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This study material is intended to provided basic information regarding computer networking.

This study material is intended to provided basic information regarding computer networking.

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  • 1. Computer Network Compiled By: Prof. Chintan Bhatt chintanbhatt.ce@charusat.ac.in https://sites.google.com/a/ecchanga.ac.in/chintan/
  • 2. Introduction to Computer Networks Uses of computer network Computer Network, Distributed Systems, Middleware network hardware, network software OSI model, TCP/IP model, Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP model Example network
  • 3. Opte
  • 4. Uses of Computer Networks Internet is computer network – Justification?????? WWW????????? First use of network??????????? • Business Applications (Resource Sharing) • Home Applications • Mobile Users • Social Issues • Advertising • Production • Shipping • Planning • Billing • Accounting
  • 5. Business Applications (1) A network with two clients and one server
  • 6. Business Applications (2) The client-server model involves requests and replies
  • 7. Home Applications (1) In a peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers.
  • 8. Home Applications (2) Access to remote information Person-to-person information Interactive Entertainment E-commerce Some forms of e-commerce
  • 9. Mobile Users Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing
  • 10. Social Issues • • • • Network neutrality / Net neutrality / Internet neutrality Digital Millennium Copyright Act Profiling users Phishing
  • 11. Network Hardware (1) • Personal area networks • Local area networks • Metropolitan area networks • Wide are networks • The internet Links: Broadcast links (Broadcasting, Multicasting) a) Static (Disadvantages ?????) b) Dynamic (on demand) (Centralized or decentralized) Point-to point links (Multicasting) (Find out networks and devices)
  • 12. Network Hardware (2) Classification of interconnected processors by scale.
  • 13. Personal Area Network Bluetooth PAN configuration
  • 14. Local Area Networks Wireless and wired LANs. (a) 802.11. (b) Switched Ethernet.
  • 15. Metropolitan Area Networks A metropolitan area network based on cable TV.
  • 16. Wide Area Networks (1) WAN that connects three branch offices in Australia
  • 17. Wide Area Networks (2) WAN using a virtual private network.
  • 18. Wide Area Networks (3) WAN using an ISP network.
  • 19. ??? Who was the first to use the Internet?
  • 20. Network Software • Protocol hierarchies (Layer/Level, Peer, Protocol, Interface, Network architecture, Protocol Stack) • • • • Design issues for the layers Connection-oriented versus connectionless service Service primitives Relationship of services to protocols
  • 21. Protocol Hierarchies (1) Layers, protocols, and interfaces.
  • 22. Design Issues of Layers • Addressing • Error Control • Flow Control • Multiplexing • Routing
  • 23. Connection-Oriented Versus Connectionless Service Six different types of service.
  • 24. Service Primitives (1) Six service primitives that provide a simple connection-oriented service
  • 25. Service Primitives (2) A simple client-server interaction using acknowledged datagrams.
  • 26. The Relationship of Services to Protocols The relationship between a service and a protocol.
  • 27. Reference Models • • • • • • OSI reference model TCP/IP reference model Model used for this text Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP Critique of OSI model and protocols Critique of TCP/IP model
  • 28. The OSI Reference Model The OSI reference model
  • 29. Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Description Popular Protocols + User interface HTTP, FTP, TFTP, Telnet, SNMP, DNS… + Data + Video (WMV, representation, AVI…) encryption & + Bitmap (JPG, decryption BMP, PNG…) + Audio (WAV, MP3, WMA…) …. + Set up, monitor + SQL, RPC, & terminate the NETBIOS connection names… session + Flow control + TCP (Buffering, (ConnectionWindowing, Oriented, reliable) Congestion + UDP Avoidance) helps (Connectionless, prevent the loss of unreliable) segments on the network and the need for retransmission Protocol Data Unit Data Data Data Segment Devices operate in this layer
  • 30. Network Data Link Physical + Path determination + Source & Destination logical addresses + Physical addresses + IP + IPX + AppleTalk + LAN Frame + WAN (HDLC, PPP, Frame Relay…) Includes 2 layers: + Upper layer: Logical Link Control (LLC) + Lower layer: Media Access Control (MAC) Encodes and + FDDI, transmits data Ethernet bits + Electric signals + Radio signals Packet/Datagr Router am Bit (0, 1) Switch, Bridge Hub, Repeater…
  • 31. The TCP/IP Reference Model Layers • • • • Link layer Internet layer Transport layer Application layer
  • 32. The TCP/IP Reference Model (1) The TCP/IP reference model
  • 33. The TCP/IP Reference Model (2) The TCP/IP reference model with some protocols we will study
  • 34. 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt
  • 35. Comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models Concepts central to OSI model • Services • Interfaces • Protocols
  • 36. Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols • • • • Bad timing. Bad technology. Bad implementations. Bad politics.
  • 37. OSI Model Bad Timing The apocalypse of the two elephants.
  • 38. A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model Problems: • Service, interface, and protocol not distinguished • Not a general model • Host-to-network “layer” not really a layer • No mention of physical and data link layers • Minor protocols deeply entrenched, hard to replace
  • 39. Example Networks • • • • • • Internet ARPANET NSFNET Third-generation mobile phone networks Wireless LANs: 802.11 RFID and sensor networks
  • 40. The ARPANET (1) a) b) Structure of the telephone system. Baran’s proposed distributed switching system.
  • 41. The ARPANET (2) The original ARPANET design
  • 42. The ARPANET (3) Growth of the ARPANET. a) December 1969. b) July 1970. c) March 1971.
  • 43. The ARPANET (4) Growth of the ARPANET. d) April 1972. e) September 1972.
  • 44. NSFNET The NSFNET backbone in 1988.
  • 45. Architecture of the Internet Overview of the Internet architecture
  • 46. 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt
  • 47. 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt
  • 48. Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (1) Cellular design of mobile phone networks
  • 49. Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (2) Architecture of the UMTS 3G mobile phone network.
  • 50. Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (3) Mobile phone handover (a) before, (b) after.
  • 51. SWITCHED WANS
  • 52. Figure 3-18 Frame Relay network
  • 53. Advantages High Data Rate Bursty Data Less overhead due to improved transmission media
  • 54. A cell network uses the cell as the basic unit of data exchange. A cell is defined as a small, fixed-sized block of information.
  • 55. Figure 3-19 ATM multiplexing
  • 56. Figure 3-20 Architecture of an ATM network
  • 57. Figure 3-21 Virtual circuits
  • 58. Note that a virtual connection is defined by a pair of numbers: the VPI and the VCI.
  • 59. Figure 3-22 An ATM cell
  • 60. Figure 3-23 ATM layers
  • 61. The IP protocol uses the AAL5 sublayer.
  • 62. Wireless LANs: 802.11 (1) (a) Wireless network with an access point. (b) Ad hoc network.
  • 63. Wireless LANs: 802.11 (2) Multipath fading
  • 64. Wireless LANs: 802.11 (3) The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system.
  • 65. RFID and Sensor Networks (1) RFID used to network everyday objects.
  • 66. RFID and Sensor Networks (2) Multihop topology of a sensor network
  • 67. Network Standardization • • • Who’s Who in telecommunications Who’s Who in international standards Who’s Who in internet standards
  • 68. Who’s Who in International Standards (1) The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up and disbanded itself.
  • 69. Who’s Who in International Standards (2) The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up and disbanded itself.
  • 70. Metric Units (1) The principal metric prefixes
  • 71. Metric Units (2) The principal metric prefixes
  • 72. End Chapter 1 1/18/2014 Chintan Bhatt