DIGITAL
PHOTOGRAPHY

34 slides
1
CAMERA BASICS
These basics
are common
to ALL
cameras:
 F-Stop
 Shutter
Speed
 Film Speed
2
CAMERA BASICS
•F-Stop (how much light is seen,
how much the aperture is open)

•Shutter Speed (how long the
light is seen ...
F-STOP
HOW MUCH LIGHT IS SEEN
 Sometimes known as ‘aperture’
 Ranges from about 1.4 to 32
 A higher number (i.e. 32) me...
F-STOP
HIGHER F-stop (i.e. 32)
ADVANTAGES

Increased depth of field, i.e. image
background is not blurry
DISADVANTAGES

...
F-STOP
LOWER F-STOP (i.e. F1.8)
ADVANTAGES
 Lets plenty of light in! Better to use in
darker settings.
 Less blurry sinc...
F-STOP IMPACT
Low F-stop
High F-stop

7
SHUTTER SPEED
MEASURES HOW LONG LIGHT IS
LET INTO THE FILM/CAMERA






Common values include ½ sec, 1/8
second, 1/1000...
SHUTTER SPEED
FASTER SPEED
ADVANTAGES

Reduces blurriness as image is ‘seen’
only briefly – great for sports events.
DISA...
Shutter Speed=1/15 of a Second

10
Shutter Speed=1/150 of a second

11
SHUTTER SPEED
SLOWER SPEED
ADVANTAGES
 Great for darker conditions (more
time for light to enter the camera)
DISADVANTAGE...
FILM SPEED








Traditional cameras use film of different
sensitivities. It is measured by its ISO
number, i.e. 64,...
TIPS ON TAKING PHOTOS
• Be aware of ‘backlighting’, i.e. a bright
background will make your subject appear
‘dark’.
• Best ...
15
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
The concepts are generally the same
• The F-stop (‘Aperture’) is sometimes ‘fixed’
within the digital ...
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
PIXELS – short for PICTURE ELEMENT.
The more PIXELS a camera has, the better the picture
quality,i.e. ...
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
How it works








A picture is taken and the camera
automatically converts the pixels from
anal...
Optical/Digital Zoom








Digital cameras usually allow for some
zooming.
Optical zoom is often better; the camera
...
Advantages of
Digital Cameras








The pictures do not need to be developed
at the store, saving money and time.
Th...
BATTERIES







The best batteries are known as
Nickel Metal Hydride, i.e. NiMH
They are rechargeable.
They last abou...
A DIGITAL CAMERA








The CANON A75 Powershot is a
capable and sophisticated digital
camera.
Street price is about ...
Canon IXUS 100 IS

23
What to do before
purchasing a new
camera?
24
Digital Terms






Pixel—(PICture ELement) The smallest element of
a digitized image. One small dot of light among
the...




JPEG—A standardized format used by many
digital cameras for storing images. This format is
also commonly used for im...








Memory card—A storage device used to store data,
such as picture and movie files. Available in a range of
size...
PPI—Pixels Per Inch. The number of pixels per linear
inch is used to describe image resolution. A higher ppi
means more im...
QUESTIONS/DISCUSSION


How to reach me via email:
vipulsharma048@gmail.com
 Please say: ”WORKSHOP” in subject line



...
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Camera

  1. 1. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY 34 slides 1
  2. 2. CAMERA BASICS These basics are common to ALL cameras:  F-Stop  Shutter Speed  Film Speed 2
  3. 3. CAMERA BASICS •F-Stop (how much light is seen, how much the aperture is open) •Shutter Speed (how long the light is seen in the aperture) •FILM SPEED (how fast the film itself responds to this light) 3
  4. 4. F-STOP HOW MUCH LIGHT IS SEEN  Sometimes known as ‘aperture’  Ranges from about 1.4 to 32  A higher number (i.e. 32) means less light is ‘seen’.  A lower number (i.e. 1.8) means more light is ‘seen’. 4
  5. 5. F-STOP HIGHER F-stop (i.e. 32) ADVANTAGES  Increased depth of field, i.e. image background is not blurry DISADVANTAGES  Needs more light, i.e. slower shutter speed. 5
  6. 6. F-STOP LOWER F-STOP (i.e. F1.8) ADVANTAGES  Lets plenty of light in! Better to use in darker settings.  Less blurry since faster shutter speed may be needed to compensate for more light. DISADVANTAGES  No depth of field, i.e. background of image likely out of focus. 6
  7. 7. F-STOP IMPACT Low F-stop High F-stop 7
  8. 8. SHUTTER SPEED MEASURES HOW LONG LIGHT IS LET INTO THE FILM/CAMERA    Common values include ½ sec, 1/8 second, 1/1000 second etc Shorter time means less time for light to get into the camera Longer time reduces blurriness 8
  9. 9. SHUTTER SPEED FASTER SPEED ADVANTAGES  Reduces blurriness as image is ‘seen’ only briefly – great for sports events. DISADVANTAGES  Less time for light to enter camera  Requires bright conditions 9
  10. 10. Shutter Speed=1/15 of a Second 10
  11. 11. Shutter Speed=1/150 of a second 11
  12. 12. SHUTTER SPEED SLOWER SPEED ADVANTAGES  Great for darker conditions (more time for light to enter the camera) DISADVANTAGES  Increased chance of blurriness  Often requires a tripod be used for steadiness. 12
  13. 13. FILM SPEED     Traditional cameras use film of different sensitivities. It is measured by its ISO number, i.e. 64, 100 400 Slower speed (i.e. 64) is good for enlarging but requires bright light and/or slow shutter speed and/or lower F-stop. Faster Film (i.e. 400) is poor for enlarging but needs less light and thus good for indoor photography. Digital Cameras do not use film per se. They use a technology called CCD (Charge Coupled Device) which senses images. 13
  14. 14. TIPS ON TAKING PHOTOS • Be aware of ‘backlighting’, i.e. a bright background will make your subject appear ‘dark’. • Best to have the light on the subject from behind you for proper lighting. • Take photos in early morning/late afternoon for dramatic shadows. • Frame your subject in the viewfinder and use the ‘rule of thirds’ when framing your subject. See the next slide. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY The concepts are generally the same • The F-stop (‘Aperture’) is sometimes ‘fixed’ within the digital camera. • The digital camera then adjusts the shutter speed (and if possible, the aperture) based on light conditions. • The film speed is the same for all photos within the camera, i.e. it is not chemical based but usually uses CCD technology • The main important concept is PIXELs 16
  17. 17. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY PIXELS – short for PICTURE ELEMENT. The more PIXELS a camera has, the better the picture quality,i.e. level of resolution or details in each picture. Some typical values:  640x480 pixels - This is the low end on most "real" cameras. This resolution is okay if you plan to e-mail most of your pictures to friends or post them on a Web site. This is 307,000 total pixels. But you will not be happy with this resolution if you print it.  1216x912 pixels - If you are planning to print your images, this is a good resolution. This is a "megapixel" image size -- 1,109,000 total pixels.  1600x1200 pixels - This is "high resolution." Images taken with this resolution can be printed in larger sizes, such as 8x12 inches, with good results. This is almost 2 million total pixels. For commercial use you 17 can find cameras today with up to 160 million pixels.
  18. 18. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY How it works     A picture is taken and the camera automatically converts the pixels from analog to digital format. The camera then converts the digital pixels to color images. Then they are stored in digital memory within the camera and/or on memory cards/sticks and so on. Pictures can then be subsequently transferred from the digital camera either by serial cables or more recently via a USB port. 18
  19. 19. Optical/Digital Zoom     Digital cameras usually allow for some zooming. Optical zoom is often better; the camera makes adjustments within the lens themselves. Digital zoom is whereby the camera calculates how to adjust the pixels, adding them or removing them. Interpolation is used when adding them. Macro mode is another type of zoom and allows close-up pictures, i.e. flowers. 19
  20. 20. Advantages of Digital Cameras     The pictures do not need to be developed at the store, saving money and time. The picture you took can be viewed within a few seconds of taking it. You can readily delete photos within the camera that are done improperly or by mistake. You can upload to a computer and use software to enhance the photo further. 20
  21. 21. BATTERIES     The best batteries are known as Nickel Metal Hydride, i.e. NiMH They are rechargeable. They last about as long as alkaline batteries. You can buy batteries and charger at BJs, Radio Shack and so on. 21
  22. 22. A DIGITAL CAMERA     The CANON A75 Powershot is a capable and sophisticated digital camera. Street price is about $225. (Others can be had for as little as $29.95). It connects to your computer via the standard USB interface. I will highlight this camera as one example of digital cameras. 22
  23. 23. Canon IXUS 100 IS 23
  24. 24. What to do before purchasing a new camera? 24
  25. 25. Digital Terms    Pixel—(PICture ELement) The smallest element of a digitized image. One small dot of light among the many dots that make up an image on a computer screen. Megapixel—A unit equal to one million pixels. The higher the resolution, the more pixels in an image and therefore the greater the image quality. An image file that is 1 megapixel (MP) can make a photo realistic print of 5 x 7 inches; a 2 MP file can make an 8 x 10-inch print; a 3 MP file can make an 11 x 14-inch print. Resolution—The number of pixels in an image. A higher number correlates to a higher quality image. 25
  26. 26.   JPEG—A standardized format used by many digital cameras for storing images. This format is also commonly used for images on the web and images attached to e-mail messages. JPEG, which stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the group that established this file standard, is one of the most widely used formats today. JPEG is a standardized image compression mechanism designed for compressing full-color or gray scale images of natural, real-world scenes. JPEG uses lossy compression, which can damage image quality. LCD—Liquid Crystal Display. A full-color display screen on cameras used to preview and review pictures and view information, such as menu options and camera settings. 26
  27. 27.     Memory card—A storage device used to store data, such as picture and movie files. Available in a range of sizes, such as 512Mb, 1Gb, 2Gb, 4Gb, 8Gb, 16Gb, 32Gb, 64Gb Digitize—To convert analog information into digital format for use by a computer. Photo kiosk—A stand-alone computer-run system that allows users to edit and print pictures from negatives, prints, or digital files on a picture card, CD, or disk. The kiosks are usually located in retail store. Online photo service—An online photofinishing service that lets digital and, at some sites, film camera users share and store their photos in online photo albums and order high quality prints from digital images. The sites lets users enhance pictures with editing tools, order prints online and order other photo products, like calendars and cards. 27
  28. 28. PPI—Pixels Per Inch. The number of pixels per linear inch is used to describe image resolution. A higher ppi means more image detail and correlates to higher image quality. Monitors display images at 72 ppi, inkjet printers require at least 150 ppi to produce photo realistic prints. Megabyte—An amount of computer memory consisting of about one million bytes. The actual value is 1,048,576 bytes. Kilobyte—An amount of computer memory, disk space, or document size consisting of approximately one thousand bytes. Actual value is 1,024 bytes. DPI—Dots Per Inch. Number of dots a printer or device (like a monitor) can display per linear inch. For example, most laser printers have a resolution of 300 dpi, most monitors 72 dpi, most PostScript imagesetters 1200 to 2450 dpi. Photo quality inkjet printers now range from 1200 to 2400 dpi. 28
  29. 29. QUESTIONS/DISCUSSION  How to reach me via email: vipulsharma048@gmail.com  Please say: ”WORKSHOP” in subject line   To get connected with me on facebook search “Photographer Vipul Sharma” 29

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