DATA:DATA ARE SET OF IOSOLATED,UNRELATE,UNINTERPRATED RAW
INFORMATION:INFORMATION REFERS TO MEANINGFULL DATA.IT IS A SET OF
ORGANISED,VALIDATED,CORRECTED AND COLLECTED DATA.
→ADDITION OF KNOWLEGDE
→DECISION MAKING AIDS
→INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY
1.VALIDITY:-The information should have minimized
uncertainities to be treated as a valid information.
2.MEANINGFULNESS:-It should be meaningful in given
context and for the person concerned.
3.PRECISON:-It should be concise having summarised
4.ACCURACY:-it should try to reach maximum possible
1.FORM UTILITIES:-As the form of information more
closely matches the requirements of decision maker , its
2.TIME UTILITY:-Information has greater value to the
decision maker if it is available when needed.
has greater value if it
can be accessed or delivered easily
4.DECISION MAKING POTENTIAL:-If it provides help
to make an effective decision with minimum cost , time
and effort ,such information ha more value.
1.Physical data concept:-It refers to the manner in which
data is recorded physically on hardware.
2.Logical data concept:-It is the manner in which data are
presented to the application programmer.
BYTE:-A byte is a group of eight bits and is used to store a
DATA ITEM:-A data item is a smallest unit of named data.
DATA AGGREGATES:-It is a named collection of data
items within a record and refers to a whole.
RECORD:-A record is a named collection of data items
which represents a complete unit of information.
FILE:-A file is a named collection of all occurence of a
given type of logical record.
Factor affecting the way of data are
2.Minimization of Redundancy
5.File active ratio
DEFINITION:-The techniques used to represent and
store the records on a file is referred to as file
Three fundamental organization techniques are:1.Sequential File organization
2.Direct access file organization.
3.Index file organization.
Definition:-It is defined technically as a set of interrelated
components that collect ,process, store , and distribute data
and information and provide a feedback mechanism to
meet an objective
Definition:-It is an organizational information system that rely on
computer technology to collect, process, store, and disseminate
information. It is composed of hardware ,software, data
base, telecommunication ,people ,and methods.