The ‘Controlling’ Function Principles of Management
What is Controlling? Simply put… It is the process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
Why is it needed? To cope with changes… internally & externally To facilitate delegation and teamwork To create better quality and add value This will in turn, lead to: Judge accuracy of the standards that were set Improve performance Minimize undesirable behaviour
Understanding the Control Process
Understanding the Control Process Establish standards Quantity / targets, Quality, Monetary and Time-related Monitor performance Periodically checking and correcting minor deviations / problems Measure actual performance Actual measurement over a pre-decided time period. Eg: annually, half-yearly. Take corrective actions Post evaluation of ‘where one stands’, the co. takes actions to ensure original plans are met.
So in Essence, Controlling is… Both anticipatory and retrospective. The process anticipates problems and takes preventive action. With corrective action, the process also follows up on problems.
An Effective Control System Needs to have: Acceptability by all those who will enforce decisions Flexibility Accuracy Timeliness Cost effectiveness Balance between objectivity and subjectivity Coordinated with planning, organizing and leading
Controlling Techniques A variety of tools and techniques are used to help the manager control activities in their areas.
Types Of Controlling Techniques Traditional Techniques
Return on Investment
PERT & CPM
(Programme Evaluation & Review Technique)
What is the GANTT chart?
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.
Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project.
Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project.