INTRODUCTIONThe term ‘management’ encompasses an array of different functionsundertaken to accomplish a task successfully.It is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in whichindividuals, working to gather in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.There are many approaches for the management varying from a problem toproblem solving style to the change.Each approach has its own limitations and advantages.Management is all about ‘getting things done’.
ENVIRONMENT FACTORS • The aspects of culture that influence norms SOCIALINFLUENCE and values • The concept to availability, production, andECONOMICINFLUENCE distribution of resources within a society • The impact of political institutions on POLITICALINFLUENCE individuals and organisations
DIFFERENT APPROACHES • SCIENTIFIC CLASSICAL • ADMINISTRATIVE • BUREAUCRATIC • GROUP INFLUENCES • MASLOW‟S NEED THEORYBEHAVIOURAL • THEORY X AND THEORY Y • HAWTHORNE STUDIES • SYSTEM MODERN • CONTINGENCY • THEORY Z AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
CLASSICAL APPROACH Focuses on the individual worker‟s Focuses on the productivity overall organizational systemFocuses on the functions of management
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: Taylor • develop a scientific approach for each element of one’s work FOUR • scientifically select, train, teach and develop each worker • cooperate with workers to ensure that jobs match plans and PRINCIPLES principles • ensure appropriate division of labor • Task Performance THREE AREAS OF • Supervision FOCUS: • Motivation TWO MANAGERIAL • Piece-rate-incentive system PRACTICES: • Time and motion study
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT:Henry Gantt and The Gilberths • Most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s. HENRY • Implemented a wage incentive programme GANTT • Specialized in time and motion studies to determine the most efficient way to perform tasks. FRANK • Used motion pictures of bricklayers to identified work elements (therbligs)GILBERTH such as lifting and grasping • A strong proponent of better working conditions as a means of improving LILLIAN efficiency and productivity.GILBERTH
BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENTFocuses on the overall organizational system.Need for organizations to function on a rational basisBureaucratic management is based upon:• Firm rules• Policies and procedures• A fixed hierarchy• A clear division of labor
BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT: Weber • A German sociologist and historian who envisioned a system of management MAX WEBER • “a bureaucracy is a highly structured, formalized and impersonal organization.” • Division of labor • FIVE • Hierarchy of authority Rules and procedures PRINCIPLES • Impersonality • Employee selection and promotion
ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT Five management functions Focused on principles • planning that could be used by managers to coordinate • organizing the internal activities of • commanding organizations • coordinating • controlling
FAYOL‟s PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT 1. Division of work 8. Centralization 2. Authority and responsibility 9. Scalar chain 3. Discipline 10. Order 4. Unity of command 11. Equity 5. Unity of direction 12. Stability 6. Subordination of individual interest to the common good 13. Initiative 7. Remuneration of personnel 14. Esprit de corps
BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH The behavioural school of management emphasized what the classical theorists ignored. Acknowledged the importance of human behavior in shaping management style. Personalities • Mary Parker Follett • Douglas McGregor • Chester Barnard • Elton Mayo
HIERARCHY‟s HUMAN NEEDS SELF ACTUALIZATI ON NEED FOR SELF ESTEEM NEED FOR SOCIAL RELATIONS NEED FOR SECURITY PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
FOLLETT ON EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS FOUR PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION • Coordination requires that people be in direct contact with one another. • Coordination is essential during the initial stages of any endeavor. • Coordination must address all factors and phases of any endeavor. • Coordination is a continuous, ongoing process.
McGregors PROPOSED STYLESTHEORY X THEORY Y• Most people dislike work and they avoid it • Work is a natural activity like play or when they can. rest.• Coerced and threatened with punishment • Capable of self direction and self before they work. control.• Avoid responsibility and have little ambition. • Committed to organizational objectives.
ELTON MAYO‟s VIEWAimed to understand how psychological and socialprocesses interact with the work situation to influenceperformanceWork represents the transition from scientificmanagement to the early human relations movement.Emphasized on workers themselves and needs tobelong to a group
HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS (1924 – 1932) “HAWTHORNE EFFECT”• Workers perform and react differently when researchers observe them.• Productivity increased because attention was paid to the workers in the experiment.• Phenomenon whereby individual or group performance is influenced by human behavior factors
CONTINGENCY THEORYThere is no “One Best Way” to manage all thesituations.Also known as „Situational Theory‟.Developed by managers, consultants, andresearchers who tried to apply the conceptsdepending on various Internal and External factors
MERGER COMPONENTS INTO CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE
AN EXAMPLE OF CONTINGENCYJOAN WOODWARD’s RESEARCH • Discovered that a particular management style is affected by the organization‟s technology. • Identified and described three different types of technology: • Small-batch technology • Mass-production technology • Continuous-process technology