediate appeal of all revolutions. It offers the opportunity to escape from the discipline society imposes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Religion 16C <ul><li>Question : What to believe? How to worship? </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Protestant Reformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality : Martin Luther, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I. </li></ul><ul><li>Values : Emancipation, Primitivism. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Monarchical 17C <ul><li>Question : Who will rule? Monarch or Parliament? </li></ul><ul><li>Example : English Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality : James I, Charles I, Charles II. </li></ul><ul><li>Values : Emancipation, Secularism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Liberal and Individual 18 & 19C <ul><li>Question : What is the status of the individual in society? </li></ul><ul><li>Example : French and American Revolutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality : Voltaire, Rousseau, Thomas Paine. </li></ul><ul><li>Values : Emancipation, Liberty, Equality, Reason, Individualism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social and Economic 20C <ul><li>Question : How to achieve social and economic equality? </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Russian Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality : Karl Marx, Lenin, Trotsky. </li></ul><ul><li>Values : Emancipation, Reason, Equality. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scientific 16-20C <ul><li>Question : What is man’s relationship with himself and the world? </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution, Gravitation, Heliocentric Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Personalities : Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Values : Reason, Analysis, Specialism, Empiricism. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Paradigm Shift <ul><li>the notion of a major change in a certain thought-pattern — a radical change in personal beliefs, complex systems or organizations, replacing the former way of thinking or organizing with a radically different way of thinking or organizing. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Modern World is an Age of Analysis …things come apart <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>The Individual </li></ul><ul><li>The Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Science. </li></ul><ul><li>All institutions and paradigms have radically transformed. However, by 1950 the modern world has ended and the values that energised society have lost their power to move people. The post-modern world is atomised and is characterised by feelings of alienation, pessimism, disenchantment and malaise. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Modern World <ul><li>Shifted our understanding of our place in the cosmos from a vertical plane (transcendence, engagement, enchantment) to a horizontal one (immanence, material, disenchantment). </li></ul>