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Group communication

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discreet computation

discreet computation

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  • 1. GROUP COMMUNICATION
  • 2. MULTICAST OPERATION: It is an operation that sends a single message from one process to each of the members of a group of processes.  the membership of the group is transparent to the sender.  No guarantees about message delivery or ordering.
  • 3. 1. Fault tolerance based on replicated services: A replicated service consists of a group of servers. Client requests are multicast to all the members of the group, each of which performs an identical operation. Even when some of the members fail, client can still be served. 2. Finding the discovery servers in spontaneous networking: It can be used by servers and client to locate available discovery services in order to register their interfaces.
  • 4. 3. Better performance through replicated data: Data are replicated to increase the performance of a service. 4. Propagation of event notifications : Multicast to a group may be used to notify processes when something happens.
  • 5. An implementation of group communication. IP multicast is built on top of the internet Protocol. IP multicast allows the sender to transmit a single IP packet to a set of computers that from a multicast group. A multicast group is specified by a class D internet address Class D network created for IP multicasting 1110 28-bit multicast address
  • 6.  The membership of multicast groups is dynamic, allowing computers join or leave at any time.  IP Multicast is available only via UDP.  Performs multicast by sending UDP datagrams with multicast address and ordinary port numbers.
  • 7. The following details are specific to IPV4 • Multicast routers: IP packets can be multicast both: 1) Local network – Use the multicast capability of the Lan E.g.: Ethernet. 2) Internet – Used multicast routers.  TTL(time to live): used to limit the distance. • Multicast address allocation : It may be permanent or temporary.  Permanent addr. In the range of 224.0.0.1 – 224.0.0.255  Remaining are available for temp.
  • 8. IP multicast have the same failure characteristics as UDP datagrams.  Omission failure. Unreliable multicast. It does not guarantee that a message will be delivered to any member of a group.
  • 9. Reliability Issues:  Recipients may drop the message because its buffer is full. Datagram sent from one multicast router to another may be lost. Any process may fail. If a multicast router fails. Ordering issue:  IP packets sent over an internetwork do not necessarily arrive in the order in which they were sent.
  • 10. Some examples of the effects of reliability and ordering : 1. Fault tolerance based on replicated services all the servers receive request messages in the same order as one another. 2. Finding the discovery servers in spontaneous networking: Any process that wants to locate the discovery servers multicasts request at periodic intervals for a time after it starts up. 3. Better performance through replicated data: The effect of lost messages and inconsistent ordering would depend on the method of replication and the importance of all replicas being totally up to date. 4. Propagation of event notifications : The particular application determines the qualities required of multicast.
  • 11. End