Introduction of Computer Network

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This study material is intended to provided basic information regarding computer networking.

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Introduction of Computer Network

  1. 1. Computer Network Compiled By: Prof. Chintan Bhatt chintanbhatt.ce@charusat.ac.in https://sites.google.com/a/ecchanga.ac.in/chintan/
  2. 2. Introduction to Computer Networks Uses of computer network Computer Network, Distributed Systems, Middleware network hardware, network software OSI model, TCP/IP model, Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP model Example network
  3. 3. Opte
  4. 4. Uses of Computer Networks Internet is computer network – Justification?????? WWW????????? First use of network??????????? • Business Applications (Resource Sharing) • Home Applications • Mobile Users • Social Issues • Advertising • Production • Shipping • Planning • Billing • Accounting
  5. 5. Business Applications (1) A network with two clients and one server
  6. 6. Business Applications (2) The client-server model involves requests and replies
  7. 7. Home Applications (1) In a peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers.
  8. 8. Home Applications (2) Access to remote information Person-to-person information Interactive Entertainment E-commerce Some forms of e-commerce
  9. 9. Mobile Users Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing
  10. 10. Social Issues • • • • Network neutrality / Net neutrality / Internet neutrality Digital Millennium Copyright Act Profiling users Phishing
  11. 11. Network Hardware (1) • Personal area networks • Local area networks • Metropolitan area networks • Wide are networks • The internet Links: Broadcast links (Broadcasting, Multicasting) a) Static (Disadvantages ?????) b) Dynamic (on demand) (Centralized or decentralized) Point-to point links (Multicasting) (Find out networks and devices)
  12. 12. Network Hardware (2) Classification of interconnected processors by scale.
  13. 13. Personal Area Network Bluetooth PAN configuration
  14. 14. Local Area Networks Wireless and wired LANs. (a) 802.11. (b) Switched Ethernet.
  15. 15. Metropolitan Area Networks A metropolitan area network based on cable TV.
  16. 16. Wide Area Networks (1) WAN that connects three branch offices in Australia
  17. 17. Wide Area Networks (2) WAN using a virtual private network.
  18. 18. Wide Area Networks (3) WAN using an ISP network.
  19. 19. ??? Who was the first to use the Internet?
  20. 20. Network Software • Protocol hierarchies (Layer/Level, Peer, Protocol, Interface, Network architecture, Protocol Stack) • • • • Design issues for the layers Connection-oriented versus connectionless service Service primitives Relationship of services to protocols
  21. 21. Protocol Hierarchies (1) Layers, protocols, and interfaces.
  22. 22. Design Issues of Layers • Addressing • Error Control • Flow Control • Multiplexing • Routing
  23. 23. Connection-Oriented Versus Connectionless Service Six different types of service.
  24. 24. Service Primitives (1) Six service primitives that provide a simple connection-oriented service
  25. 25. Service Primitives (2) A simple client-server interaction using acknowledged datagrams.
  26. 26. The Relationship of Services to Protocols The relationship between a service and a protocol.
  27. 27. Reference Models • • • • • • OSI reference model TCP/IP reference model Model used for this text Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP Critique of OSI model and protocols Critique of TCP/IP model
  28. 28. The OSI Reference Model The OSI reference model
  29. 29. Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Description Popular Protocols + User interface HTTP, FTP, TFTP, Telnet, SNMP, DNS… + Data + Video (WMV, representation, AVI…) encryption & + Bitmap (JPG, decryption BMP, PNG…) + Audio (WAV, MP3, WMA…) …. + Set up, monitor + SQL, RPC, & terminate the NETBIOS connection names… session + Flow control + TCP (Buffering, (ConnectionWindowing, Oriented, reliable) Congestion + UDP Avoidance) helps (Connectionless, prevent the loss of unreliable) segments on the network and the need for retransmission Protocol Data Unit Data Data Data Segment Devices operate in this layer
  30. 30. Network Data Link Physical + Path determination + Source & Destination logical addresses + Physical addresses + IP + IPX + AppleTalk + LAN Frame + WAN (HDLC, PPP, Frame Relay…) Includes 2 layers: + Upper layer: Logical Link Control (LLC) + Lower layer: Media Access Control (MAC) Encodes and + FDDI, transmits data Ethernet bits + Electric signals + Radio signals Packet/Datagr Router am Bit (0, 1) Switch, Bridge Hub, Repeater…
  31. 31. The TCP/IP Reference Model Layers • • • • Link layer Internet layer Transport layer Application layer
  32. 32. The TCP/IP Reference Model (1) The TCP/IP reference model
  33. 33. The TCP/IP Reference Model (2) The TCP/IP reference model with some protocols we will study
  34. 34. 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt
  35. 35. Comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models Concepts central to OSI model • Services • Interfaces • Protocols
  36. 36. Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols • • • • Bad timing. Bad technology. Bad implementations. Bad politics.
  37. 37. OSI Model Bad Timing The apocalypse of the two elephants.
  38. 38. A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model Problems: • Service, interface, and protocol not distinguished • Not a general model • Host-to-network “layer” not really a layer • No mention of physical and data link layers • Minor protocols deeply entrenched, hard to replace
  39. 39. Example Networks • • • • • • Internet ARPANET NSFNET Third-generation mobile phone networks Wireless LANs: 802.11 RFID and sensor networks
  40. 40. The ARPANET (1) a) b) Structure of the telephone system. Baran’s proposed distributed switching system.
  41. 41. The ARPANET (2) The original ARPANET design
  42. 42. The ARPANET (3) Growth of the ARPANET. a) December 1969. b) July 1970. c) March 1971.
  43. 43. The ARPANET (4) Growth of the ARPANET. d) April 1972. e) September 1972.
  44. 44. NSFNET The NSFNET backbone in 1988.
  45. 45. Architecture of the Internet Overview of the Internet architecture
  46. 46. 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt
  47. 47. 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt
  48. 48. Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (1) Cellular design of mobile phone networks
  49. 49. Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (2) Architecture of the UMTS 3G mobile phone network.
  50. 50. Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (3) Mobile phone handover (a) before, (b) after.
  51. 51. SWITCHED WANS
  52. 52. Figure 3-18 Frame Relay network
  53. 53. Advantages High Data Rate Bursty Data Less overhead due to improved transmission media
  54. 54. A cell network uses the cell as the basic unit of data exchange. A cell is defined as a small, fixed-sized block of information.
  55. 55. Figure 3-19 ATM multiplexing
  56. 56. Figure 3-20 Architecture of an ATM network
  57. 57. Figure 3-21 Virtual circuits
  58. 58. Note that a virtual connection is defined by a pair of numbers: the VPI and the VCI.
  59. 59. Figure 3-22 An ATM cell
  60. 60. Figure 3-23 ATM layers
  61. 61. The IP protocol uses the AAL5 sublayer.
  62. 62. Wireless LANs: 802.11 (1) (a) Wireless network with an access point. (b) Ad hoc network.
  63. 63. Wireless LANs: 802.11 (2) Multipath fading
  64. 64. Wireless LANs: 802.11 (3) The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system.
  65. 65. RFID and Sensor Networks (1) RFID used to network everyday objects.
  66. 66. RFID and Sensor Networks (2) Multihop topology of a sensor network
  67. 67. Network Standardization • • • Who’s Who in telecommunications Who’s Who in international standards Who’s Who in internet standards
  68. 68. Who’s Who in International Standards (1) The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up and disbanded itself.
  69. 69. Who’s Who in International Standards (2) The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up and disbanded itself.
  70. 70. Metric Units (1) The principal metric prefixes
  71. 71. Metric Units (2) The principal metric prefixes
  72. 72. End Chapter 1 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt

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