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Cytarabine
 

Cytarabine

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    Cytarabine Cytarabine Document Transcript

    • CYTARABINECytarabine, or cytosine arabinoside, is a chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatmentof cancers of white blood cells such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and non-Hodgkinlymphoma.[1] It is also known as Ara-C (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine).[2] It kills cancer cells byinterfering with DNA synthesis.MECHANISM OF ACTION:-Cytosine arabinoside interferes with the synthesis of DNA. It is an antimetabolic agent with thechemical name of 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Its mode of action is due to its rapid conversioninto cytosine arabinoside triphosphate, which damages DNA when the cell cycle holds in the Sphase (synthesis of DNA). Rapidly dividing cells, which require DNA replication for mitosis, aretherefore most affected. Cytosine arabinoside also inhibits both DNA[5] and RNApolymerases and nucleotide reductase enzymes needed for DNA synthesis.USES:-Cytarabine is mainly used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphocyticleukaemia (ALL) and in lymphomas,[7] where it is the backbone of induction chemotherapy.Cytarabine also possesses antiviral activity, and it has been used for the treatment ofgeneralised herpesvirus infection. However, cytarabine is not very selective in this setting andcauses bone marrow suppression and other severe side effects, so it is used mainly for thechemotherapy of hematologic cancers.Cytarabine is also used in the study of the nervous system to control the proliferationof glial cells in cultures, the amount of glial cells having an important impact on neurons.SIDE EFFECTS:-One of the unique toxicities of cytarabine is cerebellar toxicity when given in high doses.Possible infection resulting from granulocytopenia and other impaired body defences,and hemorrhage secondary to thrombocytopeniaToxicity: Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia, anemia, GI disturbances, stomatitis, conjunctivitis,pneumonitis, fever, and dermatitis, Palmar-Plantar Erythrodysesthesia.STRUCTURE:-