WHAT IS HAPTICS? Haptics is related to sense of touch which comes from the Greek word HAPTESTHAI for to grasp or to touch. Touch is the first language. From a very early age we become sensitive to the specific qualities of touch rather than its mere presence or absence.
You can convey messagesthat are just as specific asthose conveyed by othersmeans such as facial expression. The interface between humans andcomputers has been described as aninformation bottleneck.
Computer can store and processvast amounts of data and humanexperience and learn through 5senses. But computers typically only takeadvantage of one or two sensory channels (sight and sound)to transmit information to people.
Haptics promises to open this bottleneck by adding a new channel of communication using the sense of touch. Haptics expands the notion of bidirectional communication between humans and computers to include sensory feedback. Haptics = Touch = Connection
The Pew Report“Touch is natural and intuitiveand it will succeed.” --TheFuture of the Internet III,Pew Internet & American LifeProject.
Where it is used? Desktop GUI augmentation Medical and surgical simulators sharp realism needed for effective training environments. Gaming systems greater realism, excitement, and enjoyment. Industrial & commercial systems safer, more efficient, and more accurate control in distractive environments.
Touchscreens of all types theability to “touch back” withunmistakable confirmation.
HISTORY One of the earliest forms of haptic devices is used in large modern aircraft that use servomechanism systems to operate control systems. Such systems tend to be "one-way" in that forces applied aerodynamically to the control surfaces are not perceived at the controls, with the missing normal forces simulated with springs and weights.
In earlier, lighter aircraft without servo systems, as the aircraft approached a stall the aerodynamic buffeting was felt in the pilots controls, a useful warning to the pilot of a dangerous flight condition.
This control shake is not felt when servo control systems are used. To replace this missing cue, the angle of attack is measured, and when it approaches the critical stall point a "stick shaker" (an unbalanced rotating mass) is engaged, simulating the effects of a simpler control system. This is known as haptic feedback.
HOW IT WORKS? Haptics applications use specialized hardware to provide sensory feedback that simulates physical properties and forces. Haptic interfaces can take many forms; a common configuration uses separate mechanical linkages to connect a person‟s fingers to a computer interface.
Basically a haptic system consist of two parts namely the human part and the machine part. In the figure shown above, the human part (left) senses and controls the position of the hand, while the machine part (right) exerts forces from the hand to simulate contact with a virtual object. Also both the systems will be provided with necessary sensors, processors and actuators.
In the case of the human system, nerve receptors performs sensing, brain performs processing and muscles performs actuation of the motion performed by the hand. While in the case of the machine system, the above mentioned functions are performed by the encoders, computer and motors respectively.
So,when the user moves his fingers, sensors translate those motions into actions on screen, and motors transmit feedback through the linkages to the user‟s fingers. The screen might show a ball, for example, and by manipulating a virtual hand through the device, the user can “feel” the ball, discerning how much it weighs or the texture of its surface.
HAPTICS INFORMATION Tactileinformation Haptic informationKinestheticinformation
Tactile information refers the information acquired by the sensors which are actually connected to the skin of the human body with a particular reference to the spatial distribution of pressure, or more generally, tractions, across the contact area. For example when we handle flexible materials like fabric and paper, we sense the pressure variation across the fingertip. This is actually a sort of tactile information.
Tactile sensing is also the basis of complex perceptual tasks like medical palpation, where physicians locate hidden anatomical structures and evaluate tissue properties using their hands. Kinesthetic information refers to the information acquired through the sensors in the joints. Interaction forces are normally perceived through a combination of these two informations.
FUNCTIONS OF HAPTICS :- How touch and its underlying brain functions work :- Haptic technology:- technology that interfaces with the user through the sense of touch. Haptic communication:- the means by which people and other animals communicate via touching.
Haptic perception:- the process of recognizing objects through touch. Haptic poetry:- a liminal art form combining characteristics of typography and sculpture.
HAPTICS COMMUNICATION Haptic communication is the means by which people and other animals communicate via touching. It providing information about surfaces and textures. It is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships, and vital in conveying physical intimacy.
Humanbabies havebeenobserved tohaveenormousdifficultysurviving ifthey do notpossess asense oftouch, evenif they retainsight and
In chimpanzees the sense of touch is highly developed. As new borns they see and hear poorly but cling strongly to their mothers. Heslin (1974) outlines the four haptic categories: Functional/professional Social/polite Friendship/warmth Love/intimacy
HAPTICSPERCEPTION Sometostati -onary Touch combining with skin surface. Recognizing the object.
HAPTIC PERCEPTION Haptic perception is the process of recognizing objects through touch. It involves a combination of somatosensory perception of patterns on the skin surface (e.g., edges, curvature, and texture) and hand position and conformation. People can rapidly and accurately identify 3-D objects by touch. They do so through the use of exploratory procedures, such as moving the fingers over the outer surface of the object or holding the entire object in the hand
HAPTIC POETRY Haptic poetry, like visual poetry and sound poetry, is a liminal art form combining characteristics of typography and sculpture to create objects not only to be seen, but to be touched and manipulated. Indeed, in haptic poetry, the sense of touch is equal to, if not more important than, the sense of sight, yet both text-based poetry and haptic poetry have the same goals: to create an aesthetic effect in the minds of the intended audience.
HAPTIC TECHNOLOGY• Everyapplications use the hapticconcepts directlyor indirectly.• In this fig. intouchscreencell, internallythere are verysmall boxes.when we touchany button, itwill sense thatwhat we want.And it give it asa output.
Project began in 2001 Introduced in 2007 A surface computing platform from Microsoft. “Microsoft Surface represents a fundamental change in the way we interact with digital content. With Surface, we can actually grab data with our hands, and move information between objects with natural gestures and touch. Surface features a 30-inch tabletop display whose unique abilities allow for several people to work independently or simultaneously. All without using a mouse or a keyboard.”35 Touch Screen
A form of computing that offers “a natural way of interacting with information,” rather than the “traditional user interface.” Direct Interaction: The ability to "grab" digital information with hands - interacting with touch/gesture, not with a mouse or keyboard. Multi–Touch: The ability to recognize multiple points of contact at the same time, not just one (Ex. One finger, like with most touch screens), but dozens. Multi–User: The Surface‟s screen is horizontal, allowing many people to come together around it and experience a “collaborative, face–to–face computing experience”. Object Recognition: Physical objects can be placed on the Surface‟s screen to “trigger different types of digital responses” (Ex. cell phones, cameras, & glasses of wine).36 Touch Screen
3-D gaming Disney Research, Pittsburg (DRP) has shown off a revolutionary technology called „Surround Haptics‟ that can bring real life experience in video gaming and film watching.
Once you are playing a video game, your spine will shiver based on the movements. For instance, if you ride a car at its maximum speed and smash into a car coming opposite, your body will feel exactly like you are in a real car accident. Many other virtual experiences can be created to physical sensation with Surround Haptics. The DRP technology is a simply „gaming chair,‟ equipped with several simulating actuators. The gamer needs to sit in the chair to feel the innovative gaming experience in his/her body. The actuators will vibrate in response to the music and action from the game or film resulting in the shivering experience for the gamers. In short, the Surround Haptics system will realize the
HAPTIC DEVICES A haptic device is the one that provides a physical interface between the user and the virtual environment by means of a computer. This can be done through an input/output device that senses the body movement, such as joystick or data glove. By using haptic devices, the user can not only feed information to the computer but can also receive information from the computer in the form of a felt sensation on some part of the body. This is referred to as a haptic interface.
HAPTIC DEVICES Virtual reality/ FeedbackTelerobotics devices based devices
a) Virtual reality/ Telerobotics based devicesI. Exoskeletons and Stationary deviceII. Gloves and wearable devicesIII. Point-sources and Specific task devicesIV. Locomotion Interfaces b) Feedback devicesI. Force feedback devicesII. Tactile displays
i) Exoskeletons and Stationary devices The term exoskeleton refers to the hard outer shell that exists on many creatures. In a technical sense, the word refers to a system that covers the user or the user has to wear. Current haptic devices that are classified as exoskeletons are large and immobile systems that the user must attach him- or herself to.
ii) Gloves and wearable devices These devices are smaller exoskeleton-like devices that are often, but not always, take the down by a large exoskeleton or other immobile devices. Since the goal of building a haptic system is to be able to immerse a user in the virtual or remote environment. The drawback of the wearable systems is that since weight and size of the devices are a concern, the systems will have more limited sets of capabilities.
iii) Point sources and specifictask devices This is a class of devices that are very specialized for performing a particular given task. Designing a device to perform a single type of task restricts the application of that device to a much smaller number of functions. However it allows the designer to focus the device to perform its task extremely well. These task devices have two general forms, single point of interface devices and specific task devices.
iv) Locomotion interfaces An interesting application of haptic feedback is in the form of full body Force Feedback called locomotion interfaces. Locomotion interfaces are movement of force restriction devices in a confined space. These interfaces overcomes the limitations of using joysticks for maneuvering or whole body motion platforms, in which the user is seated and does not expend energy, and of room environments, where only short distances can be traversed.
Limitations :1. Limitations of haptic device systems have sometimes made applying the forces exact value as computed by force-rendering algorithms impossible.As this would lead to erroneous or discontinuous application of forces to the user. In addition, haptic devices are not ideal force transducers.2. An ideal haptic device would render zero impedance when simulating movement in free space, and any finite impedance when simulating contact with an object featuring such impedance characteristics. The friction, inertia, and backlash present in most haptic devices prevent them from meeting this ideal.
3. Touching a virtual object extracts energy from it. This extra energy can cause an unstable response from haptic devices.4. Finally, haptic device position sensors have finite resolution. Consequently, attempting to determine where and when contact occurs always results in a quantization error. Although users might not easily perceive this error, it can create stability problems. The first two issues usually depend more on the device mechanics; the latter two depend on the digital nature of VR applications.
FUTURE SCOPE As this IT technology is growing very fast. So to think about the future technology is very tough. A survey of experts shows they expect major tech advances as the phone becomes a primary device for online access, voice-recognition improves, and the structure of the Internet itself improves. Technology stakeholders and critics were asked in an online survey to assess scenarios about the future social, political, and economic impact of the Internet and they said the following: Voice recognition and touch user-interfaces will be more prevalent and accepted by 2020. The survey found that there were mixed reactions to how haptic technology, will be or won‟t be adopted in the future.
CONCLUSION Haptic technology, which attempts to provide compelling sensations to human operators in virtual and teleoperated environments It is a relatively new,but fast-growing and dynamic area of research. The field relies not only on fundamental foundations from robotics and control theory, but also on fields in the human sciences, particularly neuroscience and psychology. Todays, commercial success of haptics has been in the areas of entertainment, medical simulation, and design, although new devices and applications are regularly appearing.
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