Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) : Training Report


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Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) : Training Report

  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am highly grateful to Bharat Electronics Limited Panchkula, one of the leading defense organizations of the nation, for providing me an opportunity to undertake six weeks training at their manufacturing premises at Panchkula, Haryana. It was a great learning experience as I was introduced to various aspects of the working of the organization, the latest state of the art technologies & machines used in the manufacturing processes. It was wonderful to see the company striving hard to keep up the national security at par with the rest of the world. I would like to express my sincerest gratitude towards Mr. Anish Chauhan (Sr. Assistant Engineer) and Mr. Pankaj Singhal (Manager, Work Assembly Section) for their regular support and guidance that helped me in successful completion of my six weeks training. At the end I would like to thank all the staff members of BEL, Panchkula who made this training a rich learning experience. i
  3. 3. PREFACE With the ongoing revolution in electronic & communication where innovations are taking at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in including a professional attitude. It provides a linkage b/w the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual industry environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which is immensely helps in them in building their carrier. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments. And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd. ii
  4. 4. CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE NO. 1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................2 2. COMPANY PROFILE ............................................................................................................... 4 3. MAUFACTURING UNITS........................................................................................................ 8 4. PRODUCTS & MARKET OF BEL ......................................................................................... 12 5. BEL PANCHKULA & ITS PRODUCTS ................................................................................ 16 6. DEPARTMENTS & FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................... 29 6.1 DEVLOPMENT AND ENGINEERING ....................................................................... 29 6.2 MANUFACTURING ..................................................................................................... 29 6.3 MATERIAL MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................... 30 6.4 MARKETING ................................................................................................................ 30 6.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE .............................................................................................. 30 6.6 PLANT & SERVICES ................................................................................................... 31 6.7 HUMAN RESOURCE & ADMINISTRATION ........................................................... 31 6.8 FINANCE & ACCOUNTS ............................................................................................ 31 6.9 INFORMATION SYSTEMS ......................................................................................... 31 6.10 QUALITY MANAGEMENT........................................................................................ 32 7. SUB DEPARTMENTS............................................................................................................. 34 7.1 PRODUCTION, PLANNING & CONTROL ................................................................. 34 7.2 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING FACILITY ........................................................... 34 7.3 WORK ASSEMBLY ....................................................................................................... 43 7.4 TESTING & INSPECTION ............................................................................................ 44 8. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS .................................................................................................. 46 CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY iii
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 1
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION With the ongoing revolution in the field of electronics & communications where innovations are taking place at the blink of an eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in including a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual industry environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which is immensely helps in them in building their carrier. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments. The word quality holds out different meaning for different people, but for an industry it is most important and can be defined as ―The totality of features and characteristics of a product / services that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs. And all the credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd. 2
  7. 7. CHAPTER 2 3
  8. 8. COMPANY PROFILE Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) is a state-owned electronics company with about nine factories, and few regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government & primarily manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces.BEL is one of the eight PSUs under Ministry of Defence, Government Of India. It has even earned the government's Navratna status. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was set up at Bangalore, India, by the Government of India under the Ministry of Defence in 1954 to meet the specialised electronic needs of the Indian defence services. Over the years, it has grown into a multi-product, multi-technology, multi-unit company serving the needs of customers in diverse fields in India and abroad . BEL is among an elite group of public sector undertakings which have been conferred the Navratna status by the Government of India. The growth and diversification of BEL over the years mirrors the advances in the electronics technology, with which BEL has kept pace. Starting with the manufacture of a few communication equipment in 1956, BEL went on to produce Receiving Valves in 1961, Germanium Semiconductors in 1962 and Radio Transmitters for AIR in 1964. In 1966, BEL set up a Radar manufacturing facility for the Army and in-house R&D, which has been nurtured over the years. Manufacture of Transmitting Tubes, Silicon Devices and Integrated Circuits started in 1967. The PCB manufacturing facility was established in 1968. In 1970, manufacture of Black & White TV Picture Tube, X-ray Tube and Microwave Tubes started. The following year, facilities for manufacture of Integrated Circuits and Hybrid Micro Circuits were set up. 1972 saw BEL manufacturing TV Transmitters for Doordarshan. The following year, manufacture of Frigate Radars for the Navy began. Under the government's policy of decentralization and due to strategic reasons, BEL ventured to set up new Units at various places. The second Unit of BEL was set up at Ghaziabad in 1974 to manufacture Radars and Tropo communication equipment for the Indian Air Force. The third Unit was established at Pune in 1979 to manufacture Image Converter and Image Intensifier Tubes. In 1980, BEL's first 4
  9. 9. overseas office was set up at New York for procurement of components and materials. In 1981, a manufacturing facility for Magnesium Manganese Dioxide batteries was set up at the Pune Unit. The Space Electronic Division was set up at Bangalore to support the satellite programme in 1982. The same year saw BEL achieve a turnover of Rs.100 crores. In 1983, an ailing Andhra Scientific Company (ASCO) was taken over by BEL as the fourth manufacturing Unit at Machilipatnam. In 1985, the fifth Unit was set up in Chennai for supply of Tank Electronics, with proximity to HVF, Avadi. The sixth Unit was set up at Panchkula the same year to manufacture Military Communication equipment. 1985 also saw BEL manufacturing on a large scale Low Power TV Transmitters and TVROs for the expansion of Doordarshan's coverage. 1986 witnessed the setting up of the seventh Unit at Kotdwara to manufacture Switching Equipment, the eighth Unit to manufacture TV Glass Shell at Taloja (Navi Mumbai) and the ninth Unit at Hyderabad to manufacture Electronic Warfare Equipment. In 1987, a separate Naval Equipment Division was set up at Bangalore to give greater focus to Naval projects. The first Central Research Laboratory was established at Bangalore in 1988 to focus on futuristic R&D. 1989 saw the manufacture of Telecom Switching and Transmission Systems as also the setting up of the Mass Manufacturing Facility in Bangalore and the manufacture of the first batch of 75,000 Electronic Voting Machines. The agreement for setting up BEL's first Joint Venture Company, BE DELFT, with M/s Delft of Holland was signed in 1990. Recently this became a subsidiary of BEL with the exit of the foreign partner and has been renamed BEL Optronic Devices Limited. The second Central Research Laboratory was established at Ghaziabad in 1992. The first disinvestment (20%) and listing of the Company's shares in Bangalore and Mumbai Stock Exchanges took place the same year. BEL Units obtained ISO 9000 certification in 1993-94. The second disinvestment (4.14%) took place in 1994. In 1996, BEL achieved Rs.1,000 crores turnover. In 1997, GE BEL, the Joint Venture Company with M/s GE, USA, was formed. In 1998, BEL set up its second overseas office at Singapore to source components from South East Asia. The 5
  10. 10. year 2000 saw the Bangalore Unit, which had grown very large, being reorganized into Strategic Business Units (SBUs). There are seven SBUs in Bangalore Unit. The same year, BEL shares were listed in the National Stock Exchange. In 2002, BEL became the first defence PSU to get operational Mini Ratna Category I status. In June 2007, BEL was conferred the prestigious Navratna status based on its consistent performance. 6
  11. 11. CHAPTER 3 7
  12. 12. MANUFACTURING UNITS BEL has a total of nine manufacturing complexes spread throughout the nation with Banglore being the biggest of them. The details about the different manufacturing units of BEL along with their product specialities are a s follows:Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. COMPLEX Ghaziabad Panchkula Navi Mumabi Kotdwara Pune Hyderabad Banglore Machlipatnam Chennai STATE Uttar Pradesh Haryana Maharashtra Uttaranchal Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Karnatka Andhra Pradesh Tamilnadu 8
  13. 13. In 1954 with a factory of Jallahali, Bharat Electronics grew into nine units, spread all over India. The locations & products of the units are given below:- 1. BANGALORE: This is also called BG Complex. Jallahali unit which is the mother unit is now a part of the BG Complex. This is the biggest unit with approx. 10,000 employees working here. Among the products here, the important ones are: Communication equipment Air & Doordarshan equipment like mobile van for live telecast etc. Radar-mobile, one dimensional, 3-dimensional & multi-dimensional Radars are manufactured here. Different range of semi-conductor devices like ICs. Resistors & black & white color TV picture tube glasses. ISRO‗s requirements are met at space electronics department at Bangalore. Satellite launch vehicle was also manufactured here. 2. GHAZIABAD: This is the second unit which was set up in 1974, & approx. 2500 employees working here. Radars & some communication equipment are The products manufactured here are: Radars SATCOM Microwave components 3. PUNE: To diversify further one more branch was added 1979 & this was in Pune. In this branch around 700-800 employees are working. The product profile includes: Image convertor, image intensifier, X-ray tubes Batteries Electro-optics 9
  14. 14. 4. MACHLIPATNAM: There was one Andhra scientific company, which was a sick unit. This was taken over by BEL & is called ASCO unit in 1983. The products include: Optical & optoelectronic equipment like binoculars, microscopes Medical Electronics 5. NAVI MUMBAI: This is an industrial place near Mumbai. This unit makes: Glass shells for black & white TV picture tubes Shelters for Electronic Equipment Train Actuated Warning System Electronic Equipment Assembly 6. PANCHKULA: Panchkula & Kotdwara were proposed simultaneously by the Government in 1985. It was proposed to set up one unit each in Haryana & Uttar-Pradesh. But the place in U.P. for setting up a BEL unit could not be decided while that at Haryana was decided & hence this unit started earlier. This unit manufactures only tactical communication equipment like VHF, UHF transceivers etc. 7. KOTDWARA: This is a unit in Garhwal district of Uttaranchal. This unit manufactures radio relay, multiplex equipments & exchanges etc. 8. CHENNAI: The eight unit of BEL was established in Chennai. This unit manufactures: Tank related electronic equipments Optical fire control systems 9. HYDERABAD: This is another unit of BEL which manufactures electronic warfare equipments. 10
  15. 15. CHAPTER 4 11
  16. 16. PRODUCTS & MARKET OF BEL Bharat Electronics Limited is a major supplier of products and turnkey systems to the Indian Defence Services. Over the years, BEL has diversified into manufacturing many civilian products as well. Large turnkey telecommunication solutions are also being offered to civilian market. BEL has been involved in providing state-of-the-art communication equipment to the Indian Army, be it hand held mobile radios and terminals, ground based systems, airborne and even ship borne equipment and systems. The communication equipment developed here cover HF, VHF, UHF, and V/UHF frequency bands. The most important project of BEL under the communication equipment is STARS-V which provides secure mode of data transfer. In STARS-V, the data to be transferred is first encrypted using a microprocessor which could be read only by a similar device with same coding. Now the latest technology of frequency hopping is being implemented which is a very useful tool in making a secure data transfer system. BEL manufactures a lot of product which is very difficult to list but some of the major products were as follows: Integrated circuits and micro circuits Radars X-ray tubes and magnetrons STARS-V HF & broadcast equipment SECTEL ACME MK II CNR SPACE GUIDING EQUIPMENTS HUD AIRBORNE GPS RECEIVER (UA-429) LUP SRAX TIDEX SECURE TELEPHONE SECURE FAX 12
  17. 17. DOMESTIC MARKET Sr. No. PRODUCT CUSTOMER 1. Defence Communication Indian Defence Services , Para -Military Forces 2. Radars & Sonars Indian Defence Services, Civil Aviation, Meteorological Department, ISRO 3. Telecommunication Department of Telecommunication, Para- military forces, Power Sector, Oil Industry, Railways 4. Broadcasting Equipment All India Radio, Doordarshan, (National Radio & TV and Studio Systems Broadcasters) 5. Electronic Voting Machine Election Commission Of India 6. Solar Products & Systems Individuals, Private and Government Organizations 7. Turnkey Governance Systems, E- Police, State Governments, Public Sector Undertakings Networks 8. Components All India Radio and Doordarshan the National Radio & TV Broadcasters, Instrumentation Industry, Switching Industry, Entertainment Industry, Telephone Industry. 13
  18. 18. Exports play a key role in BEL's strategic perspective. A number of International companies are using the facilities at BEL for contract Manufacturing.. The broad list of products and services being exported is given below: Sr. No. EXPORTS/INTERNATIONAL MARKET PRODUCT CUSTOMER 1. Defence Communication equipment Botswana, Indonesia, Suriname, Malaysia and spare parts 2. Radars & Sub-systems Indonesia, Egypt, Switzerland 3. Electronic Warfare products Russia, Brazil and services 4. Opto-electronics products Sri Lanka, Nepal, Israel, South Africa 5. Semiconductor devices, Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey, Microwave Netherlands, UK, USA, France, Hong Tubes and Transmitting Kong Tubes 6. Solar Products & Systems Suriname, Germany, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Kenya, Nigeria 7. Telecom and SATCOM Nigeria, Kenya systems 8. Radio & TV Broadcasting Nepal, Mauritius products and Systems 9. Electronic Voting Systems Sri Lanka, Uganda, Malawi, South Africa 10. Vacuum Interrupters Malaysia, UAE, Uganda, Turkey, UK, Azerbaijan 14
  19. 19. CHAPTER 5 15
  20. 20. BEL PANCHKULA & ITS PRODUCTS Panchkula is a planned city in Panchkula District, Haryana, India. It is a satellite city of the Union Territory of Chandigarh. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the Indian Western Command, is also located in Panchkula city. There are five towns in the district named Panchkula,Barwala Pinjore, Kalka and Raipur Rani. The only Hill station in Haryana called Morni is also in this District. The estimated population of Panchkula city, in 2006, is 2,00,000. Panchkula and Mohali (in Punjab) are two satellite cities of Chandigarh. These three cities are collectively known as Chandigarh Tricity. The complex at Panchkula is spread over an area of 63 acres. It has a total employee strength of 600. It specialises in defence communication products and has recently started the manufacturing of RADARs also. Following are some of the important products manufactured by BEL Panchkula: 1. Electronic Voting Machines:The world's largest democracy with 671 million voters went to polls in April - May 2004 and elected a Government of their choice using the most powerful means of decision making in the world, The Electronic Voting Machine (EVM). Exclusive use of EVMs across the length and breadth of a huge country like India came off splendidly and the unparalleled success of this bold and progressive experiment demonstrated to the rest of the world, the country's technological as well as grassroots democratic capabilities. About half a million of the EVMs deployed in these elections were designed, manufactured and delivered by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a Public Sector Enterprise of the Government of India. Today, the Electronic Voting Machines have made an easy passage to India's hundreds of thousands of villages. There is widespread awareness of its reliability and adaptability, so also the political recognition. All these have been achieved through a series of meticulously planned events like exhaustive training to the polling officials, mass awareness programmes to educate voters, especially the overwhelming majority of those who live in the remote villages of India, etc. Technical experts from Bharat Electronics Ltd. worked untiringly alongside the Indian Election Commission officials offering support and assistance for these activities and also during the elections, ensuring that the whole process 16
  21. 21. succeeded and it is remarkable that there have been no problems with the machines worth speaking about. The 2004 general elections in India, where millions of voters cast their votes through the electronic voting machines and the results of which were declared in one single day, was indeed a landmark success for the application of technology for sustained development of society. 2. STARS-V (Secure Tactical Army Radio System): STARS-V (Secure Tactical Army Radio System - VHF) is a family of fixed frequency and frequency hopping radio sets avai lable in 5W and 25W power output configurations. The radios provide communication in voice clear, voice secure and data modes. They can be controlled from a remote location upto 2 km. All front panel controls (except ON/OFF) are extended using 2 wire cables to a Remote Control Unit (RCU) at the remote location. Intercom operation between radio set and RCU is also provided. The radio set can be configured for fully automatic rebroadcast operation. It is also possible to setup rebroadcast over two wires for voice clear mode only. External data interface is provided on the front panel to facilitate data communication with suitable modem. The radios are fully modular in construction. They are designed to perform in conformance to MIL 461class of EMI/EMC specifications. STARS-V radios find use in 17
  22. 22. Manpack as well as vehicular applications for providing voice and data communications in VHF frequency range of 30-88MHz There is two types of STARS-V:1. MARK –I:This is the first stage of STARS-V .This set is heavy and the if any need repair then difficulty to find out the fault .And the major difference is frequency hopping is not possible. There are two power mode 5W, 25W and the frequency range only used by army is (30-87.97MHz) 2. MARK –II:This is the modified stage of the MARK-I. It is light in weight then the MARK-I. And the major difference is frequency hopping is consist of seven modules are given as ◦A2-Power amplifier ◦A4Receiver card ◦A5Synthesizer Card ◦A11Fequency hoping card ◦A6controller card ◦A7-secure card ◦A8-display card 18
  23. 23. 3. CNR (Composite Net Radio) VHF Transrecievers (CNR) is a software controlled frequency hopping radio (Transmitter and Receiver)in the VHF frequency band of 30 – 88MHz the design of the radio is based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology making use of Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis (DDFX). The radio works in Anti-jam frequency hopping and fixed frequency modes with built-in high grade digital secrecy. Theradio supports both Voice and Data communication in clear as well as secure mode. VHF frequency range of 30 - 88 MHz 2320 channels with 25 KHz spacing 1W/2W/5W/25W power outputs Different models 250 hops per sec Specifications Manpack / Vehicular roles Radio is based on DSP technology Frequency range of 30-88 MHz with 25 KHz channel spacing Supports 2320 channels with 10 preset channels and 10 hop sets Scan and BITE facility Automatic re-broadcast facility Direct serial data interface (RS-232C)Modular construction. 19
  24. 24. 4. SECTEL (Secure Telephone) Secure Telephone is a compact, full duplex digital Subscriber End Secrecy Device (SESD) providing highest grade of secrecy on normal telephone lines. It replaces subscriber‗s normal telephone instruments. It can operate over any standard voice channel of telephone networks like DOT hired mi l trunk single link circuits and STD channels. It operates from 230 V AC mains using AC-DC adapter. Key management is supported by Fill gun. Speech is digitized using Linear Predictive Coding(LPC) technique and digitally encrypted by a highly complex crypto algorithm which ensures highest grade of secrecy. The encrypted speech is transmitted over the telephone line using a Full Duplex QAS modem. At the receiver end, the encrypted data stream is demodulated decrypted and the original speech is synthesized. The user can switch between clear and secure mode during the same call. 20
  25. 25. 5. SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO (LUP 291) High-grade speech secrecy Full duplex transmission in Secure and Clear mode Data rate 2.4 kbps full duplex Memory dialling of 10 stored numbers Multifunction keypad for different functions Simple connectivity over standard two wire telephone lines 2 x 16 character LCD display to show the status LUP 291 is a UHF hand held radio with inbuilt high grade digital secrecy. The radio set is state – of – the art design, compact and light weight. Interface is provided for Headgear and Crypto key loading .The operator interface is user friendly with minimum number of controls. The radio set is provided with helical and magnetic mount antennas. The radio set has in-built mic and speaker. VOX headgear is also available as optional accessory for hands free operation. Continuous Tone coded squelches (CTCSS) RF Power Output: 5W /1 W (selectable). Various programmable features like Scan, CTCSS frequency selection, Power Save, Password etc. Inbuilt Powerful Diagnosis feature (BITE) TX Inhibit (Sulk ) , Clone , Erase and Whisper facilities7.2 V Primary & Secondary batteries Antennas : Helical and magnetic mount Complaint to MIL 461 EMI. 21
  26. 26. 6. SEED (Subscriber End Encryption Device) It is compact, full duplex secrecy deice. Description: 1) SEED Processor card PRGMD 2) Power supply card 3) Battery charger 4) Front panel card Application:1) Execute the application file provided for data communication. 2) Secret ‗comport‗ on which the SEED connected to the pc and the main menu will be displayed. 3) Go to telephone dairy. 4) To transmit a file, go to transmit file menu. 7. SMILE (Secure Multi Interface Link Encrypter) It is a bulk data traffic and radio relay with variable data rates of 64, 128, 256, 384, 512, 1024, 2048 kbps. Description:1) Mother fillgun 2) Child fillgun Various card consist of SMILE: 1) PRGMD –controller card 2) PSU-card 3) Front panel card 4) V.35 male interface card 5) V.35 female interface card 22
  27. 27. 8. HUD (Head up display) The projection unit in a typical HUD is an optical collimator setup: a convex lens or concave mirror with a Cathode Ray Tube, light emitting diode, or liquid crystal display at its focus. This setup (a design that has been around since the invention of the reflector sight in 1900) produces an image where the light is parallel i.e. perceived to be at infinity. The combiner is typically an angled flat piece of glass (a beam splitter) located directly in front of the viewer, that redirects the projected image from projector in such a way as to see the field of view and the projected infinity image at the same time. 23
  28. 28. Combiners may have special coatings that reflect the monochromatic light projected onto it from the projector unit while allowing all other wavelengths of light to pass through. In some optical layouts combiners may also have a curved surface to refocus the image from the projector. The computer provides the interface between the HUD (i.e. the projection unit and the systems/data to be displayed and generates the imagery and symbols to be displayed by the projection unit. Generations HUDs are split into four generations reflecting the technology used to generate the images. First Generation—Use a CRT to generate an image on a phosphor screen, having the disadvantage of the phosphor screen coating degrading over time. The majority of HUDs in operation today are of this type. Second Generation—Use a solid state light source, for example LED, which is modulated by an LCD screen to display an image. These systems do not fade or require the high voltages of first generation systems. These systems are on commercial aircraft. Third Generation—Use optical waveguides to produce images directly in the combiner rather than use a projection system. Fourth Generation—Use a scanning laser to display images and even video imagery on a clear transparent medium. Newer micro-display imaging technologies are being introduced including 1. Liquid crystal display (LCD), 2. Liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), 3. Digital micro-mirrors (DMD), 4. Organic light-emitting diode (OLED). 24
  29. 29. 9. BHARANI RADAR Low level Light Weight 2D Radar - BHARANI: is a light weight, battery powered and compact sensor which provides 2D surveillance solution to alert Army Air Defence Weapon Systems mainly in mountainous terrain against hostile aerial targets like UAVs, RPVs, helicopters and fixed wing aircraft flying at low and medium altitudes. The radar can be transported by vehicles, animal transport or group of men or as helislung loads. It can be dismantled into packages to facilitate quick installation and re-location in mountainous terrain. It will act as an early warner to air defence weapon systems employed to provide protection to vulnerable areas or vulnerable points. The system consists of radar, Commander Display Unit (CDU) and messaging unit Target Designation Unit (TDU) and Target Data Receivers (TDR). One radar can service upto 10 TDRs using existing combat radio resources/ network. The CDU can be located upto 750m from the radar. The radar with modular architecture, advanced ECCM features, ruggedness as per Mil standards can be operated in varied conditions including extreme climatic and geographical conditions and in battle field situations, especially offensive EW environment. The radar detects and tracks short range air-to-ground threats with a high probability of detection. The radar has an integrated IFF that can detect, confirm, classify and attain IFF status on every target in the battle space under surveillance. It has a range of 50 KMs and can operate at an altitude of 75 mtrs to 5400 mtrs. It operates in L band. 25
  30. 30. 10. ROHINI RADAR Low level Light Weight 3D Radar - ROHINI: ROHINI is a multifaceted ground based S-Band 3D Low Level Light Weight Surveillance Radar for deployment in diverse terrains like plains, deserts, mountain tops and high altitude regions. Rohini detects and tracks heterogeneous air targets, including helicopters, fighters and UAVs at low and medium altitudes. The radar can scan the valley. It provides accurate range, azimuth and height information for each target with electronically steerable multi-beam technology in elevation. The radar sweeps 360° in azimuth and 30° in elevation to provide air space awareness. Semi - distributed active aperture radar uses advanced VLSI and high-speed digital technologies like high efficiency T/R modules, DDS, digital receiver and programmable signal processor to provide 3D air space awareness with high accuracy, resolution and reliability. 26
  31. 31. As all the main radar subsystems are on the rotating platform, this radar architecture obviates the two most common single point failures by dispensing with high power rotary joints and central transmitter; thereby making the radar system extremely reliable. The radar is easily re-locatable and can be deployed or decamped in less than 15 minutes. The radar is engineered in multiple packages to enable easy transportability in mountainous terrain by vehicles, group of men, or as an under slung carriage by a helicopter. The remote operation of the radar through Commander's Display Unit (CDU) upto 1 km from the radar provides safety to the crew during operation. The facility also enables the Commander to deploy the radar at a tactically favourable point. The quadri pod-mounted radar is built to operate in networked or stand-alone mode to support joint or independent operations by Air Force. Multi ECCM features help the radar to deliver intended performance even under intense hostile EM environment. Rohini being compact, lightweight and modular, can be used in different innovative roles like air space surveillance in urban areas for VVIPs, large critical installations. 27
  32. 32. CHAPTER 6 28
  33. 33. DEPARTMENTS & FUNCTIONS BEL Panchkula has different divisions which are further divided into departments- 1. D&E (Development and Engineering) This is a division which is further divided into departments. They are: D&E (DEVELOPMENT & ENGINEERING) – It is to design the project, make the modifications to prepare design and related documents. D&E CRYPTO – It is for designing of secure communication. TIC (Technical Information Centre) – TIC is a library for designing purpose. DRA OFFICE - It is the Drawing office. STDS (STANDARDS) –These are the standards for Drafting, Design manure, Quality standards. 2. MFG (MANUFACTURING): WA (WORK ASSEMBLY) – There are different types of work assembly i.e PCB assembly, Module assembly, Final assembly. WF (WORK FABRICATION) – It is the department for the mechanical work. AMF (ADVANCED MANUFACTURING FACILITIES) – Advanced machines are used in the manufacturing of the projects as SMT (Surface Mounted Technology), it is an automatic system to mount the item on the PCB. PE (PRODUCTION ENGINEERING) – It is for the installation of the new machinery. PPC (PRODUCTION, PLANNING and CONTROL) – In this the work is planned. SC (SUB CONTRACT) 29
  34. 34. 3. MM (MATERIAL MANAGEMENT): It is the management of the materials. PUR (PURCHASE DEPARTMENT) - This department purchases the materials. ISM (INTEGRATED STORE MANAGEMENT) HS (HOLDING STORE) – It has different bins that holds items after inspection. IGS (INCOMING GOODS STORE) MC (MATERIAL CONTROL) 4. MKTG / PA (MARKETING / PRODUCT ASSURANCE): MKTG (Marketing Division) Sales – It is to prepare ESO equipment source order. FGS (FINISH GOODS STORE) – After finishing the project it is sent to FGS for final packing. TL (Technical Literature) – It is the booklet with the project having instructions. PR (PUBLIC RELATION) –It is the relation with the customers. TESTING – Products are tested by different tests C TEST (CIPHER TEST) - It is the test for the secrecy. PS (PRODUCT SUPPORT) – It is done after sale services. SELF CERT (SELF CERTIFICATION) – It is the department which visits the place where work is going on. 5. QA (QUALITY ASSURANCE): It deals with the quality of the material. INSP(WA) {INSPECTION IN WORK ASSEMBLY) INSP(WF) {INSPECTION IN WORK FABRICATION) R&E (RELIABILITY & EVALUATION) - The materials are checked before giving it to customers. 30
  35. 35. 6. P&S (PLANT AND SERVICES): It is the department for providing the services to company. Services are water supply, electrical supply, transport, horticulture. 7. HR & A (HUMAN RESOURCES & ADMINISTRATION): PERSON. (PERSONNEL) – In this department the recruitment of employees is done. ESTD. (ESTABLISHMENT) – It is to use manpower in different areas. MEDICAL – Medical facilities are also available. CRECHE CANTEEN WELFARE 8. F&A (FINANCE & ACCOUNT): FINANCE - Department for the sanction of money. PAYROLL – It is the salary of the employees. BUDGET – It is made for one year. ACCOUNTS – It is the record of the money. AUDIT – Survey of the systems. 9. IS / MS (INFORMATION SYSTEMS): MRP - All Production Related work related to assy,stores, purchase etc. PAYROLL - Related to Salary. FINANCE - Concerned with ledgers, sub-sidary ledgers, General ledger etc. 31
  36. 36. 10. QM (QUALITY MANAGEMENT): ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION) – It is to sell our products in the international market. 6 SIGMA – It is the statistical Technique for maintaining Quality. TES (TEST EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORT) – Calibration or measuring of instruments. IGI (INCOMING GOODS INSPECTION) QCC (QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE) – In this department there is a group of employees who discuss the problems, find out its solution and present it to manager. 32
  37. 37. CHAPTER 7 33
  38. 38. SUB DEPARTMENTS PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL This sub-department forms the most important section among the others present because it forms the ‗backbone‗. Right from the beginning till the end of the production of a particular set, the responsibility lies in the hands of this section, it mainly performs three functions namely:Scheduling Launching Control The market section takes the order from the customer and gives the equipment stock order to PPC. The management servicing department prepares the work order and gives it to PPC. Now PPC makes the list of each component involved in product. This is called ―Scheduling‖ . Next function that comes is launched PPC prepares shop order and engineering documents such as drawings. This function is called ―Launching‖ . Now comes material control. Here the PPC keeps track of production i.e. the purchase requisition is given to purchase department and sub-contact department. The purchase now comes to the IGS (Inwards Goods Section) where it is tested in IGI. The pieces that are okayed are then stored in holding stores. ASSEMBLY SECTION /AMF (Advanced Manufacturing Facility) As the name suggests, in this department all the components are mounted on PCB‗s. These PCB‗s are then sat properly in the complete set. It is one of the most important and technologically advanced department at BEL Panchkula.It is divided into three sections:34
  39. 39. PCB assembly section Coil winding section Final assembly section First we will discuss in detail about the AMF section which uses the surface mounting technology to mount components on the PCBs a detailed structure of the complete AMF line is explained as follows: THE SMT LINE The various stages involved in the SMT in sequence are called the SMT line. The stages involved are: 35
  40. 40. SURFACE MOUNT TECHNOLOGY Surface-mount technology was developed in the 1960s and became widely used in the late 1980s. Much of the pioneering work in this technology was by IBM. The design approach first demonstrated by IBM in 1960 in a small-scale computer was later applied in the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer used in the Instrument Unit that guided all Saturn IB and Saturn V vehicles. Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be directly soldered to the surface of the PCB. Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of a board became far more common with surface mounting than through-hole mounting, allowing much higher circuit densities. Often only the solder joints hold the parts to the board, although parts on the bottom or "second" side of the board are temporarily secured with a dot of adhesive as well. Surface-mounted devices (SMDs) are usually made physically small and lightweight for this reason. Surface mounting lends itself well to a high degree of automation, reducing labour cost and greatly increasing production rates. SMDs can be one-quarter to one-tenth the size and weight, and one-half to one-quarter the cost of equivalent through-hole parts. Expanded Forms SMD Surface-mount devices (active, passive and electromechanical components) SMT Surface-mount technology (assembling and mounting technology) SMA Surface-mount assembly (module assembled with SMT) SMC Surface-mount components (components for SMT) SMP Surface-mount packages (SMD case forms) SME Surface-mount equipment (SMT assembling machines) 36
  41. 41. 1. Loader MODEL: ―L-SIZE‖ MAKE: ―AUTOVEYOR‖ Loader as the name suggest load the pcb on which component are to be mounted. This is the first step of SMT line It has five magazine to load pcb and each magazine has a maximum capacity of 50 pcb. The height is 930 mm from the ground 2. Stencil Printer Make: ―DEK‖ Model: ―ELA-VI Huge print area capability The huge print area capability allows printing up to 1200mm x 400mm. It accepts standard SMT frame sizes from 350 x 350 mm to 1480 x 500 mm (for SP1200), or 350 x 350 mm to 736x 736 37
  42. 42. mm (for SP600L). Vertical Separation of Stencil from PCB 4 corner ball screw system provides excellent separation control of stencil for high quality solder paste printing Programmable Speed Control for both squeegee movement and stencil separation Dual Camera system for quick PCB alignment. 38
  43. 43. 3. Pick and place machine Make: ―siemens‖ Model: ―SIPLACE-HF‖ Component handling capacity: Flip chip, BGA, μ-BGA, MELF, mini MELF, CPS Fine pitch component up to 12 MIL Heads: Hydra Head (8 Nozzles) more speed Midas Head (1-Master Head) more accurate. Chip component=24000 CPH Fine pitch component=3500 CPH Placement accuracy: 45μm at 6-sigma fine pitch component 39
  44. 44. 4. Reflow soldering machine Make: ―SEHO (Germany)‖ Model: ―MAXI POWER2.7‖ Reflow oven is that part of SMT process where all solder paste is re-heated and components are assumed to be properly connected. In this process the PCB is passed through different temperature. ◦Number of heating zone is six ◦Active cooling module ◦Flux manufacturing system ◦All convection heating type ◦Double peak in reflow zone 5. Automatic optical inspection Make: ―AGILENT‖ Model: ―SJ50-SERIES II‖ PCB is inspected carefully for their components. Due to small size of components SMT board requires very careful inspection particularly for solder ball, improperly soldered joints and missed solder connections, etc. Some components are specially difficult to inspect like quad 40
  45. 45. PLCC‗s (Plastic Loaded Chip Carrier) i.e. IC having J – profile pins along each four sides and it has more than 28 pins. Optical character recognition (OCR) Optical character verification (OCV) 41
  46. 46. 6. Wave Soldering Machine Wave soldering machine consists of the PCB carrier stand, which can hold 10 PCBs at a time. This stand moves over the conveyer belt whose speed is 60 – 80 cm/sec. The flux used for soldering is Rosion R8. The thinner is added to the flux so as to make the flux thinner. The next component in this machine is air knife where the excess flux is removed. Next comes the preheater zone. It consists of 6 per-heaters. The temperature for the first 2 heaters is 100 degree Celsius, for next two pre-heaters the temperature is 140 degree Celsius, and the temperature for last two chambers is 180 degree Celsius. The box containing the solder is called the solder bath, which has the capacity of 400kg. The temperature of the solder bath is 250 – 270 degree Celsius. While the solder is heated up inside the solder bath, the pump arrangement provides for the hot solder to flow. The solder nozzle then produces a solder wave. After the solder bath, the conveyor belt is set on the angle of 4 – 7 degrees. This machine costs around 30 lakhs. This machine also consists of the sensors which sense the green mask as well as the spot mask on the PCB such that the solder does not stays on it. The waste material of the machine is known as dross. The solder temperature is continuously controlled by the PID controller and its thermo couples. 42
  47. 47. WORK ASSEMBLY It is an important department of the manufacturing division. The assembly of the different components takes place here to make a complete product. Many of the accessories related to the products are also manufactured here. Some of them are as follows: 1. Handsets 2. Data Cables 3. Fill Guns It is basically divided into two parts wiz: 1. PCB Assembling: in this section PCB are manually assembled and components are mounted using manual soldering. This is in the case of large components. There four lines dedicated to this work. 2. Integration: in this section the integration of the different components to form the complete product takes place is also called as final assembly. The works carried out in this section can be described as follows:1. Cable Forming 2. Cable Assembly 3. Modules Assembly 4. Stag Integration 5. Cable Harness 6. Final Integration 7. RF & Data Cables Forming The devices or products after being dispatched from this section are then forwarded to the testing section where they are tested for different parameters and finally the instruments which pass the test are further sent to the other departments. The testing process is explained in the next section. 43
  48. 48. TESTING & INSPECTION Testing & Inspection is done in every stage of PCB namely at: Module stage Sub-assembly Final stage It is done after the environmental testing and before sending for testing. The most important parameters that are to be followed during the inspection are as follows:- 1) The values of the various components 2) The visible characteristics of various active devices 3) Various interconnections 4) Whether the BEL standards are maintained or not Testing is very important in the production. In PG-I manufacturing of STARSV is the main job. Testing of STARS-V is done in two main stages only. PCB level testing Main testing PCB level testing takes place in many stages. Firstly, the PCB‗S are kept in chamber with a temp. of +50°C and -30°C. This is done to check the stability of characteristic of PCB as well as its components. This process is done for approx. 80 hours. This is called ageing process. The PCB that passes out of the ageing process are then brought out in the block to put them through test jigs. These test jigs provide perfect environment In terms of signals that actual set will face in the field. In testing, product is subjected to adverse condition to check the reliability of product under condition defence forces will use. 44
  49. 49. The PCB is sent to assembly section back and they come out clear from test jigs. Now in assembly section all components are packed finally. These packed sets are now sent for main testing. The main testing includes many tests. The first test is BUMP TEST. This is done to check the resistance of set against mechanical bumps and vibrations. Next is THERMAL SHOCK test to check the adaptability of set to sudden change in temperature. Thermal shocks are given. The sets are subjected to temp. Range of 40°C-70°C. LEAKAGE TEST is done to check the set for any leakage. In this the radio set is immersed in water. The air is filled inside set through a nozzle at a pressure of 3 PSI. if air bubbles appear , set is sent for repairing. There is a spatial section in testing by the name CIPHER. Here the encryption part of PCB is enabled and checked. Entry in this section is strictly restricted for anyone, apart from authorized personnel. 45
  50. 50. CHAPTER 8 46
  51. 51. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The industrial training at B.E.L. has given me an exposure of the activities of a defense unit. This being a large organization deals with wide spectrum of technologies. During my training in B.E.L, I came to know about different range of products , ranging from communication equipments to hardware to software equipments and it goes in every strata of society like it is now usually used in military training academies. APPLICATIONS OF PRODUCTS :- 1. STARS- V- These radios are used in Manpack as well as vehicular applications for providing voice and data communications in VHF frequency range of 3088 MHZ. 2. CNR – This radio works in Anti – jam frequency hopping and fixed frequency modes with built –in high grade digital secrecy. 3. SECTEL- Here the encrypted speech is transmitted over the telephone line using a FULL Duplex QASK modem. At the receiver end, the encrypted data stream is demodulated / decrypted and the orinal speech is synthesized. The user can switch between clear and secure mode during the same call. 4. SECURE UHF HANDHELD RADIO – this radio set is provided with helical and magnetic mount antennas. The radio set has in –built mic and speaker. VOX headgear is also available as optional accessory for hands free operation. 5. DBC- It is to charge the two batteries at the same time which is used in VPS set. It can work with AC as well as dc input also .It is also shockproof. 47
  52. 52. CONCLUSION The six weeks of summer training at BEL, PKL unit generated a lot more interest in my subject. It made me more aware of the scope of Electronics & Communication Engineering. It has also made me appreciative of an industrial work environment. Undergoing training on the indoor substation has helped me integrate conceptual knowledge with real life application. I was fortunate to have personal guidance from experienced professionals who took been interest in explaining the working details of various equipments. I feel that without this opportunity, my own understanding of this subject and also the motivation to acquire more knowledge would have remained incomplete. Well, regarding future scope I think my training has given me enough motivation and an exposure that I will try to join defence services or get linked up with the defence of the country. ―To know the technical know-how, industrial training is the best way to move forward.‖ 48