Energy conservation

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ABOUT ENERGY CONSERVATION

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Energy conservation

  1. 1. IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRICITY  Electrical energy ( ELECTRICITY) has became an essential thing just like food, clothes ,air & shelter for us in all walks of our life for various personal comforts (like Illumination ,fans ,air coolers, air conditioners , Refrigerators , mixers , grinders, heaters, electric iron, Micro wave ovens ,toasters, Induction heaters, electric cookers etc.), for entertainment (like computers, TVs, play stations, music players etc.), for various industrial & agricultural functionaries(like pumps, motors, generators ,various drives & other machinery) and Motive applications like Electric trains ,bikes ,cars etc. Simply we can say Life without electric power is just beyond imagination .
  2. 2. SOURCES OF ELECTRIC ENERGY  CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY :  The sources of energy which are used in large volumes but are available in limited quantities in the nature and which are going to deplete in near future & can’t be renewed are called ‘Conventional(Non Renewable) sources of energy’.  Ex : Coal , Natural gas , oil , Water , Nuclear fuels.  NON CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY:  The sources of energy which are abundantly available in nature and that are not going deplete & which are renewable are called ‘Non Conventional (Renewable) sources of energy’. Ex : Solar , Wind ,Tidal, GeoThermal, Biomass etc.
  3. 3. WHAT IS OUR POWER GEANERATION CAPACITY ?  As on 30.06.2013 ALL INDIA POWER GENERATION Capacities are as mentioned below :  MODE INSTALLED CAPACITY PERCENTAGE  Thermal 1,32,288. 4 MW 58.50 %  Natural gas 20,360. 0 MW 9.00 %  Oil 1, 200 . 0 MW 0.60 %  Nuclear 4, 780 . 0 MW 2.15 %  Hydel 39,623 .5 MW 17.55 %  Renewable sources 27,541 . 2 MW 12.20 %  TOTAL 2,25,793. 10 MW 100.00 %
  4. 4. WHY WE SHOULD CONSERVE ENERGY ?  We hold the right to utilize the earth’s energy resources with a responsibility in such a way that we Carry forward a better environment for our next generations.  Conventional fossil fuels like coal, petroleum products, natural gas etc. are the major sources of energy in present trend . Due to continuous accelerated and indiscriminate use of this fossil fuels they are depleting at rapid rate & at the current rate of use , they may not last till the end of this century, leading to starvation of these fuels in near future.
  5. 5. FOSSIL FUELS  These fossil fuels when burnt releases harmful gases like CO2, CO, SO2 ,NO2 etc. & presence of such Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere causes global warming which in turn leads to extensive damage to Ozone layer , erratic rain fall, unusual heat waves, cyclones , floods etc.  The ash content of burnt coal when it is disposed in wet or dry forms makes the nearby soils ‘ Infertile’ and leads to many health hazards to the nearby residing people who inhales the polluted air & who drinks the polluted water near Thermal power projects.  (Explain about simhadri plant pollution impact)
  6. 6. FOSSIL FUELS  The earth is already so disabled by the insidious poison of green house gases ,that even if we stop all fossil fuel burning immediately the consequences of what we have already done will last for upcoming 1000 years.  Each year we are digging out about 400 Million Tonnes of coal from earth’s crust world wide and by burning that , thousands of tonnes of CO2, Carbon monoxide, SO2 etc. are being thrown into the nature causing serious GLOBAL WARMING whose adverse effects are already being experienced worldwide in many ways.
  7. 7. NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES  On the other hand , Non Conventional energy sources such as solar , wind, tidal and biomass are abundantly available in nature and no chance of scarcity . More over they are pollution free and eco friendly and of very low cost compared to conventional fuels like coal, natural gas etc . Hence, we should encourage of conventional energy sources with focus on conservation of energy generated from conventional sources because it is generated out of tedious , costly and risk involved processes.
  8. 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY :Every year about 5000 Trillion KWHr solar radiation is reaching our earth planet . If we can properly utilize this huge amount of solar energy by using Photo voltaic cells / panels , solar water heaters, solar cookers ,solar lighting systems etc., we can reduce burden on conventional energy resources like coal , water , natural gas etc. WIND ENERGY : The wind potential available in the nature is used to run the wind turbines (Mills) which are coupled with generators , that produce electricity. World wide India holds 5 th rank in wind energy. In our country Gujarath , Maharashtra , Madhyapradesh , A.P , Tamilnadu & Kerala are very much suitable for wind power generation as the wind potential in these states is very much appreciable.
  9. 9. RAICHUR THERMAL POWER STATION KARNATAKA  Stage I ( 2 x 210 MW) 1986 Rs 405 Crores  Stage II (2 x 210 MW) 1994 Rs 985 Crores  Stage III (2 x 210 MW) 1999 Rs 1545 Crores  Stage IV (1 x 210 MW) 2002 Rs 615 Crores  Stage V (1 x 250 MW) 2010 Rs 945 Crores  THESE COST FIGURES ARE OF INSTALLATION ONLY.  This plant requires about 24000 MT of coal / Day for generating about 40 M.U. /Day  210MW X 24 Hrs = 5040 MWHrs = 5.04 x 1000 M Whrs = 5.04 M KWhrs = 5.04 M.U.
  10. 10. Ash & Its uses  RTPS , Karnataka generates about 1.5 million tonnes of fly ash & 0.5 million tonnes of bottom ash / annum.  They established CASHUTEC with collaboration of NORWEY (Center for ASH Utilization Techniques and Environment Conservation) and spending crores of rupees per annum for developing methods to make ash bricks, blocks, mosaic tiles etc.
  11. 11. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  For every MW of Electrical energy Generation cost ----- Rs 7.0 crores Transmission cost ----- Rs 5.5 crores Distribution cost ----- Rs 4.0 crores About Rs. 16.5 crores is needed for every MW of energy generated to reach the consumer end , where as about Rs. 4 crores is needed to conserve a MW of energy which results in substantial reduction of consumption of thousands of tonnes of coal / kilolitres of crude oil / huge amount of natural gas and large quantities of water etc.
  12. 12. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  Conservation of energy thus results in lot of relief for the governments financially & improves our nation’s fuel & energy security , reduction in liberation of greenhouse gases there by minimizes global warming , which ultimately reduces chances of depletion of Ozone layer , occurrence of floods, droughts and ecological balance can be achieved which makes life comfortable for various living organisms. So ,we should put our dedicated efforts to conserve electricity where ever it is possible .
  13. 13. B.E.E(Beaurau of Energy Efficiency)  Established on 1-3-2002 under the provisions of the energy conservation act 2001 by Govt. of India (website address: www.bee_india.nic.in).  Motto of BEE is to assist in developing policies & strategies with a focus on self regulation and market principles with in the overall frame work of E.C.Act 2001 with the prime object of reducing energy wastage & related burden on Indian economy by coordinating with designated Consumers, reputed agencies & organizations and recognize, identify, utilize the existing resources & infrastructure in performing the functions assigned to it under the E.C.Act 2001.
  14. 14. Major functions of B.E.E.  Create awareness & distribute information on energy efficiency & energy conservation.  Arrange & organize training of personnel.  Promote research & development.  Promote use of energy efficient processes, equipments , devices and systems.  Promote financing of innovative energy efficient projects.  Provide financial assistance to institutions for promoting E.E & E.C.  Implement international cooperation programmes relating to E.E & E.C.
  15. 15. STAR RATING  BEE adopted a methodology named as “ Standard & Labeling “ that clicked very well by attracting huge number of consumers. This is also simply called as “STAR RATING”. High energy consuming apparatus like Air conditioners , refrigerators , etc. are awarded with STAR symbols along with their technical specifications there by creating awareness among the consumers to buy electrical items with higher number star rating.  A Refrigerator with 5 stars rating consumes appreciably low energy compared to that having 3 stars rating. The cost of a 5 star item may be definitely more than that of 3 star item . But when compared on the basis of its life time savings in the form of low energy bill, the initial cost difference is almost negligible. Thus by using higher number star rated equipments , we can conserve electric energy very comfortably.
  16. 16. SAMPLE DATA OF ENERGY SAVINGS WITH STAR RATED EQUIPMENTS  Capacity of Air Conditioner : 1.5 Tonnes  Star rating cost Rated EER Money Savings 2 star Rs22000 2.75 Rs 4600 3 star Rs25500 2.95 Rs 5950 5 star Rs29900 3.35 Rs 8400 Based on 8 hrs run /day for 365 days Effectively A.C. runs for 5 hrs 35 minutes / day & per unit cost at Rs 5.
  17. 17. HOW ENERGY IS BILLED ?  ITEM QTY. POWER DAILY HOURS MONTH CONSUMPTION RATING CONSUMPTION ( UNITS or KWH )  LIGHT / TUBE 2 60 W 6 Hours 120 x6 x31 /1000 = 22.32 4 40 w 4Hours 160 x 4 x 31 /1000 = 19.84  Ceiling fans 3 60 w 12Hours 180 x 12 x31 /1000 = 66.96  COLOR T.V 1 160 w 12Hours 160 x 1 x 31 /1000 = 59.52  Mixer 1 200 w 1 Hour 200 x 1 x31 /1000 = 6.20  Electric Iron 1 1000 w 1 Hour 1000x 1 x31 /1000 = 31.00  Refrigirator 1 180 w 6 Hours 180 x 6 x31 /1000 = 33.48  Water pump 1 750 w 2 Hours 750 x 2 x31 /1000 = 46.50  Electric heater 1 1000 w 2 Hours 1000 x2 x31 /1000 = 62.0  TOTAL 347.82
  18. 18. ENERGY BILLING  ELECTRICITY TARIFF applicable for DOMESTIC USERS w.e.f 1.4.13  LT 1 A Category whose consumption < 100 units :  0 – 50 units Rs 1.45  51- 100 units Rs 2.60  LT 1 B Category whose consumption 100-200 units :  0 - 100 units Rs 2.60  101-200 units Rs 3.60  LT 1 B Category whose consumption > 200 units :  0 - 50 units Rs 2.60  51- 100 units Rs 3.25  101-150 units Rs 4.88  151-200 units Rs 5.63  201-250 units Rs 6.38  251-300 units Rs 6.88  301-400 units Rs 7.38  401-500 units Rs 7.88
  19. 19. ENERGY BILLING  LT 2A & 2B Categories Commercial consumers :  0-50 units Rs 6.63  51-100 units Rs 7.38  101-300 units Rs 8.13  301-500 units Rs 8.63  > 501 units Rs 9.13
  20. 20. HOW THE ENERGY IS BILLED ?  For 347.82 units (KWh s )Domestic Consumption , the calculation is as follows :  First 50 units 50 x 2.60 = 130.0 Rs  51-100 units 50 x 3.25 = 162.5 Rs  101-150 units 50 x 4.88 = 244.0 Rs  151-200 units 50 x5.63 = 281.5 Rs  201-250 units 50 x 6.38 = 319.0 Rs  251-300 units 50 x 6.88 = 344.0 Rs  301-350 units 47.82 x 7.38 = 352.9 Rs  Power tax per unit 6 paise 347.82 x 0.06 Rs = 20.87 Rs Fixed charges based on no.of units = 50.00 Rs TOTAL =1904.77 Rs
  21. 21. SAMPLE CALCULATION  Cost of a 100 watt incandescent bulb is about Rs 20. If it is used for 6hours per a day its energy consumption in a year (6 hours x 365 days) i.e for 2190 hours =  100 watt x 2190 hours = 219000 w hours  =219 Kw hours =219 Units = 219 x Rs 2.60 per unit  =Rs 569.4  TOTAL COST = Rs 20 + Rs 569.4 =Rs 589.4  Suppose if you replace the above said 100 watt incandescent bulb with energy efficient 20watt Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) whose luminous intensity is much more than ordinary bulb and gives almost equal glow & much longer life , the energy savings will be as follows :
  22. 22. SAMPLE CALCULATION  Cost of 20 watt CFL bulb = Rs 150  If it is used for 6 hours per a day the annual energy consumption = 20watt x 2190 hours = 43800 w hours  =43.8 Kw hours = 43.8 units  Cost of energy = 43.8 x Rs 2.6 per unit  =Rs 113.88  Total cost using CFL Bulb = Rs 150 + Rs 113.88 = Rs 263.88  Nett . Savings = Rs 589.40 - Rs 263.88 = Rs 325.52  Which is very much impressive.
  23. 23. TIPS TO SAVE ENERGY IN DOMESTIC SECTOR  LIGHTING SYSTEM (ILLUMINATION ) :  Don’t switch on your lights during day time unnecessarily . As far as possible use day light by opening windows & curtains .  Avoid usage of ordinary filament bulbs (Incandescent lamps) as 75 to 80 % of energy consumed by them used for heating the filament and only 25 % is converted into useful light energy .  Use energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) which consumes little power of 5 – 25 watts and whose luminous intensity is much better than filament bulbs and tube lights. Even though their initial cost is high, they are very economical when you look at their life time savings in energy bills due to very low power usage.  Clean the surface of all lighting equipment regularly ,there by you can get maximum light output for justifying the energy used.  Use Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs instead of zero watt bulbs.  During night time also , put off the lights when nobody is present in an area particularly in offices , banks , colleges , commercial buildings , business establishments etc.
  24. 24. REFRIGERATORS  Don’t open their doors frequently which leads to killing of cooling inside , frequent on & off of the compressor and more energy consumption.  Never allow sunlight to directly fall on them.  Use frost free refrigerators / use ‘defrost’ regularly.  Place them at least 4 feet away from the walls.  Don’t run them with part loads.  Use always 3 or 5 star refrigerators which are highly energy efficient.  Use cooling scale selector switches of freezer and main segment carefully based on the quantity of items present in them.  Don’t put stainless steel utensils in refrigerators as most of the power is wasted in cooling the utensil itself rather than the contents in it.  Allow the warm & hot foods to get back to room temperature before they are placed in refrigerators.  Ensure always perfect door seals .
  25. 25. AIR CONDITIONERS  Don’t use ACs for hours together at a stretch . Switch off them after an hour or two and maintain room temp. between 20-23 degree C.  Clean the filter of AC monthly once which results in less power usage and saving of energy.  Use only 3 or 5 star rated ACs as they are very much energy efficient.  Ensure your rooms are completely leak proof otherwise room temp. rises quickly leading to more burden on ACs.  Don’t leave ACs running when nobody is present in that area.  Use as far as possible air coolers or ceiling fans for small rooms as their per unit energy cost is almost 5 times less than that of air conditioners. Prefer AC s only for very big rooms or conference halls etc.
  26. 26. COMPUTERS & WASHING MACHINES  When nobody is attending, switch off atleast monitor of computer with out fail ,which saves 50 % energy.  Use LCD monitors instead of cathode ray tube (CRT) Type.  Use branded items which are highly energy efficient.  Don’t use drier option during sunny periods .use sun’s heat and natural wind for drying clothes as far as possible.  Don’t use hot water option for all clothes ,it should be used for too much dirty clothes only.  Never run WMs on light load as they consume more energy compared to that on rated load.  Select the timer setting of washer & drier cycles carefully depending on the load and dirtiness of clothes .
  27. 27. GENERAL TIPS  Don’t keep Lights ,fans , ACs ,air coolers, TV s ,etc ON when nobody is present in that area. In winter & rainy seasons air coolers should be used if at all necessary , in place of air conditioners . Try to utilize the natural light of sun , moon and wind to the max. extent possible instead of wasting electric power . Study the name plate details & operating instructions booklets associated with any electrical apparatus before it is commissioned for economic usage of electric power. Don’t forget to remove chargers of various gadgets like cell phones, laptops , digital cameras , I Pads etc after full charging. If u leave them in circuit ,they will keep drawing power and overheats and damages their batteries. Always switch off your TV sets at the switch board itself , not with remote .  Be a MAISER in case of electric power consumption and feel proud .
  28. 28. GENERAL TIPS  By using harmonic filters in electric supply systems ,we can save about 8 to 10 % power.  Uninterrupted power systems (U P S ) usage should be minimized, as they liberate large quantities of CO2.  In large buildings like Banks ,commercial complexes, IT companies, big apartments etc. BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BMS) should be implemented as a part of which 100% day light of sun should be used for illumination purpose with out switching on any light during day hours. Instead of going for high luminous intensity like 500-600 lux , it can be designed for 300 lux which is sufficient. If money is not a big worry ,we can even go for MOTION SENSORS which switches off lights, fans etc. automatically when nobody is appearing in that vicinity.
  29. 29. HOW TO SAVE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR ?  The farmers who are enjoying free power boon of our state govt. are consuming electric power indiscriminately by running their agricultural pump sets even with higher capacity after obtaining sanction for lower ratings. As they are prominent eaters of inductive reactive power , the power factor goes down , voltage sinks severely ,pump set motors draw more & more current than rated capacity and ultimately their motors get BURNT or even some times due to simultaneous over loading by all farmers in a particular area , the distribution transformer feeding them itself get BURNT leading to total power outage for all of them.
  30. 30. AGRICULTURE SECTOR  The simple solution for such problems is ‘using CAPACITORS of suitable rating along with agricultural pump set motors which compensates the inductive reactive power demand by producing capacitive reactive power which results in power factor improvement ,improved voltage profile, keeping the current drawn with in the prescribed limits & there by avoiding the chances of damage of pump set motors and connected Distribution transformers. The capacitors doesn’t cost much compared to the benefits they provide. So all farmers should use capacitors in conjunction with their pump sets to save electric energy and safe guard their costly pump set motors.
  31. 31. AGRICULTURE SECTOR.  Farmers have to invariably use ISI mark pump sets , friction less foot valves, less no. of pipe bends ,and PVC pipes instead of GI (galvonized iron) pipes for getting smooth water flow ,so that motor –pump sets are not loaded beyond their rated capacities and thereby the risk of their damage is minimized.
  32. 32. ENERGY SAVING & Its EFFECT Energy coordination centre , NEW DELHI ‘s study says “If we concentrate on saving electric power at an average 20% can be saved in crucial sectors of our economy there by we can save about 15000 million units (M.U)per year ,which results in savings of about Rs.4750 Crores. , What all needed is social awareness and dedication.” We have to curtail unnecessary usage of lights ,fans , ACs etc. in Govt. offices & other establishments during night times in particular. We must try sincerely to curtail power consumption in the form of lavish decorative lighting at shopping complexes, function halls, advertisement hordings etc.
  33. 33. POSSIBLE SAVINGS  Industries should use energy efficient pumps, motors, drives ,compressors & other machines.  Farmers should use ISI marked pump sets, pipes, motors , capacitors etc.  An estimate of possible savings of energy /year :  SECTOR M.U SAVINGS Avg.Cost /UNIT SAVINGS  Domestic 4200 Rs 3.0 Rs 1260 Crores  Industries 4800 Rs 4.0 Rs 1920 Crores  Govt.offices 850 Rs 3.0 Rs 255 Crores  Agriculture 5300 Rs 2.5 Rs 1320 Crores  TOTAL : 15150 M.U Rs 4750 Crores  Note : 1 M.U = 10,00,000 Units (Kwhours)
  34. 34. ENERGY PYRAMID
  35. 35. SAVE ELECTRICITY !!!! 1 UNIT OF POWER SAVED = 1.5 UNITS OF POWER GENERATED.
  36. 36. CONCLUSION  Even though we have enough financial capacity to pay electricity bills we don’t have the right to use electric power indiscriminately. So ,  Save energy --  Save fuel and related resources –  Minimize pollution --  Save environment—  Save our globe –  Show concern for future generations–  BE A RESPONSIBLE CITIZEN.

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