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The Environment Chapter Fifteen
The Ecosystem  <ul><li>The interrelationships between all living things and the environment.  </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis i...
Environmental Pollution <ul><li>Pollution is the harmful alteration of our environment by our own actions. </li></ul><ul><...
Types of Pollution  <ul><li>Air pollution  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most air pollution is caused by the burning of fossil fue...
Types of Pollution— Continued <ul><li>Land pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides – chemicals used to kill insects def...
Environmental Depletion <ul><li>The Dwindling Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No nation is self-sufficient in the ...
Environmental Pollution Problems  <ul><li>Enforcement of air pollution standards has been reducing the amount of pollutant...
Environmental Depletion  <ul><li>Over the course of human history, nearly half of the earth’s forests have been depleted, ...
The Physical Threat <ul><li>Air pollution can cause or contribute to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent lung damage in child...
Threat to the Ecological Balance  <ul><li>The lust for more affluence and unrestrained population growth are ravaging the ...
Other Problems <ul><li>The Economic Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to livestock, trees, and crops </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Social Structural Factors <ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth accelerates the consumption of...
Social Psychological Factors <ul><li>Attitudes and the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people see the earth as a re...
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Lauer11e.ppt.ch15

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Transcript of "Lauer11e.ppt.ch15"

  1. 1. The Environment Chapter Fifteen
  2. 2. The Ecosystem <ul><li>The interrelationships between all living things and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on interdependence of all things. </li></ul><ul><li>People, nature, and the earth form a delicately balanced system. </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone is a rare form of oxygen that is poisonous to human beings at ground level but is necessary in the upper atmosphere to absorb the deadly ultraviolet radiation of the sun. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Environmental Pollution <ul><li>Pollution is the harmful alteration of our environment by our own actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants – either unwanted by-products or our activities or the obnoxious residues of things we have made, used, and thrown away. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Land Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Noise Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic Damage </li></ul>© Norman R. Rowan/Stock Boston
  4. 4. Types of Pollution <ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most air pollution is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic sewage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infectious agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic and miscellaneous chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediments from land corrosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste heat from power plants and industry </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Pollution— Continued <ul><li>Land pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides – chemicals used to kill insects defined as pests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicides – chemicals used to kill plant life, particularly weeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive fallout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garbage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the late 1800’s the average global surface temperature has increased about 0.75 degrees C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most warming has occurred since 1950. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Environmental Depletion <ul><li>The Dwindling Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No nation is self-sufficient in the modern world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Production and Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy consumption per capita is higher in the United States than it is in any other country in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption is growing more rapidly than production. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Environmental Pollution Problems <ul><li>Enforcement of air pollution standards has been reducing the amount of pollutants released into the air. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, 34.3% of children under the age of 18 lived in an area that did not meet one or more of the air quality standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Sick building syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of radon gas </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, 39% of rivers and streams; 45% of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds; 78% of the Great Lakes shoreline; and 14% of ocean shoreline were polluted. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Environmental Depletion <ul><li>Over the course of human history, nearly half of the earth’s forests have been depleted, most of which has occurred since 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy use per capita is increasing in most of the developing nations. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1970, Americans drove their cars, vans, pickups, and SUVs 1.043 trillion miles; by 2004, the number rose to 2.72 trillion miles. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Physical Threat <ul><li>Air pollution can cause or contribute to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent lung damage in children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infant mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin problems, ulcers, and liver and kidney damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premature deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure to toxic materials can also lead to sterility </li></ul><ul><li>The depleted ozone layer raises the risk of skin cancer </li></ul>
  10. 10. Threat to the Ecological Balance <ul><li>The lust for more affluence and unrestrained population growth are ravaging the environment – Paul Ehrlich. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of species of animals and plants have disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>People depend on biological diversity for the quality of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis – a natural process essential to life, resulting in the production of oxygen and organic materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization – the increasing concentration of people living in cities. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Problems <ul><li>The Economic Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to livestock, trees, and crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expense of pollution-control measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of medical care for those whose health is affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost work time due to ill health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expense of maintaining and refurbishing buildings and other structures that deteriorated because of pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of restoring the quality of the air and of waterways. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threat to World Peace </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Structural Factors <ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth accelerates the consumption of earth’s natural resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any given area on earth has a limited carrying capacity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. with about 4.6% of the world’s population, accounts for 22% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than ¼ of all cars in the world are on U.S. roads. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Politics of the Environment </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Psychological Factors <ul><li>Attitudes and the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people see the earth as a resource to be mined rather than as a trust to be cared for. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42% of Americans believe the government was doing about the right amount or too much to protect the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values and the Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative colossalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul></ul>
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