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  • 1. The Environment Chapter Fifteen
  • 2. The Ecosystem
    • The interrelationships between all living things and the environment.
    • Emphasis is on interdependence of all things.
    • People, nature, and the earth form a delicately balanced system.
    • Ozone is a rare form of oxygen that is poisonous to human beings at ground level but is necessary in the upper atmosphere to absorb the deadly ultraviolet radiation of the sun.
  • 3. Environmental Pollution
    • Pollution is the harmful alteration of our environment by our own actions.
    • Pollutants – either unwanted by-products or our activities or the obnoxious residues of things we have made, used, and thrown away.
    • Air Pollution
    • Water Pollution
    • Land Pollution
    • Global Warming
    • Noise Pollution
    • Aesthetic Damage
    © Norman R. Rowan/Stock Boston
  • 4. Types of Pollution
    • Air pollution
      • Most air pollution is caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
    • Water pollution
      • Organic sewage
      • Eutrophication
      • Infectious agents
      • Organic chemicals
      • Inorganic and miscellaneous chemicals
      • Sediments from land corrosion
      • Radioactive substances
      • Waste heat from power plants and industry
  • 5. Types of Pollution— Continued
    • Land pollution
      • Pesticides – chemicals used to kill insects defined as pests.
      • Herbicides – chemicals used to kill plant life, particularly weeds.
      • Chemical wastes
      • Radioactive fallout
      • Acid rain
      • Garbage
    • Global warming
      • Since the late 1800’s the average global surface temperature has increased about 0.75 degrees C.
      • Most warming has occurred since 1950.
  • 6. Environmental Depletion
    • The Dwindling Natural Resources
      • No nation is self-sufficient in the modern world.
    • Energy Production and Consumption
      • Energy consumption per capita is higher in the United States than it is in any other country in the world.
      • Consumption is growing more rapidly than production.
  • 7. Environmental Pollution Problems
    • Enforcement of air pollution standards has been reducing the amount of pollutants released into the air.
    • In 2002, 34.3% of children under the age of 18 lived in an area that did not meet one or more of the air quality standards.
    • Sick building syndrome.
    • Presence of radon gas
    • Electromagnetic radiation
    • In 2000, 39% of rivers and streams; 45% of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds; 78% of the Great Lakes shoreline; and 14% of ocean shoreline were polluted.
  • 8. Environmental Depletion
    • Over the course of human history, nearly half of the earth’s forests have been depleted, most of which has occurred since 1970.
    • Energy use per capita is increasing in most of the developing nations.
    • In 1970, Americans drove their cars, vans, pickups, and SUVs 1.043 trillion miles; by 2004, the number rose to 2.72 trillion miles.
  • 9. The Physical Threat
    • Air pollution can cause or contribute to:
      • Permanent lung damage in children
      • Fetal deaths
      • Infant mortality
      • Respiratory illness
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Skin problems, ulcers, and liver and kidney damage
      • Premature deaths
      • Asthma attacks
      • Lung cancer
    • Exposure to toxic materials can also lead to sterility
    • The depleted ozone layer raises the risk of skin cancer
  • 10. Threat to the Ecological Balance
    • The lust for more affluence and unrestrained population growth are ravaging the environment – Paul Ehrlich.
    • A number of species of animals and plants have disappeared.
    • People depend on biological diversity for the quality of their lives.
    • Photosynthesis – a natural process essential to life, resulting in the production of oxygen and organic materials.
    • Urbanization – the increasing concentration of people living in cities.
  • 11. Other Problems
    • The Economic Costs
      • Damage to livestock, trees, and crops
      • Death of wildlife
      • Expense of pollution-control measures
      • Cost of medical care for those whose health is affected
      • Lost work time due to ill health
      • Expense of maintaining and refurbishing buildings and other structures that deteriorated because of pollution
      • Cost of restoring the quality of the air and of waterways.
    • Threat to World Peace
  • 12. Social Structural Factors
    • Population Growth
      • Population growth accelerates the consumption of earth’s natural resources.
      • Any given area on earth has a limited carrying capacity.
      • Threshold effect
    • The Industrial Economy
      • The U.S. with about 4.6% of the world’s population, accounts for 22% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions.
      • More than ¼ of all cars in the world are on U.S. roads.
    • The Politics of the Environment
  • 13. Social Psychological Factors
    • Attitudes and the Environment
      • Many people see the earth as a resource to be mined rather than as a trust to be cared for.
      • 42% of Americans believe the government was doing about the right amount or too much to protect the environment.
    • Values and the Environment
      • Quantitative colossalism
      • Individualism