Urban Regeneration in a Historic City:
Think City’s Initiatives in George Town,
Penang
Smart Cities Conference 12 March 20...
AGENDA
 Setting the Context:
Malaysia’s Response to the Urban Challenge
 Penang as a Case Study:
Challenges, Opportuniti...
Cities are Engines of Economic Growth
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 4
In 1800, only 3% of people lived...
Globally, economic activity is highly concentrated in key
cities in each country
High income countries are economically de...
Working Partners
Economics of geography suggests that high density localities will be
best placed to attract new firms and...
Source: Economic Intelligence Unit, Price Waterhouse Coopers
Trend line of countries’ expected spending according to wealt...
Malaysia’s Response to the Urban Challenge
28% 75%
1970 2013
11%
1911
“Competition is no longer only
between nations but also between
cities. For Malaysia to move into a
higher income economy,...
“ …leveraging on cities to accelerate economic growth
will be an important strategy during the 10th
Plan”
Building vibrant...
20
Source: adapted from the 10th
Malaysia Plan
Growth will be concentrated in urban conurbations
21
Kuala Lumpur, Iskandar and George Town Conurbation already
account for more then 50% of Malaysia GDP
Source: adapted fr...
Iskandar
10MP has identified strategies that will focus on building density,
developing clusters and specialization in hig...
Who we are
•Providing urban policy thinking.
•Implementing innovative urban solutions.
•Driving urban regeneration.
30
Penang as a case study …
Putting POLICY…into PRACTICE
31
• George Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (alongside other
global sites like Venice, Borobudur, Angkor Wat and Hoi ...
51% 92%
1970 2013
37%
1911
Putting POLICY…into PRACTICE
“We came here for low
cost labour… we stayed
for talent.”
“We came here for low
cost labour… we stayed
for talent.”
Trading
(1786-1969)
Manufacturing
(1970-2008)
Knowledge
(2009 - )
Port City Industrial
City
Knowledge
City
Compact City Ur...
Challenge for Penang: Losing its old world charm
Challenge for Penang: Traffic Congestion
Perbandingan di antara Jumlah Kenderaan dan Jumlah Penduduk di
Pulau Pinang antar...
Challenge for Penang: Urban Areas Getting Hotter
39
Challenge for Penang: Mean Temperature Rising
Mean Temperature in Bayan Lepas, Penang (1951 - 2009)
26.0
26.5
27.0
27.5
28...
Challenge for Penang:
Unsustainable Water and Solid Waste Trends
Water consumption
and Solid waste per
capita is nearly tw...
Challenge for Penang: Bad street infrastructure
Over-burdened drainage system leadingOver-burdened drainage system leading...
Challenge for Penang: River Pollution
43
Challenge for Penang: Marine Water Quality
44
Vulnerable groups pushed to the periphery and concentrated in
emerging urban ‘slums’
Tanjong Tokong UDA FlatsMacallum Stre...
The outcome of all of these challenges
• Flight of talent from Penang.
• Declining growth of high-value
tourism.
• Declini...
© All Rights Reserved.
This material is confidential and property to Khazanah. No part of this material
should be reproduc...
Building on Strengths: Penang is emerging as a business & services hub
of the Bay of Bengal (GDP of over USD 750bil)
Adapt...
49
Bayan Lepas 64%
RM 240 bil
KLIA 34%
RM 130 bil
Subang 1%
RM 4.5 bil
Others 1%
RM 3.3 bil Malaysia Cargo Movement
(mil k...
• George Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (alongside other
global sites like Venice, Borobudur, Angkor Wat and Hoi An)...
51
Building on Strengths:
Penang is an anchor for medical tourism in Malaysia
52
Food, Beaches and Heritage are large Tourism draws
• George Town core a UNESCO World Heritage Site
• Malaysia’s culinar...
For Penang, this requires its cities, people and economy to
develop together
CITIES
PEOPLEECONOMY
Agglomeration and
increa...
Building distinctiveness : Penang’s cultural heritage;
cosmopolitan people; and built form
54
A city that promotes new ideas for improving urban
mobility for everyone
55
“Transport defines the form of a city.”
The Ec...
A city with a place for small businesses, space for
children and marginalized
More civic spaces for the marginalized to
in...
A city that retains its rich cultural heritage, urban form
and diversity
Economically
Successful
Socially
Equitable
Enviro...
Positioning Penang
Positioning Penang
• Strategy for reinventing the George
Town Conurbation
• Key enabling factors and po...
•To become the most livable
place in Malaysia and top 25
Most Liveable Places by 2030
•Transform Penang as Malaysia ´s
lab...
Strategic Spatial Framework
63
Major upgrade to the urban infrastructure is on the way to
strengthen the competitiveness of the region. (>RM20b)
65
• Rapid
from Policy… to Practice
Urban regeneration in a World Heritage Site
through a public grants programme
George Town Grants Programme
• Physical/Public Realm
• Social Capital &
Capability
• Knowledge
OUTCOMEOUTCOME
• A cultural...
THINK CITY PROJECTS
• George Town Land Use SurveyGeorge Town Land Use Survey
– in-person survey collected data on
every business, residence, a...
D e v e l o p m e n t a l:
Rejuvenating the Waterfront
70
Adaptive Re-Use:
of waterfront properties
71
M e d i c i n a l H a l l :
Retaining traditional trades in new context
Yin Oi Tong, established in 1796 is the oldest Chi...
I n c l u s i v e
75
76
Affordable Housing Scheme
79
Apprenticeship Programme for Endangered Trades
& Celebrating “Living Heritage”
S u s t a i n a b l e :
Greening the city’s “Shared Spaces”
80
Jan 2011
81
Carnarvon Street Pilot Greening Project
Improving urban mobility in Penang
Successful implementation and cycling
campaign in Penang, including night cycling in
UN...
Creativity & Innovation:
Aspirational & Practical Solutions
84
Creativity & Innovation:
Aspirational & Practical Solutions
85
86
Building Partnerships:
87
Business Improvement District Scheme (BIDS)Business Improvement District Scheme (BIDS)
Panoramic view of the BIDs Area
Business Improvement District Scheme (BIDS)
Asia’s first Business Improvement District Scheme
George Town BIDS
90
ENHANCEMENT TO
PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIVITY
George Town BIDS
91
Little India Improvement District (LIID)Little India Improvement District (LIID)
Community Led InitiativeCommunity Led Ini...
93
94
Proposed Special Action Plan for Little India
Proposed Special Action Plan for Little India
Public Engagement ActivitiesPublic Engagement Activities
98
99
100
Malaysian Federal
Government
Agencies
Jabatan
Perancangan
Bandar dan Desa
Majlis Agama
Islam Negeri
Pulau Pinang
World Ban...
102
5 – number of cultural
interpretation centres
40% - the number of
community-led initiatives
Working PartnersReinventing The City: Intelligent Urbanization
City as a Living Space
– Public health, safety & security
–...
Cities
Hub + Home
Inclusive
Respectful
Vibrant & Creative
Excellence Driven
Welcoming
Intimate
Surprising
Non-Conformist
Y...
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
Smart cities (neil khor) 110314
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  • How the brand is used as a foundation will become clear in Implementing the vision,
    Values will drive the implementation so that the experience of the brand will be one of welcoming, intimate, surprising, non-conformist, etc….
    Inclusive
    Being INCLUSIVE means being home to many cultural communities.
    Egalitarian
    Universal – Penang for the world
    Connecting
    Being RESPECTFUL is about valuing the centuries of diversity that have made us who we are. Diversity
    Cultures
    History
    Authenticity
    Being VIBRANT & Creative is all about being a city filled with life, that continuously renews and reinvents itself to be constantly relevant to its stakeholders Smart
    Simple
    Stimulating
    Being EXCELLENCE-DRIVEN is what makes us passionate, savvy and entrepreneurial. It underscores a total commitment to sustainability
    Welcoming
    Providing a sense of belonging
    Diverse
    Appealing to the senses
    Colours
    Flavours
    Sounds
    Intimate
    Human scale
    Urban villages
    Surprising
    Parks with hidden surprises/treasures
    Juxtaposition of old and new, local
    and foreign
    Non-conformist
    Challenging the status quo
    Maverick
    Young and Pro-active
    Young in spirit
    Actively and constantly seeking
    to improve
  • Smart cities (neil khor) 110314

    1. 1. Urban Regeneration in a Historic City: Think City’s Initiatives in George Town, Penang Smart Cities Conference 12 March 2014 Neil Khor Senior Fellow, Think City 1
    2. 2. AGENDA  Setting the Context: Malaysia’s Response to the Urban Challenge  Penang as a Case Study: Challenges, Opportunities in a Historic City  Putting Policy into Practice: Urban regeneration in a World Heritage Site via a public grants programme
    3. 3. Cities are Engines of Economic Growth Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 4 In 1800, only 3% of people lived in cities In 1950, only 30% of the world was urban By 2030, 60% of people will live in cities
    4. 4. Globally, economic activity is highly concentrated in key cities in each country High income countries are economically dense Adapted from Cities, People and The Economy (2010)
    5. 5. Working Partners Economics of geography suggests that high density localities will be best placed to attract new firms and exploit economies of scale. • The world is being shaped by competition between cities, and no longer between nations • People now choose the city where they want to live; before they chose the job they wanted • Efficient and liveable cities are the keys to successful national development • Agglomeration permits scale economies and generates higher incomes • Agglomeration will only happen in globally and locally networked cities Rapid urbanization requires cities to be made liveable and sustainable to optimize the potential of cities as the engines of economic growth A changing world
    6. 6. Source: Economic Intelligence Unit, Price Waterhouse Coopers Trend line of countries’ expected spending according to wealth There is a strong linkage between the wealth of cities and the quality of life within cities
    7. 7. Malaysia’s Response to the Urban Challenge
    8. 8. 28% 75% 1970 2013 11% 1911
    9. 9. “Competition is no longer only between nations but also between cities. For Malaysia to move into a higher income economy, we must exploit higher returns by adopting strategies to build density, develop clusters and specialize in high value sectors.” Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Haji Abdul Razak, Prime Minister of Malaysia
    10. 10. “ …leveraging on cities to accelerate economic growth will be an important strategy during the 10th Plan” Building vibrant and attractive living spaces. Influencing the form and character of living spaces to make them attractive places to live, work and play” Concentrated decentralization and promote areas with the greatest potential. Strive towards compact, energy-efficient urban forms with clear identity
    11. 11. 20 Source: adapted from the 10th Malaysia Plan Growth will be concentrated in urban conurbations
    12. 12. 21 Kuala Lumpur, Iskandar and George Town Conurbation already account for more then 50% of Malaysia GDP Source: adapted from the 10th Malaysia Plan
    13. 13. Iskandar 10MP has identified strategies that will focus on building density, developing clusters and specialization in high value sectors Greater KL A comprehensive plan is required to harness economic opportunities in the region 27
    14. 14. Who we are •Providing urban policy thinking. •Implementing innovative urban solutions. •Driving urban regeneration.
    15. 15. 30 Penang as a case study … Putting POLICY…into PRACTICE
    16. 16. 31 • George Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (alongside other global sites like Venice, Borobudur, Angkor Wat and Hoi An) • Penang is Malaysia’s culinary capital (world renowned food haven) • Penang is the third most popular destination (13% of Malaysia’s total foreign tourists) • A Melting Pot of Food, Beaches, Heritage, Culture & Religion
    17. 17. 51% 92% 1970 2013 37% 1911
    18. 18. Putting POLICY…into PRACTICE
    19. 19. “We came here for low cost labour… we stayed for talent.” “We came here for low cost labour… we stayed for talent.”
    20. 20. Trading (1786-1969) Manufacturing (1970-2008) Knowledge (2009 - ) Port City Industrial City Knowledge City Compact City Urban Sprawl ???
    21. 21. Challenge for Penang: Losing its old world charm
    22. 22. Challenge for Penang: Traffic Congestion Perbandingan di antara Jumlah Kenderaan dan Jumlah Penduduk di Pulau Pinang antara Tahun 1998 hingga 2007 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Tahun BilanganKenderaan/Penduduk Jumlah Kenderaan Bermotor Jumlah Penduduk Comparison between number of registered motor vehicles and population in Penang (1998 – 2007) • Private car registrations increased by an average of 9% each year for the last 15 years (double the rate for motorcycles). If this rate keeps up, the number of cars will double every 8 years
    23. 23. Challenge for Penang: Urban Areas Getting Hotter 39
    24. 24. Challenge for Penang: Mean Temperature Rising Mean Temperature in Bayan Lepas, Penang (1951 - 2009) 26.0 26.5 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 29.0 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Year (oC)
    25. 25. Challenge for Penang: Unsustainable Water and Solid Waste Trends Water consumption and Solid waste per capita is nearly twice higher then Singapore Country / Region Average (LCD) Penang 291 Rest of Malaysia 188 South East Queensland 163 Singapore 154 France 150 Germany 127 Estonia 100 Water consumption
    26. 26. Challenge for Penang: Bad street infrastructure Over-burdened drainage system leadingOver-burdened drainage system leading to flash flood prone streetsto flash flood prone streets High street curbs are not pedestrian friendly 42
    27. 27. Challenge for Penang: River Pollution 43
    28. 28. Challenge for Penang: Marine Water Quality 44
    29. 29. Vulnerable groups pushed to the periphery and concentrated in emerging urban ‘slums’ Tanjong Tokong UDA FlatsMacallum Street Flats 15 Storey20 Storey Social Housing in the 70’s & 80’s 45
    30. 30. The outcome of all of these challenges • Flight of talent from Penang. • Declining growth of high-value tourism. • Declining quality of life High opportunity cost: The decay of Penang’s natural endowment is happening at a time when the ‘liveability of cities’ has become a key factor in the competitive advantage of nations. 46
    31. 31. © All Rights Reserved. This material is confidential and property to Khazanah. No part of this material should be reproduced or published in any form by any means, nor should the material be disclosed to third parties without the consent of Khazanah. CONFIDENTIAL Penang as the centre of the Northern Region. The economic activity brings the region together. Penang as the centre of IMT-GT. Good connectivity can bring activity into the region, thus enhancing itself and the region as a whole. Penang as the centre for the Bay of Bengal. Can act as the urban centre for the Bay of Bengal region. PENANG The Regional Opportunity Penang has the potential to be the heart of one of the fastest growing regions with access to a large hinterland for resources, human capital, technology and markets
    32. 32. Building on Strengths: Penang is emerging as a business & services hub of the Bay of Bengal (GDP of over USD 750bil) Adapted from presentation on “Positioning Penang”, December 17th 2008 Dr Homi Kharas, Wolfensohn Center for Development, The Brookings Institution • Penang is well-placed to become a hub for the Northern Corridor, the Indonesia-Malaysia- Thailand growth triangle and the Bay of Bengal. The Northern Corridor is well situated as the dominant economic mass in the IMT-GT. Penang has the highest economic density and lowest distance to market for a large local area in this triangle. • The economics of geography suggests that high density localities will be best placed to attract new firms and exploit economies of scale.  ‘Cones’ on the map represent economic output per square kilometre; the cities with higher ‘cones’ are more economically dense  The emergence of a new mega region 48
    33. 33. 49 Bayan Lepas 64% RM 240 bil KLIA 34% RM 130 bil Subang 1% RM 4.5 bil Others 1% RM 3.3 bil Malaysia Cargo Movement (mil kg) Total: 79.4m kg Thailand Vietnam Laos Cambodia Philippines Subic Bay Yangon Ho Chi Minh Phnom Penh Bangkok Indonesia Singapore Penang Jakarta Kuala Lumpur 3 hours Myanmar 2 hours 1 hour Medan Chennai Three concentric circles define the distance from Penang in terms of air flying times of 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively Overview of the Catchment Area Defined by Air Flying Times from Penang Penang Airport constitutes 20% of Malaysia’s total airflown cargo Building on Strengths: Penang is emerging as a logistics hub • Penang Airport has the maximum direct connectivity and cargo volume in the IMT-GT region • Penang Port has a total handling capacity of 25 million tonnes of cargo, interconnected by road & rail • Malaysia’s rail system: 70% of KTM’s freight services is based in the north with regular service between Bangkok and Butterworth
    34. 34. • George Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (alongside other global sites like Venice, Borobudur, Angkor Wat and Hoi An) • Penang is Malaysia’s culinary capital (world renowned food haven) • Estimated # of Tourist Arrivals in 2008 ≈ 4 million • A Melting Pot of Food, Beaches, Heritage, Culture & Religion Building on Strengths: Penang remains an attractive tourism destination 50
    35. 35. 51 Building on Strengths: Penang is an anchor for medical tourism in Malaysia
    36. 36. 52 Food, Beaches and Heritage are large Tourism draws • George Town core a UNESCO World Heritage Site • Malaysia’s culinary capital (World renowned food haven) • Silicon Valley of the East “It’s about time Southeast Asia offered business an alternative to choking, congested capitals. But hope now flickers. George Town…is stepping out of the shadows.” Monocle, “Trade Secret – Malaysia”, April 2008 Building on Strengths: Penang is already a strong brand
    37. 37. For Penang, this requires its cities, people and economy to develop together CITIES PEOPLEECONOMY Agglomeration and increasing returns to scale Liveability Talent Liveable and efficient cities attracts and retain talent and this bring capital together to build the economy.
    38. 38. Building distinctiveness : Penang’s cultural heritage; cosmopolitan people; and built form 54
    39. 39. A city that promotes new ideas for improving urban mobility for everyone 55 “Transport defines the form of a city.” The Economist, May 2007 55
    40. 40. A city with a place for small businesses, space for children and marginalized More civic spaces for the marginalized to indulge in healthy activities…
    41. 41. A city that retains its rich cultural heritage, urban form and diversity Economically Successful Socially Equitable Environmentally Responsible Sustainable communities We need to have a different way of imagining the city that is built on ideas of sustainability
    42. 42. Positioning Penang Positioning Penang • Strategy for reinventing the George Town Conurbation • Key enabling factors and policy levers needed for Penang to avoid the Middle Income Trap GTTP Sustainable Penang Initiative 2 • Community level; people’s initiative • Building consensus on a sustainable liveable Penang George Town Transformation Programme • Micro level implementation; demonstrative & catalytic projects • Transform George Town into a model 21st century city and a ‘sticky space’ to retain and attract talent Transforming Penang into an International City State, which is… Location of choice for investors + Destination of choice for visitors + Habitat of choice for talent, desiring sustainable living Sticky Space 58
    43. 43. •To become the most livable place in Malaysia and top 25 Most Liveable Places by 2030 •Transform Penang as Malaysia ´s laboratory for urban solutions in the knowledge economy 60 VISION:
    44. 44. Strategic Spatial Framework 63
    45. 45. Major upgrade to the urban infrastructure is on the way to strengthen the competitiveness of the region. (>RM20b)
    46. 46. 65 • Rapid
    47. 47. from Policy… to Practice Urban regeneration in a World Heritage Site through a public grants programme
    48. 48. George Town Grants Programme • Physical/Public Realm • Social Capital & Capability • Knowledge OUTCOMEOUTCOME • A culturally vibrant & sustainable city, • Endangered trades, services and communities taken off the endangered list • A community aware of its history and heritage • Resilient small businesses that evolved with the WHS • George Town’s OUVs enhanced DETAILSDETAILS • Fund Size : RM 20 million • Project Size: RM 20,000 to RM 2 million • Duration : 24 months • Grant Type : • Project & Booster Grants • Matching Grants • Repayable Grants • Technical Assistance & Capacity Building Grants 6 KEY THRUSTS6 KEY THRUSTS • Mobility & Connectivity • Social & Cultural Communities • Economy & Services • Environment & Sustainability • Safety & Quality of Life • Learning & Knowledge OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES • Kick-start the regeneration of George Town • Build on the momentum of the civil society and private sector initiatives • Capacity building and capability development for the protection and development of the living heritage, culture and architecture • Encourage a sustainable livable environment CORE PRINCIPLESCORE PRINCIPLES • Catalyst • Partnership • Developmental • Inclusive • Sustainable • Creativity & Innovation 3 KEY AREAS3 KEY AREAS
    49. 49. THINK CITY PROJECTS
    50. 50. • George Town Land Use SurveyGeorge Town Land Use Survey – in-person survey collected data on every business, residence, association, government agency, hotel and education institute within the George Town WHS (covering 260ha) • George Town Conurbation StudyGeorge Town Conurbation Study – provides the spatial framework with planning, design and development recommendations designed to support the transition of the regional economy and improve quality of life Baseline studies
    51. 51. D e v e l o p m e n t a l: Rejuvenating the Waterfront 70
    52. 52. Adaptive Re-Use: of waterfront properties 71
    53. 53. M e d i c i n a l H a l l : Retaining traditional trades in new context Yin Oi Tong, established in 1796 is the oldest Chinese Medical Hall in South East Asia
    54. 54. I n c l u s i v e 75
    55. 55. 76 Affordable Housing Scheme
    56. 56. 79 Apprenticeship Programme for Endangered Trades & Celebrating “Living Heritage”
    57. 57. S u s t a i n a b l e : Greening the city’s “Shared Spaces” 80
    58. 58. Jan 2011 81 Carnarvon Street Pilot Greening Project
    59. 59. Improving urban mobility in Penang Successful implementation and cycling campaign in Penang, including night cycling in UNESCO World Heritage Site
    60. 60. Creativity & Innovation: Aspirational & Practical Solutions 84
    61. 61. Creativity & Innovation: Aspirational & Practical Solutions 85
    62. 62. 86
    63. 63. Building Partnerships: 87
    64. 64. Business Improvement District Scheme (BIDS)Business Improvement District Scheme (BIDS) Panoramic view of the BIDs Area
    65. 65. Business Improvement District Scheme (BIDS) Asia’s first Business Improvement District Scheme
    66. 66. George Town BIDS 90
    67. 67. ENHANCEMENT TO PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIVITY George Town BIDS 91
    68. 68. Little India Improvement District (LIID)Little India Improvement District (LIID) Community Led InitiativeCommunity Led Initiative
    69. 69. 93
    70. 70. 94
    71. 71. Proposed Special Action Plan for Little India
    72. 72. Proposed Special Action Plan for Little India
    73. 73. Public Engagement ActivitiesPublic Engagement Activities
    74. 74. 98
    75. 75. 99
    76. 76. 100
    77. 77. Malaysian Federal Government Agencies Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Pulau Pinang World Bank Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang Penang State Government Aga Khan Trust for Culture Khazanah Nasional Berhad Working Partners
    78. 78. 102 5 – number of cultural interpretation centres 40% - the number of community-led initiatives
    79. 79. Working PartnersReinventing The City: Intelligent Urbanization City as a Living Space – Public health, safety & security – Mobility & accessibility – Open spaces and private space – Inner city regeneration / renewal – Affordable Housing City as a Transaction Hub – Economic Revitalization – Regional / international hub – Creativity & Innovation – Connectivity & Logistics – Microenterprise / corporate social entrepreneurship City as a Cultural Hub – Cultural & Civic Facilities – Living Heritage & Endangered Trades – Entertainment & Culture – Cultural Diversity – Creative Industries City as a Knowledge Hub – Repository of Knowledge – Learning & Living – Libraries & Museum – Living History & Culture – Research, Innovation & Development Centres City as a Civic & Democratic Space – Urban Governance & Popular Participation – Social Inclusion & Sense of Community – Poverty – Cultural Diversity – Access to Public Facilities City as a Sustainable Space – Greening, urban form and planning – Parks & Gardens – Waste Management – Walkable & Cyclable – Ecological sustainability – Carbon footprint & energy A city that combines most of these characteristics is likely to have a high “Liveability” index
    80. 80. Cities Hub + Home Inclusive Respectful Vibrant & Creative Excellence Driven Welcoming Intimate Surprising Non-Conformist Young & Pro-active Value-Based Approach vs Physical Planning Approach Sustainable, Liveable City 105
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