Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance - self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledge
Contemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent
Leadership Traits : represent the personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers.
Trait Theory (continued)
Gender and leadership
- men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively - women used a more democratic or participative style than men, and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women - men and women were equally assertive - women executives, when rated by their peers, managers and direct reports, scored higher than their male counterparts on a variety of effectiveness criteria
Behavioral Styles Theory
Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior. 1. Consideration : creating mutual respect and trust with followers 2. Initiating Structure : organizing and defining what group members should be doing
University of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio State studies - one style was employee centered and the other was job centered
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing concern for production and concern for people
Research shows that there is not one best style of leadership. The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.
Skills and Best Practices: Tips for Improving Leader Effectiveness Behavior Recommended Behaviors Listen Intensely listen to what others have to say. Determine the true cause of performance problems. Examine Think through problems from all perspectives. Do not play favorites and find solutions that benefit everyone involved. Assist Help others to learn from mistakes and errors. Develop Explain the rationale for decisions and implement fair policies and procedures. Encourage Provide employees with the resources needed to do a job. Gently push people to advance into more demanding roles. Recognize Praise people for their good work. Focus on the positive whenever possible.
House’s Path-Goal Theory Employee Characteristics - Locus of control - Task ability - Need for achievement - Experience - Need for clarity Environmental Factors - Employee’s task - Authority system - Work group Leadership Styles - Directive - Supportive - Participative - Achievement oriented Employee Attitudes and Behavior - Job satisfaction - Acceptance of leader - Motivation
Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership
Transactional Leadership : focuses on the interpersonal interactions between managers and employees
Transactional Leaders - use contingent rewards to motivate employees - exert corrective action only when employees fail to obtain performance goals
Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership (continued)
Charismatic Leadership : emphasizes symbolic leader behavior that transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests
Charismatic Leaders - use visionary and inspirational messages - rely on non-verbal communication - appeal to ideological values - attempt to intellectually stimulate employees - display confidence in self and followers - set high performance expectations
For class discussion : Should a leader be both transactional and charismatic? Is charismatic leadership only critical for senior executives and not for entry level supervisors or managers?
Charismatic Model of Leadership Individual and Organizational Characteristics Leader behavior Effects on followers and work groups Outcomes
Leader establishes a vision
Increased intrinsic motivation, achievement orientation, and goal pursuit
Personal commitment to leader and vision
Charismatic Model of Leadership (cont) Individual and Organizational Characteristics Leader behavior Effects on followers and work groups Outcomes
Leader establishes high performance expectations and displays confidence in him/herself and the collective ability to realize the vision
Leader models the desired values, traits, beliefs, and behaviors needed to realize the vision
Increased identification with the leader and the collective interests of organizational members
Increased cohesion among workgroup members
Increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interests in goal accomplishment
Increased role modeling of charismatic leadership
Task meaningfulness and satisfaction
Increased individual group, and organizational performance
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Model)
This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes. - in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking - out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and liking
Research supports this model
Substitutes for Leadership
Substitutes for leadership represent situational variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of leadership.
Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly influence employee attitudes and performance.
Substitutes for Leadership Characteristic Relationship-Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Of the Subordinate 1. Ability, experience, training, knowledge X 2. Need for Independence X X 3. “Professional” orientation X X 4. Indifference toward organizational rewards X X Of the Task 5. Unambiguous and Routine X 6. Methodically invariant X 7. Provides its own feedback concerning accomplishment X 8. Intrinsically satisfying. X
Substitutes for Leadership (cont) Characteristic Relationship-Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Of the Organization 9. Formalization (explicit plans, goals, and areas of responsibility) X 10. Inflexibility (rigid, unbending rules and procedures) X X 11. Highly specified and active advisory and staff functions X X 12. Closely knit, cohesive work groups X X 13. Organizational rewards not with the leader’s control 14. Spatial distance between superior and subordinate X