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solar power charge controller

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gives some basic info about solar power chagre controller

gives some basic info about solar power chagre controller

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  • 1. SOLAR POWER CHARGE CONTROLLER
  • 2. Introduction Precise Charge Controller for Solar Photo Voltaic Panel used Embedded based Micro controller concept. The main scope of project is, the photovoltaic cells are converting the sunlight in to electricity a charge controller is used. PV cells are bundled together in modules or panels to produce higher voltages and increased power. As the sunlight varies in intensity the electricity so generated usually charges through the charge a set of batteries for storing the energy.
  • 3. PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM SOLAR PHOTO VOLTAIC CELL CHARGE CONTROLLER USING OPAMP AND MOSFET BATTERY CONNECTED TO LOAD
  • 4. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS LED PUSHBUTTONS RESISTOR CAPACITOR PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS/SOLAR CELLS BATTERY COMPARATOR MOSFET
  • 5. MOSFET(IRF 510) The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a device used for amplifying or switching electronic signals The basic principle of the device a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel between the two other contacts called source and drain It is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common.
  • 6. OPAMP LM324 Features Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Large DC voltage gain 100 dB Wideband with 1Mhz (Temperature compensated) Wide power supply range: Single supply 3V to 32V or dual supplies ±1.5V to ±16V Very low supply current drain (700 μA) essentially independent of supply voltage Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature compensated) Low input offset voltage 2mV and offset current:5 nA Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ − 1.5V
  • 7. BC547 (NPN –Transistor) The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor. It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors. The ratio of two currents (Ic/Ib) is called the DC Current Gain of the device and is given the symbol of hfe or nowadays Beta, (β).
  • 8. The current gain from the emitter to the collector terminal, Ic/Ie, is called Alpha, (α), and is a function of the transistor itself
  • 9. 1N4148  The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon diode used in signal processing.  The 1N4148 is generally available in a DO-35 glass package and is very useful at high frequencies with a reverse recovery time of no more than 4ns.  This permits rectification and detection of radio frequency signals very effectively, as long as their amplitude is above the forward conduction threshold of silicon (around 0.7V) or the diode is biased.
  • 10. PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made of special materials called semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently the most commonly used. Basically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is absorbed within the semiconductor material.  PV cells also all have one or more electric fields that act to force electrons freed by light absorption to flow in a certain direction. This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off to use externally.
  • 11. SOLAR PANEL Expose the cell to light, and the energy from each photon (light particle) hitting the silicon, will liberate an electron and a corresponding hole. If this happens within range of the electric field’s influence, the electrons will be sent to the N side and the holes to the P one, resulting in yet further disruption of electrical neutrality This flow of electrons is a current; the electrical field in the cell causes a voltage and the product of these two is power
  • 12. BATTERY An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. The battery has become a common power source for many household, robotics and industrial applications. Larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers
  • 13. Battery capacity and discharging

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