CAN ALSO BE MADE FROM FRUITS, BERRIES AND ARE KNOWN AS FRUIT WINES.
SUGAR IS TRANSFORMED TO ALCOHOL
Reaction during fermentation of wine
A chemical process by which sugar is converted into alcohol
Natural sugar from Carbon dioxide gas
the grape pulp given off
Yeast occurs on the
skin of the grape
SUGAR + YEAST = ALCOHOL + CO2
STEPS IN WINE MAKING
PICKING OF GRAPES
Wine Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtain from the fermentation of juice of freshly gathered grapes.
Wines are broadly classified as follows
Table wines or Still Wines
Aromatised wines (Vermouths)
Classification of Wine Table Wines They are classified into three Red Wine White Wine Rose Wine
Classification of Wine Red Wines
They are almost exclusive dry
Range from light to full bodied, with distinctive taste
To produce from red wines, grapes are crushed, not pressed.
Skin is left with the juice during fermentation
Contain 9-14% alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very sweet.
The service temperature of red wine is 16-18 degrees centigrade
MAKING RED WINE
Classification of Wine Rose wines
These are produced exactly as red wines except that wine is drawn off from the fermenting red grapes after 2-3 days when enough red colour has been absorbed by the wine to give it a pink tinge.
They contain 9-14 % alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very sweet.
The service temperature of rose wine is 13 – 16 degrees centigrade.
Classification of Wine White Wine
Light and delicate in flavour, goes well with seafood and lightly flavoured food as rich food overpowers their taste.
- The grapes are pressed and the juice is drawn off immediately without the skins in to the cask for fermentation.
-Sweet white wines: The sugar content is very high, hence are preferred at the end of a meal.
-They contain 9-14 % alcohol, and the taste ranges from very dry to very sweet.
-The service temperature of white wine is 11 – 13 degrees centigrade .
MAKING WHITE WINE
Classification of Wine Sparkling wine The most famous one is Champagne. This is made by the methode Champenoise (second fermentation in the bottle) in the Champagne region of northeastern France. Effervescent wines made outside the Champagne region are called sparkling wines. Sparkling wines are made in France, Spain, Italy, America, Australia, Germany and many other countries. View Presentation on Champagne
Classification of Wine Sparkling wine Sparkling wines vary in their sweetness: Brut (very dry) Sec (medium dry) Demi sec (medium sweet) Doux (sweet) Semi sparkling wines are known by the term ‘perlant’ Service Temperature for Sparkling Wine is 7 – 10 degrees centigrade
Fortified Wines Fortified Wines
Fortified wines are strengthened by the addition of grape brandy during or after its fermentation.
Principal fortified wines are
Aromatised wines Plants, herbs and spices are added to impart aroma to a wine base. The most famous aromatised wines are vermouth and martini. Traditionally, French vermouths are white and dry and Italian vermouths are red and sweet. Vermouth bottles do not keep for long and therefore, should be consumed young.
Wine Terms Term Description Body The weight of the wine in the mouth due to its alcoholic content, extract and to its other physical components. Bouquet The pleasant and characteristic smell of wine Corky Having a distinct smell of cork arising from a poor, soft or disintegrating cork. Due to a poor cork, air comes in to oxidise the wine and wine becomes ‘corked’. Dry Not sweet, fully fermented out. Finish The end taste Flowery Fragrant, flowerlike Full bodied High in alcoholic content and extract Heady High in alcohol Light Low in alcohol and less in body Legs A term for globules that fall down the sides of a glass after the wine is swirled. Also known as tears. Luscious Soft, sweet, fat, fruity and ripe. All these qualities in balance
Wine Terms Medium dry Containing some sugar but dry enough to be drunk before or during a meal Musty Bad smell due poor cask, cork or storing. Nutty A crisp nut like flavour associated with full-bodied white wines. Smoky (flinty) A subtle smoky smell characteristic of certain white wines. E.g. Pouilly Fume or Sancerre. Spicy A rich, herblike aroma and flavour as in Gewurztraminer Young Fresh and acidic in aroma, immature.