IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRICITY
Electrical energy ( ELECTRICITY) has became an
essential thing just like food, clothes ,air & shelter for
us in all walks of our life for various personal comforts
(like Illumination ,fans ,air coolers, air conditioners ,
Refrigerators , mixers , grinders, heaters, electric iron,
Micro wave ovens ,toasters, Induction heaters, electric
cookers etc.), for entertainment (like computers, TVs,
play stations, music players etc.), for various
industrial & agricultural functionaries(like pumps,
motors, generators ,various drives & other machinery)
Motive applications like Electric trains ,bikes ,cars etc.
Simply we can say Life without electric power is
just beyond imagination .
SOURCES OF ELECTRIC ENERGY
CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY :
The sources of energy which are
used in large volumes but are available in limited
quantities in the nature and which are going to
deplete in near future & can’t be renewed are called
‘Conventional(Non Renewable) sources of energy’.
Ex : Coal , Natural gas , oil , Water , Nuclear fuels.
NON CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY:
The sources of energy which are
abundantly available in nature and that are not going
deplete & which are renewable are called ‘Non
Conventional (Renewable) sources of energy’.
Ex : Solar , Wind ,Tidal, GeoThermal, Biomass etc.
WHAT IS OUR POWER
GEANERATION CAPACITY ?
As on 30.06.2013 ALL INDIA POWER
GENERATION Capacities are as mentioned below :
MODE INSTALLED CAPACITY PERCENTAGE
Thermal 1,32,288. 4 MW 58.50 %
Natural gas 20,360. 0 MW 9.00 %
Oil 1, 200 . 0 MW 0.60 %
Nuclear 4, 780 . 0 MW 2.15 %
Hydel 39,623 .5 MW 17.55 %
Renewable sources 27,541 . 2 MW 12.20 %
TOTAL 2,25,793. 10 MW 100.00 %
WHY WE SHOULD CONSERVE ENERGY ?
We hold the right to utilize the earth’s energy
resources with a responsibility in such a way
that we Carry forward a better environment for
our next generations.
Conventional fossil fuels like coal, petroleum
products, natural gas etc. are the major sources
of energy in present trend . Due to continuous
accelerated and indiscriminate use of this fossil
fuels they are depleting at rapid rate & at the
current rate of use , they may not last till the
end of this century, leading to starvation of
these fuels in near future.
These fossil fuels when burnt releases harmful gases like
CO2, CO, SO2 ,NO2 etc. & presence of such Greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere causes global warming which
in turn leads to extensive damage to Ozone layer ,
erratic rain fall, unusual heat waves, cyclones , floods etc.
The ash content of burnt coal when it is disposed in wet or
dry forms makes the nearby soils ‘ Infertile’ and leads to
many health hazards to the nearby residing people who
inhales the polluted air & who drinks the polluted
water near Thermal power projects.
(Explain about simhadri plant pollution impact)
The earth is already so disabled by the insidious poison
of green house gases ,that even if we stop all fossil fuel
burning immediately the consequences of what we have
already done will last for upcoming 1000 years.
Each year we are digging out about 400 Million Tonnes
of coal from earth’s crust world wide and by burning that
, thousands of tonnes of CO2, Carbon monoxide, SO2
etc. are being thrown into the nature causing serious
GLOBAL WARMING whose adverse effects are already
being experienced worldwide in many ways.
NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
On the other hand , Non Conventional energy
sources such as solar , wind, tidal and biomass are
abundantly available in nature and no chance of
scarcity . More over they are pollution free and eco
friendly and of very low cost compared to
conventional fuels like coal, natural gas etc .
Hence, we should encourage of conventional energy
sources with focus on conservation of energy
generated from conventional sources because it is
generated out of tedious , costly and risk involved
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
SOLAR ENERGY :Every year about 5000 Trillion KWHr
solar radiation is reaching our earth planet . If we can
properly utilize this huge amount of solar energy by
using Photo voltaic cells / panels , solar water heaters, solar
cookers ,solar lighting systems etc., we can reduce burden
on conventional energy resources like coal , water , natural
WIND ENERGY : The wind potential available in the
nature is used to run the wind turbines (Mills) which are
coupled with generators , that produce electricity.
World wide India holds 5 th rank in wind energy. In our
country Gujarath , Maharashtra , Madhyapradesh ,
A.P , Tamilnadu & Kerala are very much suitable for
wind power generation as the wind potential in these
states is very much appreciable.
RAICHUR THERMAL POWER
Stage I ( 2 x 210 MW) 1986 Rs 405 Crores
Stage II (2 x 210 MW) 1994 Rs 985 Crores
Stage III (2 x 210 MW) 1999 Rs 1545 Crores
Stage IV (1 x 210 MW) 2002 Rs 615 Crores
Stage V (1 x 250 MW) 2010 Rs 945 Crores
THESE COST FIGURES ARE OF INSTALLATION ONLY.
This plant requires about 24000 MT of coal / Day for
generating about 40 M.U. /Day
210MW X 24 Hrs = 5040 MWHrs = 5.04 x 1000 M Whrs
= 5.04 M KWhrs = 5.04 M.U.
Ash & Its uses
RTPS , Karnataka generates about 1.5 million
tonnes of fly ash & 0.5 million tonnes of bottom
ash / annum.
They established CASHUTEC with collaboration
of NORWEY (Center for ASH Utilization
Techniques and Environment Conservation) and
spending crores of rupees per annum for
developing methods to make ash bricks,
blocks, mosaic tiles etc.
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
For every MW of Electrical energy
Generation cost ----- Rs 7.0 crores
Transmission cost ----- Rs 5.5 crores
Distribution cost ----- Rs 4.0 crores
About Rs. 16.5 crores is needed for every MW of
energy generated to reach the consumer end ,
where as about Rs. 4 crores is needed to conserve a
MW of energy which results in substantial reduction
of consumption of thousands of tonnes of coal /
kilolitres of crude oil / huge amount of natural gas
and large quantities of water etc.
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Conservation of energy thus results in lot of relief
for the governments financially & improves our
nation’s fuel & energy security , reduction in
liberation of greenhouse gases there by minimizes
global warming , which ultimately reduces chances
of depletion of Ozone layer , occurrence of floods,
droughts and ecological balance can be achieved
which makes life comfortable for various living
organisms. So ,we should put our dedicated efforts
to conserve electricity where ever it is possible .
B.E.E(Beaurau of Energy Efficiency)
Established on 1-3-2002 under the provisions of the energy
conservation act 2001 by Govt. of India (website address:
Motto of BEE is to assist in developing policies & strategies
with a focus on self regulation and market principles with
in the overall frame work of E.C.Act 2001 with the prime
object of reducing energy wastage & related burden on
Indian economy by coordinating with designated
Consumers, reputed agencies & organizations and
recognize, identify, utilize the existing resources &
infrastructure in performing the functions assigned to it
under the E.C.Act 2001.
Major functions of B.E.E.
Create awareness & distribute information on energy
efficiency & energy conservation.
Arrange & organize training of personnel.
Promote research & development.
Promote use of energy efficient processes, equipments ,
devices and systems.
Promote financing of innovative energy efficient projects.
Provide financial assistance to institutions for promoting
E.E & E.C.
Implement international cooperation programmes relating
to E.E & E.C.
BEE adopted a methodology named as “ Standard & Labeling “
that clicked very well by attracting huge number of consumers.
This is also simply called as “STAR RATING”. High energy
consuming apparatus like Air conditioners , refrigerators , etc.
are awarded with STAR symbols along with their technical
specifications there by creating awareness among the consumers
to buy electrical items with higher number star rating.
A Refrigerator with 5 stars rating consumes appreciably low
energy compared to that having 3 stars rating. The cost of a 5 star
item may be definitely more than that of 3 star item . But when
compared on the basis of its life time savings in the form of low
energy bill, the initial cost difference is almost negligible. Thus
by using higher number star rated equipments , we can conserve
electric energy very comfortably.
SAMPLE DATA OF ENERGY SAVINGS
WITH STAR RATED EQUIPMENTS
Capacity of Air Conditioner : 1.5 Tonnes
Star rating cost Rated EER Money
2 star Rs22000 2.75 Rs 4600
3 star Rs25500 2.95 Rs 5950
5 star Rs29900 3.35 Rs 8400
Based on 8 hrs run /day for 365 days
Effectively A.C. runs for 5 hrs 35 minutes / day
& per unit cost at Rs 5.
HOW ENERGY IS BILLED ?
ITEM QTY. POWER DAILY HOURS MONTH CONSUMPTION
RATING CONSUMPTION ( UNITS or KWH )
LIGHT / TUBE 2 60 W 6 Hours 120 x6 x31 /1000 = 22.32
4 40 w 4Hours 160 x 4 x 31 /1000 = 19.84
Ceiling fans 3 60 w 12Hours 180 x 12 x31 /1000 = 66.96
COLOR T.V 1 160 w 12Hours 160 x 1 x 31 /1000 = 59.52
Mixer 1 200 w 1 Hour 200 x 1 x31 /1000 = 6.20
Electric Iron 1 1000 w 1 Hour 1000x 1 x31 /1000 = 31.00
Refrigirator 1 180 w 6 Hours 180 x 6 x31 /1000 = 33.48
Water pump 1 750 w 2 Hours 750 x 2 x31 /1000 = 46.50
Electric heater 1 1000 w 2 Hours 1000 x2 x31 /1000 = 62.0
ELECTRICITY TARIFF applicable for DOMESTIC USERS w.e.f 1.4.13
LT 1 A Category whose consumption < 100 units :
0 – 50 units Rs 1.45
51- 100 units Rs 2.60
LT 1 B Category whose consumption 100-200 units :
0 - 100 units Rs 2.60
101-200 units Rs 3.60
LT 1 B Category whose consumption > 200 units :
0 - 50 units Rs 2.60
51- 100 units Rs 3.25
101-150 units Rs 4.88
151-200 units Rs 5.63
201-250 units Rs 6.38
251-300 units Rs 6.88
301-400 units Rs 7.38
401-500 units Rs 7.88
LT 2A & 2B Categories Commercial consumers :
0-50 units Rs 6.63
51-100 units Rs 7.38
101-300 units Rs 8.13
301-500 units Rs 8.63
> 501 units Rs 9.13
HOW THE ENERGY IS BILLED ?
For 347.82 units (KWh s )Domestic Consumption , the
calculation is as follows :
First 50 units 50 x 2.60 = 130.0 Rs
51-100 units 50 x 3.25 = 162.5 Rs
101-150 units 50 x 4.88 = 244.0 Rs
151-200 units 50 x5.63 = 281.5 Rs
201-250 units 50 x 6.38 = 319.0 Rs
251-300 units 50 x 6.88 = 344.0 Rs
301-350 units 47.82 x 7.38 = 352.9 Rs
Power tax per unit 6 paise
347.82 x 0.06 Rs = 20.87 Rs
Fixed charges based on no.of units = 50.00 Rs
TOTAL =1904.77 Rs
Cost of a 100 watt incandescent bulb is about Rs 20. If it
is used for 6hours per a day its energy consumption in a
year (6 hours x 365 days) i.e for 2190 hours =
100 watt x 2190 hours = 219000 w hours
=219 Kw hours =219 Units = 219 x Rs 2.60 per unit
TOTAL COST = Rs 20 + Rs 569.4 =Rs 589.4
Suppose if you replace the above said 100 watt
incandescent bulb with energy efficient 20watt Compact
Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) whose luminous intensity is
much more than ordinary bulb and gives almost equal
glow & much longer life , the energy savings will be as
Cost of 20 watt CFL bulb = Rs 150
If it is used for 6 hours per a day the annual energy
consumption = 20watt x 2190 hours = 43800 w hours
=43.8 Kw hours = 43.8 units
Cost of energy = 43.8 x Rs 2.6 per unit
Total cost using CFL Bulb = Rs 150 + Rs 113.88 = Rs 263.88
Nett . Savings = Rs 589.40 - Rs 263.88 = Rs 325.52
Which is very much impressive.
TIPS TO SAVE ENERGY IN DOMESTIC SECTOR
LIGHTING SYSTEM (ILLUMINATION ) :
Don’t switch on your lights during day time unnecessarily . As far
as possible use day light by opening windows & curtains .
Avoid usage of ordinary filament bulbs (Incandescent lamps) as
75 to 80 % of energy consumed by them used for heating the
filament and only 25 % is converted into useful light energy .
Use energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) which
consumes little power of 5 – 25 watts and whose luminous
intensity is much better than filament bulbs and tube lights. Even
though their initial cost is high, they are very economical when you
look at their life time savings in energy bills due to very low power
Clean the surface of all lighting equipment regularly ,there by you
can get maximum light output for justifying the energy used.
Use Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs instead of zero watt bulbs.
During night time also , put off the lights when nobody is present
in an area particularly in offices , banks , colleges , commercial
buildings , business establishments etc.
Don’t open their doors frequently which leads to killing of
cooling inside , frequent on & off of the compressor and
more energy consumption.
Never allow sunlight to directly fall on them.
Use frost free refrigerators / use ‘defrost’ regularly.
Place them at least 4 feet away from the walls.
Don’t run them with part loads.
Use always 3 or 5 star refrigerators which are highly energy
Use cooling scale selector switches of freezer and main
segment carefully based on the quantity of items present
Don’t put stainless steel utensils in refrigerators as most
of the power is wasted in cooling the utensil itself rather
than the contents in it.
Allow the warm & hot foods to get back to room
temperature before they are placed in refrigerators.
Ensure always perfect door seals .
Don’t use ACs for hours together at a stretch . Switch off
them after an hour or two and maintain room temp.
between 20-23 degree C.
Clean the filter of AC monthly once which results in less
power usage and saving of energy.
Use only 3 or 5 star rated ACs as they are very much energy
Ensure your rooms are completely leak proof otherwise
room temp. rises quickly leading to more burden on ACs.
Don’t leave ACs running when nobody is present in that
Use as far as possible air coolers or ceiling fans for small
rooms as their per unit energy cost is almost 5 times less
than that of air conditioners. Prefer AC s only for very big
rooms or conference halls etc.
COMPUTERS & WASHING
When nobody is attending, switch off atleast monitor of
computer with out fail ,which saves 50 % energy.
Use LCD monitors instead of cathode ray tube (CRT) Type.
Use branded items which are highly energy efficient.
Don’t use drier option during sunny periods .use sun’s heat
and natural wind for drying clothes as far as possible.
Don’t use hot water option for all clothes ,it should be used
for too much dirty clothes only.
Never run WMs on light load as they consume more energy
compared to that on rated load.
Select the timer setting of washer & drier cycles carefully
depending on the load and dirtiness of clothes .
Don’t keep Lights ,fans , ACs ,air coolers, TV s ,etc ON when
nobody is present in that area.
In winter & rainy seasons air coolers should be used if at all
necessary , in place of air conditioners .
Try to utilize the natural light of sun , moon and wind to the
max. extent possible instead of wasting electric power .
Study the name plate details & operating instructions booklets
associated with any electrical apparatus before it is
commissioned for economic usage of electric power.
Don’t forget to remove chargers of various gadgets like cell
phones, laptops , digital cameras , I Pads etc after full charging.
If u leave them in circuit ,they will keep drawing power and
overheats and damages their batteries.
Always switch off your TV sets at the switch board itself , not
with remote .
Be a MAISER in case of electric power consumption and feel
By using harmonic filters in electric supply systems ,we can save
about 8 to 10 % power.
Uninterrupted power systems (U P S ) usage should be
minimized, as they liberate large quantities of CO2.
In large buildings like Banks ,commercial complexes, IT
companies, big apartments etc. BUILDING MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM (BMS) should be implemented as a part of which 100%
day light of sun should be used for illumination purpose with out
switching on any light during day hours. Instead of going for
high luminous intensity like 500-600 lux , it can be designed for
300 lux which is sufficient. If money is not a big worry ,we can
even go for MOTION SENSORS which switches off lights, fans
etc. automatically when nobody is appearing in that vicinity.
HOW TO SAVE ELECTRICAL ENERGY
IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR ?
The farmers who are enjoying free power boon of our state
govt. are consuming electric power indiscriminately by
running their agricultural pump sets even with higher
capacity after obtaining sanction for lower ratings. As they
are prominent eaters of inductive reactive power , the
power factor goes down , voltage sinks severely ,pump set
motors draw more & more current than rated capacity and
ultimately their motors get BURNT or even some times
due to simultaneous over loading by all farmers in a
particular area , the distribution transformer feeding them
itself get BURNT leading to total power outage for all of
The simple solution for such problems is ‘using
CAPACITORS of suitable rating along with agricultural
pump set motors which compensates the inductive reactive
power demand by producing capacitive reactive power
which results in power factor improvement ,improved
voltage profile, keeping the current drawn with in the
prescribed limits & there by avoiding the chances of
damage of pump set motors and connected Distribution
transformers. The capacitors doesn’t cost much compared
to the benefits they provide. So all farmers should use
capacitors in conjunction with their pump sets to save
electric energy and safe guard their costly pump set motors.
Farmers have to invariably use ISI mark pump sets ,
friction less foot valves, less no. of pipe bends ,and
PVC pipes instead of GI (galvonized iron) pipes for
getting smooth water flow ,so that motor –pump sets
are not loaded beyond their rated capacities and
thereby the risk of their damage is minimized.
ENERGY SAVING & Its EFFECT
Energy coordination centre , NEW DELHI ‘s study says
“If we concentrate on saving electric power at an average
20% can be saved in crucial sectors of our economy there
by we can save about 15000 million units (M.U)per year
,which results in savings of about Rs.4750 Crores. , What
all needed is social awareness and dedication.”
We have to curtail unnecessary usage of lights ,fans , ACs
etc. in Govt. offices & other establishments during night
times in particular.
We must try sincerely to curtail power consumption in the
form of lavish decorative lighting at shopping complexes,
function halls, advertisement hordings etc.
Industries should use energy efficient pumps, motors, drives ,compressors
& other machines.
Farmers should use ISI marked pump sets, pipes, motors , capacitors etc.
An estimate of possible savings of energy /year :
SECTOR M.U SAVINGS Avg.Cost /UNIT SAVINGS
Domestic 4200 Rs 3.0 Rs 1260 Crores
Industries 4800 Rs 4.0 Rs 1920 Crores
Govt.offices 850 Rs 3.0 Rs 255 Crores
Agriculture 5300 Rs 2.5 Rs 1320 Crores
TOTAL : 15150 M.U Rs 4750 Crores
Note : 1 M.U = 10,00,000 Units (Kwhours)
SAVE ELECTRICITY !!!!
1 UNIT OF POWER SAVED =
1.5 UNITS OF POWER GENERATED.
Even though we have enough financial
capacity to pay electricity bills we don’t have
the right to use electric power
indiscriminately. So ,
Save energy --
Save fuel and related resources –
Minimize pollution --
Save our globe –
Show concern for future generations–
BE A RESPONSIBLE CITIZEN.