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Advance ethernet

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Advance ethernet Advance ethernet Presentation Transcript

  • By Bhavin Chauhan (09BCE005) Arpan Chavda (09BCE006)
  • What is Ethernet?
    • Most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology
    • IEEE 802.3
    • Uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair wires
    • Uses CSMA/CD protocol & Manchester Encoding
    • Advance Ethernet is advance version of Ethernet which is called as Ethernet 2.0
  • Types of Advance Ethernet
    • Switched Ethernet
    • Fast Ethernet
    • Gigabit Ethernet
  • 10Base5 10BaseT 10baseFL 100BaseTX 100BaseFX Media Thick coax RG-8, RG-11 TIA/EIA UTP Cat 3,4,5,5e,6 (2 pair) 62.2/125  Multi-mode Fiber TIA/EIA UTP Cat 5 and up (2 pair) 62.2/125  Multi-mode Fiber Or Single mode fiber Speed 10 Mbps 10 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 100 Mbps Max Seg. Length 500 Meters 100 Meters 2000 Meters 100 Meters 400/2000 Meters (full/half duplex), 10 Km
  • Switched Ethernet
    • First Ethernet switch introduced by Networking Company ,Kalpana ,later acquired by Cisco.
    • Operates at layer 2 of OSI model
    • Switches forward and filter frames based on LAN addresses
      • It’s not a bus or a router (although simple forwarding tables are maintained)
    • Very scalable
      • Full duplex operation (send/receive frames simultaneously)
    • Connect two or more “segments” by copying data frames between them
      • Switches only copy data when needed
    • Higher link bandwidth
    • Own collision domain
      • Very less collision
  • Example of switched Ethernet
  • Switching Techniques
    • Store and forward switching. Stores the entire frame and performs a CRC check before forwarding. Best error correction, but takes the most time, impacting on speed.
    • Cut through switching. No error correction. Switch only reads address information. Provides best transmission speed, though on networks with a high number of frame errors this will end up slower than other methods.
    • Fragment free switching. Most frame corruption appears in the first 64 bytes of a frame. Fragment free checks only those bytes, discarding frames with errors. A good balance between error correction and speed.
  • Switch Learning
    • Situation : Switch with
    • A1 On port1
    • BF On Port2
    • C9 On Port5
    • Switch forwarding table is initially empty.
    • A1 on Port 1 wants to send to C9 on port 5
      • Switch does not know port for c9
      • Broadcast the frame, acting as hub
      • Notes from source add. That A1 is on Port 1
      • Adds this info. To switch forwarding table.
    • C9 on Port 5 sends to A1 on Port 1
      • Table shows that A1 is on Port 1
      • Switch only sends out Port 1: Act like a switch !
      • Source add. Shows that C9 is on Port 5
      • Switch adds this info. To forwarding table
    • Every Few Minutes, Switch Erases switch forwarding table.
      • To eliminate obsolete info.
      • Relearning is very fast
    • Switches can be in hierarchy
      • Switches only learn that stations are out certain ports
  • Fast Ethernet
    • “ 802.3u-1995 IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Supplement to Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment Units, and Repeater for 100 Mb/s Operation, Type 100BASE-T”
  • History
    • In July 1993, a group of networking companies joined to form the Fast Ethernet Alliance.
    • The charter of the group was to draft the 802.3u 100BaseT specification of the IEEE and accelerate market acceptance of Fast Ethernet technology.
    • Approved in 1995
    • Other goals of the committee were: to maintain the Ethernet transmission protocol carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD); to support popular cabling schemes; and to ensure that Fast Ethernet technology will not require changes to the upper-layer protocols and software that run on LAN workstations.
  • Features of Fast Ethernet
    • Fast Ethernet supports a maximum data rate of 100 Mbps
    • Ability to coexist with existing network installations.
    • ( These so-called "10/100" adapters can usually sense the speed of the line automatically and adjust accordingly.)
    • Based on CSMA/CD Media Access Control (MAC) protocol
    • Data can move from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps without protocol translation or changes to application and networking software.
    • Fast Ethernet maintains CSMA/CD, the Ethernet transmission protocol. However, Fast Ethernet reduces the duration of time each bit is transmitted by a factor of 10, enabling the packet speed to increase tenfold from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps.
    • ( 5.12 microseconds instead of 51.2 microseconds)
    • Data can move between Ethernet and Fast Ethernet without requiring protocol translation, because Fast Ethernet also maintains the 10BaseT error control functions as well as the frame format and length.
    • The encoding used is 4B/5B with MLT-3 wave shaping plus FSR.
  • MLT-3 Encoding
    • MLT-3 encoding (Multi-Level Transmit) is a line coding that uses three voltage levels
  • Table : Fast Ethernet Cabling and Distance Limitations
  • Fast Ethernet
    • The MII layer of 100BaseT couples these physical sublayers to the CSMA/CD MAC layer
    • For the physical connection, the MII is implemented on Fast Ethernet devices such as routers, switches, hubs, and adapters, and on transceiver devices using a 40-pin
    • connector
  • Designing with 100BaseT Ethernet Switch Ethernet Switch Server 100 Mbps links 10 Mbps links
  • Fast Ethernet Repeaters and Switches
    • Class I Repeater – supports unlike physical media segments (only one per collision domain)
    • Class II Repeater – limited to single physical media type (there may be two repeaters per collision domain)
    • Switches – to improve performance can add full-duplex and have autonegotiation for speed mismatches.
  •  
  • Autonegotiation
    • The 100BaseT specification describes a negotiation process that allows devices at each end of a network link to automatically exchange information about their capabilities and perform the configuration necessary to operate together at their maximum common level.
    • For example, autonegotiation can determine whether a 100-Mbps hub is connected to a 10-Mbps or 100-Mbps adapter and then adjust its mode of operation accordingly.
    -Cisco
  • Gigabit Ethernet
    • IEEE Std 802.3z- was formally approved by the IEEE Standards Board on June 25th, 1998.
    • “ IEEE Std 802.3z, extends the operating speed of the world's most popular local area network to 1 billion bits per second (1000 Mb/s) for interconnecting high-performance switches, routers, and servers in the backbone of local area networks. Maintaining backward compatibility with the over-100-million-node installed base of 10 Mb/s and 100 Mb/s was a key requirement”
    • (GMII) is an interface between the Media Access Control (MAC) device and the physical layer (PHY).
  • Features
    • Provides speeds of 1000 Mbps for half-duplex and full-duplex operation.
    • Uses Ethernet frame format and MAC technology
      • CSMA/CD access method with support for one repeater per collision domain.
      • Backward compatible with 10 BASE-T and 100 BASE-T.
    • Uses 802.3 full-duplex Ethernet technology .
    • All Gigabit Ethernet configurations are point-to-point!
    • Figure 4-22. (a) A two-station Ethernet. (b) A multistation Ethernet.
    Gigabit Ethernet Networks: Fast Ethernet
  • Architecture
    • The challenges involved in accelerating to 1Gbps have been resolved by merging two technologies together: IEEE 802.3 Ethernet and ANSI X3T11 Fibre Channel.
    • Figure shows how key components from each technology have been leveraged to form Gigabit Ethernet.
  • Gigabit Ethernet Technology Table : Gigabit Ethernet cabling.
    • 1000 BASE SX fiber - short wavelength
    • 1000 BASE LX fiber - long wavelength
    • 1000 BASE CX copper - shielded twisted pair
    • 1000 BASE T copper - unshielded twisted pair
    • Based on Fiber Channel physical signaling technology.
  • 1000 Base SX
    • Supports duplex links up to 275 meters.
    • 770-860 nm range; 850 nm laser wavelength
    • Fiber Channel technology
    • PCS (Physical Code Sublayer) includes 8B/10B encoding with 1.25 Gbps line.
    • Only multimode fiber
    • Cheaper than LX
  • 1000 Base LX
    • Supports duplex links up to 550 meters.
    • 1270-1355 nm range; 1300 nm wavelength using lasers.
    • Fiber Channel technology
    • PCS (Physical Code Sublayer) includes 8B/10B encoding with 1.25 Gbps line.
    • Either single mode or multimode fiber.
  • 1000 Base CX
    • Shielded twisted pair.
    • 25 meters or less typically within wiring closet.
    • PCS (Physical Code Sublayer) includes 8B/10B encoding with 1.25 Gbps line.
    • Each link is composed of a separate shielded twisted pair running in each direction.
  • 1000 Base T
    • Twisted Pair Cables
    • Four pairs of Category 5 UTP.
    • IEEE 802.3ab ratified in June 1999.
    • Category 5, 6 and 7 copper up to 100 meters.
    • This requires extensive signal processing .
  •  
  • Carrier Extention RRRRRRRRRRRRR Frame 512 bytes
    • For 10BaseT : 2.5 km max; slot time = 64 bytes
    • For 1000BaseT: 200 m max; slot time = 512 bytes
    • Carrier Extension : continue transmitting control characters [R] to fill collision interval.
    • This permits minimum 64-byte frame to be handled.
    • Control characters discarded at destination.
  • 512 bytes Extension Frame Frame Frame Frame Frame burst
    • Source sends out burst of frames without relinquishing control of the network.
    • Uses Ethernet Interframe gap filled with extension bits (96 bits)
    • Maximum frame burst is 8192 bytes
    • Three times more throughput for small frames.
  • References
    • Computer Networks 4e by Andrew S. Tanenbaum
    • www.cisco.com
    • www.intel.com/network/
    • Standards.ieee.org/catalog
    • grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3
    • www.ethermanage.com
    • Wikipedia.org
    • compnetworking.about.com
    • -Bhavin Chauhan
    • -Arpan Chavda
    Thank You