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  1. 1. PRODUCTION LAYOUTProject on: Parle Glucose (Parley-G) Parle productsSubmitted by: Manager Bhavesh SharmaEmail: -bhaveshachiever@gmail.comClass: M.B.A.Division: BRoll. no.: 7Submitted to: Prof. Nichaya Upmannyu
  3. 3. Parle Glucose Biscuits
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONA long time ago, when the British ruled India, a small factory was set up in the suburbs ofMumbai city, to manufacture sweets and toffees. The year was 1929 and the market wasdominated by famous international brands that were imported freely. Despite the oddsand unequal competition, this company called Parle Products, survived and succeeded, byadhering to high quality and improvising from time to time.A decade later, in 1939, Parle Products began manufacturing biscuits, in addition tosweets and toffees. Having already established a reputation for quality, the Parle brandname grew in strength with this diversification. Parle Glucose and Parle Monaco were thefirst brands of biscuits to be introduced, which later went on to become leading names forgreat taste and quality.HOW PARLE FOUGHT TO MAKE BISCUIT AFFORDABLE TO ALLBiscuits were very much a luxury food in India, when Parle began production in 1939.Apart from Glucose and Monaco biscuits, Parle did offer a wide variety of brands.However, during the Second World War, all domestic biscuit production was diverted toassist the Indian soldiers in India and the Far East. Apart from this, the shortage of wheatin those days, made Parle decide to concentrate on the more popular brands, so thatpeople could enjoy the price benefits.Thankfully today, theres no dearth of ingredients and the demand for more premiumbrands is on the rise. Thats why; they now have a wide range of biscuits andmouthwatering confectionaries to offer.THE STRENGTH OF THE BRANDOver the years, Parle has grown to become a multi-million US Dollar company. Many ofthe Parle products - biscuits or confectionaries, are market leaders in their category andhave won acclaim at the Monde Selection, since 1971.Today, Parle enjoys a 40% share of the total biscuit market and a 15% share of the totalconfectionary market, in India. The Parle Biscuit brands, such as, Parle-G, Monaco andKrackjack and confectionery brands, such as, Melody, Poppins, Mangobite and Kismi,enjoy a strong imagery and appeal amongst consumers.
  5. 5. Be it a big city or a remote village of India, the Parle name symbolizes quality, health andgreat taste! And yet, we know that this reputation has been built, by constantly innovatingand catering to new tastes. This can be seen by the success of new brands, such as, Hide& Seek, or the single twist wrapping of Mango bite.In this way, by concentrating on consumer tastes and preferences and emphasizingResearch & Development, the Parle brand grows from strength to strength.THE QUALITY COMMITMENTParle Products has one factory at Mumbai that manufactures biscuits & confectionerieswhile another factory at Bahadurgarh, in Haryana manufactures biscuits. Apart from this,Parle has manufacturing facilities at Neemrana, in Rajasthan and at Bangalore inKarnataka. The factories at Bahadurgarh and Neemrana are the largest suchmanufacturing facilites in India. Parle Products also has 14 manufacturing units forbiscuits & 5 manufacturing units for confectioneries, on contract.All these factories are located at strategic locations, so as to ensure a constant output &easy distribution. Each factory has state-of-the-art machinery with automatic printing &packaging facilities.All Parle products are manufactured under the most hygienic conditions. Great care isexercised in the selection & quality control of raw materials, packaging materials & rigidquality standards are ensured at every stage of the manufacturing process. Every batch ofbiscuits & confectioneries are thoroughly checked by expert staff, using the most modernequipment.THE MARKETING STRENGTH The extensive distribution network, built over the years, is a major strength for ParleProducts. Parle biscuits & sweets are available to consumers, even in the most remoteplaces and in the smallest of villages with a population of just 500.Parle has nearly 1,500 wholesalers, catering to 4,25,000 retail outlets directly orindirectly. A two hundred strong dedicated field force services these wholesalers &retailers. Additionally, there are 31 depots and C&F agents supplying goods to the widedistribution network.
  6. 6. The Parle marketing philosophy emphasizes catering to the masses. They constantlyendeavour at designing products that provide nutrition & fun to the common man. MostParle offerings are in the low & mid-range price segments. This is based on theirunderstanding of the Indian consumer psyche. The value-for-money positioning helpsgenerate large sales volumes for the products.However, Parle Products also manufactures a variety of premium products for the up-market, urban consumers. And in this way, caters a range of products to a variety ofconsumers.THE CUSTOMER CONFIDENCEThe Parle name conjures up fond memories across the length and breadth of the country.After all, since 1929, the people of India have been growing up on Parle biscuits &sweets.Today, the Parle brands have found their way into the hearts and homes of people all overIndia & abroad. Parle Biscuits and confectioneries, continue to spread happiness & joyamong people of all ages.The consumer is the focus of all activities at Parle. Maximizing value to consumers andforging enduring customer relationships are the core endeavours at Parle.Their efforts are driven towards maximizing customer satisfaction and this is in synergywith their quality pledge. " Parle Products Limited will strive to provide consistentlynutritious & quality food products to meet consumers satisfaction by using qualitymaterials and by adopting appropriate processes. To facilitate the above we will strive tocontinuously train our employees and to provide them an open and participativeenvironment."
  7. 7. PARLE G - THE EVOLUTION !!!Parle-G has been a strong household name across India. The great taste, high nutrition,and the international quality, makes Parle-G a winner. No wonder, its the undisputedleader in the biscuit category for decades. Parle-G is consumed by people of all ages,from the rich to the poor, living in cities & in villages. While some have it for breakfast,for others it is a complete wholesome meal. For some its the best accompaniment forchai, while for some its a way of getting charged whenever they are low on energy.Because of this, Parle-G is the worlds largest selling brand of biscuits.Launched in the year 1939, it was one of the first brands of Parle Products. It was calledParle Gluco Biscuits mainly to cue that it was a glucose biscuit. It was manufactured atthe Mumbai factory, Vile Parle and sold in units of half and quarter pound packs.The incredible demand led Parle to introduce the brand in special branded packs and inlarger festive tin packs. By the year 1949, Parle Gluco biscuits were available not just inMumbai but also across the state. It was also sold in parts of North India. By the early50s, over 150 tones of biscuits were produced in the Mumbai factory. Looking at thesuccess of Parle-G, a lot of other me-too brands were introduced in the market. And thesebrands had names that were similar to Parle Gluco Biscuits so that if not by anything else,the consumer would err in picking the brand. This forced Parle to change the name fromParle Gluco Biscuits to Parle-G.Originally packed in the wax paper pack, today it is available in a contemporary,premium BOPP pack with attractive side fins. The new airtight pack helps to keep thebiscuits fresh and tastier for a longer period.Parle-G was the only biscuit brand that was always in short supply. It was headingtowards becoming an all-time great brand of biscuit. Parle-G started being advertised inthe 80s. It was advertised mainly through press ads. The communication spoke about thebasic benefits of energy and nutrition. In 1989, Parle-G released its Dadaji commercial,which went on to become one of the most popular commercials for Parle-G. Thecommercial was run for a period of 6 years. Parle-G grew bigger by the minute. Be it the packs sold, the areas covered or the numberof consumers. It became a part of the daily lives of many Indians. It wasnt a biscuit anymore. It had become an icon. The next level of communication associated the brand withthe positive values of life like honesty, sharing and caring.
  8. 8. In the year 1997, Parle-G sponsored the tele-serial of the Indian superhero, Shaktimaanthat went on to become a huge success. The personality of the superhero matched theoverall superb benefits of the brand. Parle extended this association with Shaktimaan andgave away a lot of merchandise of Shaktimaan, which was supported by POS and presscommunication. The children just could not get enough of Parle-G and Shaktimaan. In the year 2002, it was decided to bring the brand closer to the child who is a majorconsumer. A national level promo - `Parle-G Mera Sapna Sach Hoga was run for aperiod of 6 months. The promo was all about fulfilling the dreams of children. Therewere over 5 lakh responses and of that, over 300 dreams were fulfilled. Dreams that were fulfilled ranged from trips to Disneyland at Paris & Singapore; freeride on a chartered plane; 20 scholarships worth Rs 50,000; a special cricket coaching etc. The year 2002 will go down as a special year in Parle-Gs advertising history. A year thatsaw the birth of G-Man - a new ambassador for Parle-G. Not just a hero but also a super-hero that saves the entire world, especially children from all the evil forces. A campaignthat is not just new to the audiences but one that involves a completely new way ofexecution that is loved by children all over the world – Animation To make the brand much more interesting and exciting with children, it was decided tolaunch a premium version of Parle-G called Parle-G Magix in the year 2002. Parle-GMagix is available in two exciting tastes - ‘Cocoh’ and ‘Cashew’. The year 2002 alsowitnessed the launch of Parle-G Milk Shakti, which has the nourishing combination ofmilk and honey, especially launched for the southern market. Parle-G continues to climb the stairs of success. Take a look at the global market whereit is being exported. First came the Middle East then USA followed by Africa and thenAustralia. An Indian brand, thats exported to almost all parts of the world. After all thatswhat you would expect from the Parle-G Worlds Largest Selling Biscuit.IMPORT - EXPORTThe immense popularity of Parle products in India was always a challenge to theirproduction capacity. Now, using more modern techniques for capacity expansion, wehave begun spreading their wings and are going global.Parle bisuits and confectionaries are fast gaining acceptance in international markets,such as, Abu Dhabi, Africa, Dubai, South America and Sri Lanka.
  9. 9. Even the more sophisticated markets like USA & Australia, now relish Parle products.As part of the efforts towards a larger share of the global market, Parle has initiated theprocess of getting ISO 9000 certification. Many Parle Products have also won Gold,silver and bronze medals at the Monde Selection.VARIOUS UNIT OF COMPANYThere are five mother units and thirty one contact manufacturing units in India. The maindifference between mother units and contact units is that mother units produce more thanone product that is PARLE G, MONACO, KRACK JACK, SIXER, HIDE AND SEEKetc. while contact unit manufacture only PARLE G.Mother units are as follows.Mumbai (Maharashtra)Bhadurdgarh (Haryana)Neemrana (Rajasthan)Banglore and KolkataIMPORTANT PEOPLE OF THE COMPANYCHAIRPERSON: MR. VIJAY CHAUVANDIRECTOR: MR. ANUP CHAUVANEXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: MR. AJAY CHAUVANCOMMERCIAL MANAGER: MR. AMOLFACTORY MANAGER: MR. NIVATIAPRODUCTION MANAGER: MR. RAJESH RAULSTORE MANAGER: MR. DIXIT HIERARCHY OF PARLE PRODUCTS
  12. 12. CURVE PLATE STALKING TABLE MULTIPACK MACHINE BOX SEALING MACHINE TAPPINGDEVIRSION BELT CONVEYOR BELT CONVEYOR BELT DISPATCH SECTOIN PROCESS LAYOUT OF PARLE PRODUCTS LTD.PARLE G are made at parle products ltd. at vile parle .First of all the parle products buys RAW MATERIAL from the various suppliers andstored into the store room. This raw material is then sent to laboratory for testing andafter testing only it is used for manufacturing. The raw material consist of Wheat flour,Sugar, Partially hydrogenated edible vegetable oils, Invert syrup, Leavening agents (503Baking powder) Milk, solids Salt Emulsifiers (E 322 or E 471 or E 481) and Doughconditioners (E 223).Such a mixture of raw material is taken and mixed into STEPHAN MIXTURE, which ishigh power mixture machine. Specially made for mixture of dough, from which themixture is passed to molder called ROTARY MOULDER. Through that moulderapproximately 10,000 come out in a minute. Moulder had 260 cups fitted in it whichgives shape to the biscuits and an impression embossed on it of parle-g.
  13. 13. From rotary moulder the dough is passed through a 260 feet long OVEN which isapproximately 340* c. In oven there are three stages to be followed • Removal of moisture. • Building the structure of biscuits. • Colourings of biscuits take place.From oven the hot biscuits are placed on the COOLING CONVYOR, which is 260 feetlong and the biscuits continues to run on it for 5 to 7 minutes so that the biscuits becomecool and all the moisture that biscuits contain gets evaporated. And because of the abovereason the factory has “ S FLOW LAYOUT ” in the factory.The conveyor continues to move to COUNTING UNIT where biscuits are counted andseen that it is going on properly or not.The conveyor continues till the biscuits reach the STALKING TABLE at which thebiscuits are packed in very orderly manner.From cooling conveyor sum biscuits are diverted through AUTO FEEDINGMACHINE to another stalking machine where packing is done.From stalking table the biscuits are moved on conveyor to MULTI PACK WRAPPINGMACHINE were 16 biscuits are packed into a regular parle g wrapper so that the weightof 16 biscuits comes up to 100 grams.Then 24 packets of parle g biscuits are packed into a POLY BAGAnd after packing it into poly bag it is sent to SEALING MACHINE where it is sealed,Then it is sent to CORRUGATE BOX SECTION in which 6 poly bags are placed andThen the boxes are kept on conveyor and sent to DISPATCH SECTION from were thebiscuits are sent to various places in India and all over the world.
  14. 14. RAW MATERIALWheat flourSugarPartially hydrogenated edible vegetable oilsInvert syrupLeavening agents (503 Baking powder)Milk solidsSaltEmulsifiers (E 322 or E 471 or E 481) andDough conditioners (E 223) and contains added flavours.The raw material is mixed in certain proportion, to get the best quality of biscuits. All theingredients are tested in laboratory so that no low quality of raw material is used inmanufacturing process. The raw material is tested for their acidic value, moisture itcontains, and quality of milk powder.INVENTORY
  15. 15. The inventory of the company that is the raw material is of a week. They store suchinventory in store room and then is sent for testing in laboratory and after testing it is sentfor production.SHIFTSThere is nearly 10,000 employees working in the company and are working in threeshifts.35,000 tones of biscuits are manufactured in a day of one particular product, andthere are such nine product manufactured in the factory.WASTAGESThere are two type of wastage in factory. First is the waste materials fallen on ground.Such waste material is of 1% which is marginal and acceptable which goes into totalwaste. Second types of waste are the biscuit collected in tray of the multi-pack wrappingmachine, since these biscuit are broken they are not packed and sold to the customer butcollected in other tray and sold as broken pieces and sold for less price for cattle feeding.LOOSE BISCUITOn the stalking table one to two rows of baked biscuits are kept aside for selling it asloose biscuits. They are normally assumed to be damaged biscuits but they are notdamaged or broken but company keep such loose packets of biscuits to sell it to the localpeople for marginal rate of 33 Rs / kg.
  16. 16. FOLLWING ARE THE MACHINERY USED IN MANUFACTURINGSTEPHEN MIXERThe Stephan TK Mixer is an ideal component to fully automatically feed the down-stream make-up equipment for biscuits, bread, rolls, buns, cake, sweet goods, cookies andcrackers.The advantages are compelling: High volume output results from the short kneading time and fast ingredient charging:1000 kg/h to 6000 kg/h depending on the model. Totally unassisted automatic discharge combines with predividing of the dough intoapproximately 15 kg. Pieces, is the basis for a fully automatic operation without the needfor any full-time operator. Dosing of flour, water, yeast, salt, shortening and other nutrients. In a few seconds, all ingredients are homogeneously mixed. Then, as the dough beginsto develop, the Stephan energy meter control will ensure each dough is finished to thesame development The Stephan Mixer is most economical with: No-time dough formula Straight dough Liquid broth (yeast slurry) system Flour fermented liquid sponge system. From batch to batch, the doughs will be consistently uniform: "Process Control" Compact construction, no building preparation necessary, almost service-free day-to-
  17. 17. day operation. The direct drive design allows the kneading element to be fastened directly onto motorshaft. There is no coupling or power transmission. Easy to clean. Only solid stainless steel construction. Quiet operation, less vibration.Count on a better result. In these competitive times, good kneading is not enough. For aprofitable operation, you need a short process time and an exact control on input energywhich allows you to mix each dough to the same development curve.A short amortization of the capital investment occurs due to an increase in productivity -more finished product from same amount of flour - and due to a perception of betterquality in the areas of longer shelf life, "a delicate crumb", softer crumb structure, highervolume and increased flavor.The process control is simple and reliable. The processes of ingredient loading, mixingand dough discharge are controlled by each program. Depending on the ingredientloading system design, the recipe change needs no change of program. However, if thedosing system can not be adjusted independently, then a different program can be usedfor each recipe. The ingredient loading system should be designed to allow each scaledingredient to be weighed during the mixing time of each previous batch. With this pre-scaling or staging of ingredients, all ingredients are ready to be charged at the same time.This system design will save time and thereby increase output. This control system wouldoperate the entire loading, batching, mixing, discharging and dough conveying system.This would include the logic for accurate scaling of ingredients.Heres how the Stephan Mixer works.The operation can be divided into four phases: loading, mixing, kneading anddischarging. After loading the mixer with all ingredients, the mixing process starts.The unique shape of the mixing/kneading tool, combined with the mixing baffle,produces a very homogeneous mix. The combination of the mixing tool allows for theoptimum hydration of the flour. Due to this intensive hydration, a higher yield is possiblein the range of 1.5-3% depending on the type of dough. This complete development leadsto a delicate crumb and an extremely machine able dough. Using a special attachment,the Stephan Mixer can knead the dough’s under a vacuum, if it is desired to have a super
  18. 18. fine pore structure like American or English white pan bread.Stephan Mixers are powerful and versatile.Automatic make-up equipment is fed totally automatically by the Stephan Mixer. Qualityimprovement and automatic batching are the main advantages of the Stephan Mixer.Biscuits and rolls will have bigger volumes, more uniform texture and a more tender anddelicate crumb.The Stephan Mixer is also used efficiently in the cookie and cracker industry forproducts such as: Biscuits Bread sticks Soda crackers Rotary cookies Wire-cut cookies With only two different mixing and kneading tools, all of the above described productscan be produced. STEPHAN MIXERROTARY MOULD COOLING CONVEYOR
  19. 19. ROTARY MOULD • structure in corrosion-proof; anodised aluminum and Aisi 304 stainless steel • satin stainless steel panelling • swivel wheels and support feet • trays loader with automatic chain feed • feeder roller anodised aluminium • presser roller in White rubber • bronze moulder roller with quick change system • scraper blade in stainless steel • pressure adjustment of rubber roller on moulder roller • scraper blade adjustment • closed ring outlet belt with tension and centering adjustment • belt cleaner blade with extractable drawer • product outlet with power driven roller • 1.00 kW speed variatorCOOLING CONVEYOR The biscuit coming from stripping conveyor is directed on to the cooling conveyor totransfer the heat in the biscuit to atmospheric air as it is passing on it. The total travel of
  20. 20. the cooling conveyor is 1.5 times the oven length. As per need specifications it need thetravel of 150 ft. for effecting cooling. Cooling conveyor is made in a modularconstruction of 2.5 Meters. long and connected together to form the required length. Thesupporting side channels are fabricated from 3mm thick M.S. sheet.Idle rollers are spaced at 750mm apart on conveying direction and 1700mm on the returndirection. All the idle rollers are of 48mm dia, mounted on 6004 ZZ deep groove ballbearings with grinding finish and hard chrome plated for hygienic conditions.During the production practically about the droppings of oil from the cloth due to rubbingof cloth against tie angles when producing high fat biscuits. To minimise this is replacedthe all tie angles also with idle rollers. This might costs little extra, but you can maintainhygienic conditions at working area.Drive drums are two nos. of 220mm dia and projections are made on the surface ofdrums to minimize slip or covered with friction grip rubber tape. Manual tensioning andtracking are provided.You can rely only on feeder table to stack the oil sprayed biscuits which does not requiremore travel after oil spraying.LAMINATORLaminators are generally used for production of all kinds of hard biscuits, crackers andcocktail snacks. With laminator it is possible to create a puffy pastry-like structure, whichis of decisive importance for the quality level and consequently for the sales success.Laminating of Dough band improves the weight/volume ratio considerably i.e., quantityincrease at same weight.In this superior functioning machine the dough band received from sheeter of 838mmwidth is passed through two shuttles. The dough sheet is cut into pieces by a knife for alength of 1000mm (39") and these pieces are laid on bottom shuttle by top shuttle. Thisbottom shuttle layers the pieces on first conveyor unit of 1000mm (39") wide productionline very carefully. The first conveyor unit feeds to the first gauge roll unit. No. of layerscan be controlled by the speed of first conveyor unit or increasing the speed of sheetingunit and laminator by A.C. variable frequency drive.
  21. 21. BISCUIT BAKING OVENConstruction: The oven body consists of steel steam tight tunnel with equally dividedzones of the radiators. Stainless steel expansion joints are provided between these zonesin order to eliminate the expansion of the oven section. The inspection doors are providedfor inspection of the baking goods during the process. And it is 260 feet long.Firing Chambers:The complete chamber are insulated with minerwoll filled from outside to conserve heatand increase efficiency. The fully automatic imported burner shall be fitted to thechamber and the temperature shall be controlled by automatic temperature controller onthe control panel.Insulation:The complete oven will be covered with 10" thick mineral wool insulation from top,bottom and the sides. The bottom portion of the oven at the sides will be covered withCRC sheets for the conveyor protection and to avoid heat loss.Baking System:The baking in the heating chamber takes place by radiators located under and above thewire mesh band which distribute heat for uniform baking. The recirculation heating gasesof these radiators can be controlled for each zone separately. The closed recirculationsystem is having slight vacuum so that combustion gases can not enter into the bakingchamber. The ventilating fan is for circulation of the heating gases through therecirculation system and thermostatically controlled burners provide the set temperatureof the heating gases.Fans:All the circulating fans are fabricated from M.S. & S.S. and will be well balanced toavoid vibration and will give noise free operation in high speedsROTARY CUTTERThe single head rotary cutter prints fine design on a continuously fed dough sheet andalso cuts out the individual dough piece.The unit powered by 1.5KW helical geared motor and speed controlled by AC frequencycontroller. Drive is given to cutting roller only to accommodate different sizes of dies in
  22. 22. this machine.Rubber lined anvil roller is adjustable in height so that pressure can be controlled at bothsides in parallel or independently. The anvil roll is being driven by friction of the cuttingweb, which is independently powered by its own separate drive. For safety reasons thecutting roll is provided with guard, removal of which stops the motor.COUNTING UNITThe counting unit counts and see that the biscuit making process is going fine or not, per the program set in the machine, program is set as per the grams required. Generally16 biscuits are taken by the counting unit so that it leads to 100 grams.SUGAR GRINDERTurbulence System and Steam Extraction:APPLICATION: The machine is used to granule (crystal) sugar to make it in powderform for using in biscuit recipe.DESIGN: Hammer Mill type, body of the machine is fitted on a sheet metalbox/container/receiver with one air exhaust balloon. The driving motor is fitted on the topof the box. In case of auto feeding a bucket elevator is fitted at one end of the box.OUTPUT: 10 Kg/min. (icing sugar)FEEDING: AutomaticPOWER LOAD: 5 HP for grinder, 1 HP for auto feeder with built-in control panelMULTIPACK WRAPPING MACHINEThis machine helps in wrapping the biscuits on the particular wrapper fixed on the rollerof the machine. The wrapper is feed into the machine and the sealing of the wrapper is
  23. 23. done by four heater roller, which is fitted on the machine. This heater roller heat up theplastic and seals the packet. And at the same time the jaw cutter cut the packet on thecutting edge marked i.e. as per the grams of the packet which is feed in the automaticmachine (100 – 120, 120 – 150, 150 -170, 170 - 190). The packets coming out from thewrapping machine in a minute is programmed in computer and can be changed as per theneed.POLY BAGSPoly bags contain 24 packets of parle g biscuits in one poly bag. There are 4 workersemployed on this section who take care of the work by putting 24 packets of biscuits inthe bag and forwarding it to sealing machine section.SEALING MACHINEThe sealing machine has heater rod for sealing the poly bag in which 24 packet of biscuitare placed, and it have a conveyer belt on other side so that when the poly bag passesthrough the heater and get sealed then it is passed to the tapping machine.TAPPING MACHINESix such poly bags are placed in one such corrugated box and the box is passed throughthe tapping machine where are tapped and then sent through a long diversion conveyerbelt. This belt helps to transfer the box to the dispatch section directly. 36 boxes arearranged on pallet in the dispatch section, from where they are transferred to the variousdealers all over the India and world wide.MACHINERY USED IN MAINTENANCE OF MAJOR MACHINERY
  24. 24. LapheDrilling machineShaperMillerPantograph and many more.USE OF COST CUTTING MEASURES.For example:All the biscuits are manufactured in this factory i.e. In Mumbai one as the load of workexceeded many factories were set up in other states of India. So the cost of transportationdecreases and more profit is earned.Another example is of “Hide and Seek” one of the products of the company, for whichthey used to import chocolate chips from Australia but later when it was available inChennai so the import was stopped and the cost dropped by a rupee because the dutywhich was on the import was high and then another supplier was found in Hyderabad andthe price was again reduced by a rupee which finally ended up at 14 rupees.