THE AMERICAN NATIONTHE AMERICAN NATION
Eleventh Edition
BEGINNINGS
• Passage to Alaska
– Hunters moved north in Asia in search of
large mammals
– Around 12,000 B.C., hunters walk...
• The Demise of the Big Mammals
– Clovis hunters develop long spears and
stone blades for more effective hunting
– The ani...
• The Archaic Period: A World Without
Big Mammals, 9000 B.C.-- 1000 B.C.
– Absence of big mammals forces people to
find ne...
– Poverty Point, Mississippi: an important
early sedentary community
– Egalitarian social structure
– Hopewell Mounds deve...
• The Diffusion of Corn
– Corn moved slowly through North America
because of weather and labor demands of
the crop
– Hunti...
• Cahokia: The Hub of Mississippian
Culture
– By 1000 A.D., Cahokia had become a
major center of trade, religion and polit...
– Many corn-growing tribes also began a
long period of warfare with each other
• American Beginnings in Eurasia and
Africa...
• Europe in Ferment
– Growing population put pressure on
resources of land which in turn caused
political unrest
– Shortag...
ALIEN ENCOUNTERS: EUROPE
IN THE AMERICAS
• Columbus and the Discovery of
America
– Christopher Columbus reached the West
I...
• Spain’s American Empire
– in 1493, Pope divided the non-Christian
world between Spain and Portugal
– Portugal concentrat...
• Relativity of Cultural Values
– Europeans regarded as heathens because
the did not worship the Christian God
– most Indi...
– fished, hunted, & modified vegetation and
wildlife
– different approaches to land and government
led to conflict
– even ...
• Disease and Population Losses
– Europeans brought with them diseases for
which Indians had no immunities,
particularly s...
• The Protestant Reformation
– the sale of indulgences and the luxurious
life-styles of popes led to a challenge by
reform...
• English Beginnings in America
– Queen Elizabeth supported the
explorations of English joint-stock
companies and encourag...
• The Settlement of Virginia
– London Company established first
permanent English settlement in America
at Jamestown in 16...
– settlement survived in part because
Captain John Smith recognized the
importance of building houses and raising
food
– a...
• “Purifying” the Church of England
– Under Elizabeth I, the Church of England
became the official church
– Elizabeth I’s ...
– Puritans who objected to the rich
vestments, the use of candles, and the use
of music in services; Puritans’ belief in
p...
• Bradford and Plymouth Colony
– English Separatists set sail from Plymouth,
England, on the Mayflower to settle near
the ...
• Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay
Colony
– a group of Puritans formed the
Massachusetts Bay Company
– obtained a grant to t...
• Troublemakers
– Several groups dissented from the
Massachusetts Bay colony
– Roger Williams opposed alliance of church
a...
– Anne Hutchinson preached that those
possessed of saving grace were exempt
from rules of good behavior
– General Court ch...
• Other New England Colonies
– Congregations from Massachusetts settled
in the Connecticut River valley
– a group headed b...
• French and Dutch Settlements
– England was not alone in challenging
Spain's dominance in the New World.
– French planted...
• Maryland and the Carolinas
– in 17th century, English colonization shifted
to proprietary efforts
– proprietors hoped to...
– Catholics remained a minority in the
colony, and Baltimore agreed to the
Toleration Act
– guaranteed freedom of religion...
• The Middle Colonies
– British eventually ousted the Dutch from
New Amsterdam, which became New York
– Quakers settled in...
• Indians and Europeans as
“Americanizers”
– relationship between Native Americans and
Europeans best characterized as
int...
AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE
MAKING
• What Is an American?
– Americans came from a variety of
backgrounds
– although they never...
• Spanish Settlements in New Mexico
and Florida
– Franciscan friars shaped life in Spanish
North America
– Franciscans est...
– Franciscans exacted heavy price in labor
from Indians
– Indians built and maintained missions,
tilled fields, and served...
• The Chesapeake Colonies
– southern colonies of English North America
consisted of three regions: the
Chesapeake Bay, the...
– although Virginia grew in decade after it
became royal colony, death rate remained
high
– newcomers underwent a period o...
• The Lure of Land
– agriculture remained the mainstay of life in
the Chesapeake and in the South
– London Company saw lit...
– thus a system of indentured servitude
evolved to bring those with land and
money together with those who wished to
go to...
• “Solving” the Labor Shortage: Slavery
– first African blacks to arrive in America
landed in Jamestown in 1619
– by about...
– in the 1670s, improving economic
conditions in England led to a slow flow of
new servants
– at the same time, slaves bec...
• Prosperity in a Pipe: Tobacco
– unlike wheat, tobacco required no
expensive plows to clear the land; it could
be cultiva...
– the Chesapeake did not develop towns and
roads because commerce traveled along
the rivers
– tobacco rapidly exhausted th...
• Bacon’s Rebellion
– distance from centers of authority made
settlers in the Chesapeake difficult to
subject to authority...
– under Nathaniel Bacon, the westerners
demonstrated a willingness to attack not
only Indians but the governor as well
– B...
• The Carolinas
– like their fellow colonists to the north,
English and Scotch-Irish settlers in the
Carolinas relied on a...
– the production of cash crops meant that
the southern colonies could obtain
manufactured goods and various luxuries
from ...
– each colony promulgated regulations
governing behavior of blacks, which
increased in severity with the density of the
bl...
– even some Quakers owned slaves, and
racial prejudice was common even among
Quakers
• Home and Family in the Colonial Sou...
– women only rarely worked in the fields, but
their duties included tending animals,
making butter and cheese, pickling an...
– the spread-out population made it difficult
to support churches
– in spite of its standing as the official
religion with...
• Georgia and the Back Country
– this region included the Great Valley of
Virginia, the Piedmont, and Georgia
– Georgia wa...
– the idealistic regulations governing the
colony swiftly fell into disuse
– Georgia developed an economy similar to
South...
• Puritan New England
– New England enjoyed several advantages
over the southern colonies, for example:
– Boston had a dep...
• The Puritan Family
– the Puritans brought more supplies with
them than other colonists, which helped
ease their adjustme...
• Puritan Women and Children
– mortality among infants and children was
lower in New England than in the
Chesapeake
– few ...
– Women’s childbearing years extended over
two decades
– social standards required that husbands
rule over wives and that ...
• Visible Saints and Others
– Puritans believed that church membership
should be a joint decision between the
would-be mem...
– a decade later, new conditions led to a
reconsideration
– fewer than half of all adults in New England
were church membe...
– if baptism were restricted to church
members and a majority of the community
did not qualify, the majority of people wou...
• Democracies Without Democrats
– the colonies were largely left to govern
themselves
– in spite of seemingly repressive l...
• Dedham: A “Typical” Town
– in 1635, the heads of thirty households
from Watertown established a new town at
Dedham
– the...
– they tended to elect men from the
wealthiest; most established levels of the
community
– many voters did not bother to v...
• The Dominion of New England
– during Restoration, the English
government sought to bring colonies under
effective royal ...
• Salem Bewitched
– Salem Village, a rural settlement near
Salem, petitioned General Court for a
church of their own
– aft...
– Parris’s daughters and Ann Putnam began
to behave in ways their elders diagnosed
as bewitched
– they accused three socia...
– the episode also revealed some anxieties
Puritan men felt toward women
– many Puritans believed that Satan used
the allu...
• Higher Education in New England
– demand for educated ministers outstripped
supply in the 1630s
– Massachusetts General ...
– as a result, New England had a remarkably
high rate of literacy
– several ministers in Connecticut became
disenchanted w...
• Prosperity Undermines Puritanism
– colonists in New England turned early to
farming
– they also grazed cattle, sheep, an...
– the products New Englanders grew were
available in Europe
– thus, while fed and sheltered, New
Englanders had little sur...
• A Merchant’s World
– early efforts to produce manufactured
goods in New England failed
– fur seemed a likely item to tra...
– Portsmouth, Salem, Boston, Newport, and
New Haven grew rapidly
– Boston became the third most populous
city in the Briti...
• Economic Basis for the Middle Colonies
– New York and Pennsylvania contained
ethnically and religiously diverse
populati...
• “The Best Poor Man’s Country”
– land was easy to obtain in Pennsylvania
– ordinary New Yorkers could become
landowners f...
• The Politics of Diversity
– the Middle Colonies developed a more
sophisticated political culture than either
New England...
– Leisler’s Rebellion shaped New York
politics for two decades
– political divisions led to the trial for
seditious libel ...
– settlers in western Pennsylvania, resentful
of eastern indifference to the threat of
Indian raids
– the Paxton boys slau...
• Rebellious Women
– Anne Hutchinson incurred the wrath of
Puritan leaders by criticizing their
teachings and challenging ...
– nevertheless, women found themselves
increasingly relegated to the margins of
political life during the 18th century
– b...
AMERICA IN THE BRITISH
EMPIRE
• The British Colonial System
– British colonies were founded
independently by people with d...
– Crown left colonists to make own laws
pertaining to local matters
– King’s Privy Council responsible for
formulating col...
– Board of Trade took over management of
colonial affairs in 1696
– failure to establish a centralized colonial
government...
• The Navigation Acts
– commerce was essential to mercantilism
– in the 1650s, Parliament responded to
Dutch preeminence i...
• The Effects of Mercantilism
– Mercantilist policy benefited both England
and the colonies
– England’s interests prevaile...
• The Great Awakening
– people in colonies began to recognize
common interests and a common character
– by about 1750, the...
– colonial tours of George Whitefield, a
powerful orator, sparked much religious
enthusiasm
– Whitefield did not deny the ...
• The Rise and Fall of Jonathan Edwards
– Jonathan Edwards was the most famous
native-born revivalist of the Great
Awakeni...
– Edwards’s approach upset some of his
parishioners, and in 1749 they voted
unanimously to dismiss him
– a reaction agains...
• The Enlightenment in America
– the Enlightenment had an enormous
impact on America
– the founders of colonies were
conte...
– through observation and reason, humans
might come to understand the laws of
nature
– faith in these ideas produced the A...
• Colonial Scientific Achievements
– colonials such as John Bartram,
Cadwallader Colden, and Benjamin
Franklin contributed...
• Other People’s Wars
– European nations competed fiercely for
markets and raw materials
– war became a constant in the 17...
– in addition to battle casualties, frontier
settlers were killed in raids; and taxes went
up to pay for the wars
– these ...
• The Great War for the Empire
– England and France possessed competing
colonial empires in North America
– in 1750s, the ...
– Pitt recognized the potential value of North
America and poured British forces and
money into the war
– he also promoted...
– Spain got back Philippines and Cuba, in
exchange for which it ceded Florida to
Great Britain
– the victory in North Amer...
• The Peace of Paris
– under terms of Treaty of Paris, signed in
1763, France gave up virtually all claims to
North Americ...
• Putting the Empire Right
– Britain now controlled a larger empire,
which would be much more expensive to
maintain
– Pitt...
• Tightening Imperial Controls
– British attempts to deal with problems
resulting from victory in great war for
empire led...
– British stationed 15 regiments along the
frontier
– as much to protect the Indians from the
settlers as the settlers fro...
• The Sugar Act
– Americans were outraged by British
attempts to raise money in America to help
defray cost of administeri...
• American Colonists Demand Rights
– British dismissed protests over Sugar Act
– under concept of “virtual representation,...
• The Stamp Act: The Pot Set to Boiling
– Stamp Act placed stiff excise taxes on all
kinds of printed matter
– Sugar Act h...
• Rioters or Rebels?
– rioting took on a social and a political
character
– if colonial elite did not disapprove of riotin...
– greatest concern was Britain’s rejection of
the principle of no taxation without
representation
– as British subjects, c...
• Taxation or Tyranny?
– English people were recognized as the
freest people in the world which was
attributed their freed...
– colonies were no longer entirely dependent
on England
– British leaders were not ready to deal with
Americans as equals
...
• The Declaratory Act
– Parliament passed the Declaratory Act
– asserted that Parliament could enact any
law it wished wit...
• The Townshend Duties
– Townshend Acts (1767) placed levies on
glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea imported
colonists res...
• The Boston Massacre
– March 5, 1770, rioters began throwing
snowballs at British soldiers
– crowd grew hostile, the pani...
• The Pot Spills Over
– trouble erupted again when British patrol
boat ran aground in Narragansett Bay in
1772
• The Tea Act Crisis
– in 1773, Parliament agreed to remit British
tax on tea; Townshend tax was retained
– Americans rega...
• From Resistance to Revolution
– Parliament responded to Boston Tea Party
by passing Coercive Acts in spring of 1774
– ac...
THE AMERICAN
REVOLUTION
• “The Shot Heard Round the World”
– January 1775, actions of First Continental
Congress led Briti...
• The Second Continental Congress
– met in Philadelphia on May 10
– more radical than First Congress
– organized forces ga...
• The Battle of Bunker Hill
– Patriots set up defenses on Bunker Hill and
Breed’s Hill
– two assaults by Redcoats failed t...
– Continental Congress appeased
moderates by offering one last plea to king
and then adopted “Declaration of the
Causes an...
• The Great Declaration
– two events in January 1776 pushed the
colonies toward final break: British
decision to use Hessi...
– Congress did not act at once; it appointed
committee to draft justification for Lee’s
resolution
– Congress adopted just...
• 1776: The Balance of Forces
– Americans had several advantages in fight
for independence: familiar terrain; England
had ...
– moreover, Congress had to create new
political institutions during a war
• Loyalists
– America was far from united
– Loy...
• Early British Victories
– General Howe defeated an inexperienced
American army at Battle of Long Island and
again Manhat...
• Saratoga and the French Alliance
– British planned elaborate three-pronged
attack to crush colonial resistance
– Howe de...
– France had been giving aid to the
Americans,
– United States and France negotiated a
commercial treaty and a treaty of a...
• The War Moves South
– May 1778, British replaced General Howe
with General Clinton
– Washington and Clinton fought at
Mo...
– British took Savannah and Charleston
– American forces won victories at King’s
Mountain, Cowpens, and Guilford Court
Hou...
• Victory at Yorktown
– Clinton ordered Cornwallis to establish a
base at Yorktown
– French fleet cut off Cornwallis’s sup...
• The Peace of Paris
– despite promise to France not to make a
separate treaty, American negotiators
successfully played o...
• Forming a National Government
– Congress was a legislative body, not a
complete government
– Various rivalries, particul...
• Financing the War
– Congress and states shared financial
burden of war
– Congress supported Continental Army,
while stat...
• State Republican Governments
– most states framed new constitutions even
before Declaration of Independence
– new charte...
– majority of state constitutions contained
bills of rights protecting civil liberties
against all branches of government
...
• Social Reform
– many states used the occasion of
constitution making to introduce social and
political reforms, such as ...
– number of states moved tentatively against
slavery and all northern states provided for
gradual abolition of slavery
– m...
• Effects of the Revolution on Women
– late 18th century saw trend toward
increasing legal rights for women
– for example,...
– revolutionary rhetoric stressed equality and
liberty, and some women applied it to their
own condition
– revolution also...
• Growth of a National Spirit
– nationalist sentiment came from variety of
sources:
– common sacrifices in war
– common ex...
• The Great Land Ordinances
– Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for
surveying western territories
– Northwest Ordinance of 1...
• National Heroes
– Revolution provided Americans with their
first national heroes
– Benjamin Franklin was well known befo...
• A National Culture
– political break with Britain accentuated an
already developing trend toward social and
intellectual...
THE FEDERALIST ERA:
NATIONALISM TRIUMPHANT
• Border Problems
– interstate conflicts immediately reasserted
themselves at t...
• Foreign Trade
– Americans could trade with European
powers, and a Far Eastern trade
developed
– British import duties re...
– states experienced hard times from 1784
to 1786
– retaliatory tariffs on British goods would
have dealt with some of pro...
• The Specter of Inflation
– Continental Congress and states paid for
Revolutionary War by printing paper
money, which res...
• Daniel Shays’s “Little Rebellion”
– determined to pay off state debt and
maintain sound currency, Massachusetts
legislat...
• To Philadelphia and the Constitution
– in 1786, delegates from five states met in
Annapolis to discuss common problems
–...
• The Great Convention
– remarkably talented group of delegates
assembled in Philadelphia to revise
Articles of Confederat...
• The Compromises that Produced the
Constitution
– after voting to establish a national
government, delegates faced two
pr...
– larger states argued for representation
based on population; smaller states
wanted equal representation for each state
–...
– creation of a powerful president was most
radical departure from past practice
– only faith in Washington and assumption...
• Ratifying the Constitution
– framers provided their handiwork be
ratified by special state conventions
– this gave peopl...
– the Federalist Papers brilliantly explained and
defended proposed new system
– most states ratified Constitution readily...
• Washington as President
– first electoral college made George
Washington its unanimous choice
– Washington was a strong,...
• Congress Under Way
– first Congress created various departments
and federal judiciary
– it also passed first ten amendme...
• Hamilton and Financial Reform
– one of its first acts, Congress imposed a
tariff on foreign imports
– Congress delegated...
– Madison and Jefferson agreed to support
Hamilton’s plan in exchange for latter’s
support for plan to locate permanent
na...
– Washington accepted Hamilton’s
reasoning, and the bank became an
immediate success
– Hamilton hoped to change an agricul...
• The Ohio Country: A Dark and Bloody
Ground
– western issues continued to plague new
country
– British continued to occup...
• Revolution in France
– French Revolution and subsequent
European wars affected America
– Alliance of 1778 obligated Unit...
– Washington requested that France recall
Genet
– European war increased demand for
American products, but it also led bot...
• Federalists and Republicans: The Rise
of Political Parties
– Washington enjoyed universal admiration,
and his position a...
– disagreement over French Revolution and
American policy toward France widened
split between parties
– Jefferson and the ...
• 1794: Crisis and Resolution
– several events in 1794 brought partisan
conflict to a peak
– attempts to collect whiskey t...
• Jay’s Treaty
– Washington sent John Jay to negotiate
treaty with England
– American indebtedness to England and
fear of ...
– Jay agreed that America would not impose
discriminatory duties on British goods
– America would pay pre-Revolutionary
de...
• 1795: All’s Well That Ends Well
– Washington decided not to repudiate the
Jay Treaty, and Senate ratified it in 1795
– J...
– Treaty of Greenville, signed with Indians
after Battle of Fallen Timbers, opened west
to settlement
– Before decade ende...
• Washington’s Farewell
– settlement of western and European
problems did not end partisan conflict at
home
– at end of hi...
– the Federalists considered Hamilton too
controversial, so they nominated John
Adams for president and Thomas Pinckney
fo...
• The XYZ Affair
– in retaliation for Jay Treaty, the French
attacked American shipping
– Adams sent commission to France ...
– Congress, controlled by the Federalists,
abrogated the alliance with France and
began preparations for war
– although a ...
• The Alien and Sedition Acts
– Federalists feared that Republicans would
side with France if war broke out
– refugees fro...
– Alien Enemies Act empowered president to
arrest or expel aliens in time of declared
war
– Sedition Act made it a crime “...
• The Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
– Jefferson did not object to state sedition
laws, but believed that Alien and Sediti...
– Taken aback by American reaction, France
offered negotiations, and Adams accepted
offer
– Adams resisted strong pressure...
JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY
• The Federalist Contribution
– Republicans won election of 1800 because
electors did not distingui...
– Federalists’ major contribution consisted of
principles and governmental structure set
forth in Constitution
– Federalis...
• Thomas Jefferson: Political Theorist
– Jefferson derived political philosophy from
ideas of Enlightenment and experience...
– he relied on democracy and protection of
personal liberties
– Jefferson distrusted Hamilton’s admiration
for British soc...
• Jefferson as President
– he repealed Naturalization Act and allowed
Alien and Sedition Acts to expire, but he
made no at...
• Jefferson’s Attack on the Judiciary
– as Adams’s administration expired,
Congress passed the Judiciary Act of
1801, whic...
– one of Adams,s appointees, Marbury,
petitioned Supreme Court to force new
secretary of state, Madison, to give him his
j...
– the Marbury case made Jefferson even
more determined to strike at the Federalist-
dominated courts
– after obtaining imp...
• The Barbary Pirates
– Jefferson refused to continue policy of
paying tribute to North African pirates to
prevent seizure...
• The Louisiana Purchase
– Jefferson acquired Louisiana Territory,
region between Mississippi River and
Rocky Mountains, f...
– Napoleon’s need for money to finance his
war in Europe and the failure of French to
put down a slave revolt in Haiti led...
• Federalism Discredited
– west and south supported Jefferson, and
his popularity was growing in north
– with addition of ...
• Lewis and Clark
– in 1803, Jefferson sent an expedition under
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to
explore Louisiana Te...
• Jeffersonian Democracy
– Jefferson’s policies and talents created
Jeffersonian democracy
– he proved that a democrat cou...
– John Randolph, a fanatic supporter of
states’ rights, resented Jefferson’s
accommodations to Federalist policies
– Rando...
• The Burr Conspiracy
– Jefferson’s political assaults on Burr
contributed to the latter’s decision to flirt
with treason
...
• Napoleon and the British
– until 1806, the war between Britain and
France stimulated the American economy;
Americans pro...
– Napoleon then declared that any vessel
submitting to British rules became English
property and therefore subject to seiz...
• The Impressment Controversy
– British practice of impressment threatened
America’s rights as a neutral country
– Jeffers...
– moreover, as a southerner, he was
probably less sensitive to New England’s
interests than he might have been
– in additi...
• The Embargo Act
– when the British fired on an American
warship and impressed three deserters
from it, Jefferson ordered...
– in Jefferson’s last months as president,
Congress repealed the Embargo Act and
replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act,...
NATIONAL GROWING PAINS
• Madison in Power
– in 1808, Republicans won both houses of
Congress, and Madison won presidency
–...
– when Napoleon announced he would
revoke his restrictions if Britain agreed to
abandon its own restrictive policies,
Madi...
• Tecumseh and the Prophet
– growing numbers of American settlers
steadily drove Indians out of the Ohio
Valley
– Tecumseh...
• Depression and Land Hunger
– some westerners attributed low prices
received for agricultural goods to loss of
foreign ma...
• Opponents of War
– maritime interests in east feared war
against Britain
– Napoleon posed genuine and serious
threat to ...
– British manufacturers, who blamed hard
times on loss of American markets, urged
the repeal of Orders in Council
– gradua...
• The War of 1812
– the War of 1812 was poorly planned and
managed
– U.S. Navy could not challenge Britain’s
mastery of At...
– Captain Oliver Hazard Perry defeated
British fleet and gained control of Lake Erie
– this made British control of Detroi...
• Britain Assumes the Offensive
– war against Napoleon occupied British until
1814
– after Napoleon’s defeat, British put ...
• “The Star Spangled Banner”
– an American civilian, Francis Scott Key,
observed bombardment of Fort McHenry
from deck of ...
• The Treaty of Ghent
– in 1814, the British and Americans met at
Ghent to discuss terms for peace
– British prolonged neg...
• The Hartford Convention
– news of treaty had not yet reached
America when a group of New England
Federalists met to prot...
– their resolutions argued that states had
right to interpose their authority to protect
themselves from violations of Con...
• The Battle of New Orleans
– news of the Treaty of Ghent failed to arrive
in time to prevent Battle of New Orleans
– Amer...
• Victory Weakens the Federalists
– America’s ability to hold off British
convinced European powers that the
United States...
• Anglo-American Rapprochement
– American trade had become more
important to British economy, and in 1815
the two countrie...
– in 1818, a joint Anglo-American
commission settled disputed boundary
between U.S. and Canada by designating
49th paralle...
• The Transcontinental Treaty
– Jackson’s pursuit of Indians into Spanish
Florida and his capture of two Spanish
forts rai...
– Spain had to accept a boundary to
Louisiana Territory that followed Sabine,
Red, and Arkansas rivers to Continental
Divi...
• The Monroe Doctrine
– fears of Russian expansion in the Western
Hemisphere prompted Monroe and
secretary of state, John ...
– a greater threat came when several
European powers decided to try to restore
Spain’s empire
– neither British nor Americ...
– U.S. would not interfere with existing
European colonies in North or South
America and would avoid involvement in
Europe...
• The Era of Good Feelings
– political factionalism diminished during
Monroe’s presidency, known as “Era of
Good Feelings”...
• New Sectional Issues: Protection,
Western Lands, Banking, Slavery
– War of 1812 and depression that struck
country in 18...
– eventually South rejected protectionism on
ground that tariffs increased price of
imports and hampered export of cotton ...
– a second Bank of the U.S. was established
in 1816, but it was poorly managed and
irresponsibly created credit
– easy cre...
– Congress abolished African slave trade in
1808 with little controversy
– new free and slave states were added to
Union i...
• Northern Leaders
– John Quincy Adams emerged as the best-
known northern leader of early 1820s
– began career as Federal...
– opposed Embargo Act, War of 1812, high
tariff of 1816, cheap land, internal
improvements, and initially opposed
Second B...
• Southern Leaders
– most prominent southern leader, William H.
Crawford of Georgia, was one of the first
politicians to t...
• Western Leaders
– Henry Clay’s “American System” reflected
his gift for seeing national needs from a
broad perspective
–...
– William Henry Harrison made his
reputation as soldier before entering
politics; had little impact on developing
politica...
• The Missouri Compromise
– Missouri’s request for admission as a slave
state touched off a serious political
controversy
...
– Senate defeated the amendment
– debate did not turn on morality of slavery
– Northerners objected to adding new slave
st...
• The Election of 1824
– politics continued to divide along sectional
lines, no issue divided country so deeply
as slavery...
• John Quincy Adams as President
– Adams took a Hamiltonian view and sought
to promote projects beneficial to national
int...
• Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest
– a new tariff in 1828 set high duties on
manufactured goods and agricultural
products
...
• The Meaning of Sectionalism
– the sectional issues that strained ties
between people of different regions were
products ...
TOWARD A NATIONAL
ECONOMY
• Gentility and the Consumer Revolution
– new attitudes toward material goods and
new ways of pr...
– in Europe, gentility was the product of
ancestry and cultivated style; in America,
possession of material goods largely
...
• America’s Industrial Revolution
– technology fueled the revolution in
manufacturing; spinning machines, cotton
gin, and ...
• Birth of the Factory
– Britain began mechanizing in 1770s,
bringing workers together in buildings
called factories and u...
– not long after, Boston Associates, a group
of merchants headed by Francis Cabot
Lowell, established Boston Manufacturing...
• An Industrial Proletariat?
– the changing structure of work widened
gap between owners and workers and
blurred distincti...
– America’s expanding economy provided
opportunities for workers to rise out of
working class and therefore prevented the
...
• Lowell’s Waltham System: Women as
Factory Workers
– the Boston Associates developed the
“Waltham System” of employing yo...
– by then young women had begun to find
work as schoolteachers and clerks
– Millowners turned to Irish immigrants to
opera...
• Irish and German Immigrants
– population of U.S. more than doubled in
the period from 1790 to 1820; growth
resulted almo...
– others sought religious or political freedom
– immigration stimulated the American
economy
– however, the influx of the ...
• The Persistence of the Household
System
– technological advances alone did not mean
the immediate advance of the industr...
• Rise of Corporations
– corporations provided a means to gather
capital
– in early days of nation, states chartered
only ...
• Cotton Revolutionizes the South
– South began to produce cotton to supply
textile factories of New England
– a high qual...
• Revival of Slavery
– slavery declined in decade of Revolution,
but racial prejudice blunted logic of
Revolution’s libert...
– some opponents of slavery hoped to solve
the “problem” of free blacks by establishing
colonies of freed slaves (usually ...
• Roads to Market
– advances in transportation played a crucial
role in settlement of West
– barges could bring goods down...
• Transportation and the Government
– most of improved highways and bridges
were built by private developers, who
charged ...
• Development of Steamboats
– rafts and flatboats could move downstream
only; the steamboat answered the problem
of moving...
• The Canal Boom
– Canals improved the network of
transportation
– although canals cost more to build than
roads, they wer...
• New York City: Emporium of the
Western World
– New York had already become the nation’s
largest city
– Erie Canal solidi...
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    1. 1. THE AMERICAN NATIONTHE AMERICAN NATION Eleventh Edition
    2. 2. BEGINNINGS • Passage to Alaska – Hunters moved north in Asia in search of large mammals – Around 12,000 B.C., hunters walk across Bering Strait into North America – Hunters arrived at the Great Plains and find lush grasslands and millions of large mammals
    3. 3. • The Demise of the Big Mammals – Clovis hunters develop long spears and stone blades for more effective hunting – The animal slaughter begins – Some histoians debate the role of the Clovis hunters in killing these mammals
    4. 4. • The Archaic Period: A World Without Big Mammals, 9000 B.C.-- 1000 B.C. – Absence of big mammals forces people to find new sources of food, clothing and shelter – The Archaic Period lasts for several hundred human generations – Bands of Archaic people migrated in search of food according to season – Some plant cultivation beings around 2500 B.C. The First Sedentary Communities, 1000 B.C. – Sedentary communities developed in
    5. 5. – Poverty Point, Mississippi: an important early sedentary community – Egalitarian social structure – Hopewell Mounds developed in Ohio and Illinois. • Corn Transforms the Southwest – The Aztec city of Teotihuacán: population near 100,000, paved roads, complex housing system – Gradual domestication of corn – importance of corn in culture – corn growing moves north to Mexican desert
    6. 6. • The Diffusion of Corn – Corn moved slowly through North America because of weather and labor demands of the crop – Hunting and gathering peoples slowly learned the necessity of agricultural labor • Population Growth After 800 A.D. – Corn stimulated population growth by improving physical health – Increased population caused people to clear more land, which in turn allowed for higher population – Trade system evolves
    7. 7. • Cahokia: The Hub of Mississippian Culture – By 1000 A.D., Cahokia had become a major center of trade, religion and politics – Vast and complex system of mounds and buildings – Sharp class divisions were present at Cohokja • The Collapse of Urban Centers – By 1200 A.D. most of the urban areas across North America were losing their populations
    8. 8. – Many corn-growing tribes also began a long period of warfare with each other • American Beginnings in Eurasia and Africa – The domestication of a variety of crops (wheat, oats, peas, olives, etc.) and animals spread through African and Eurasia – Disease wrought havoc on Eurasian populations
    9. 9. • Europe in Ferment – Growing population put pressure on resources of land which in turn caused political unrest – Shortage of tillable land created a large, wandering peasant class – Invention of movable type created communication revolution – By the 15th century, Europeans were sharply divided along class and education lines and wholly cut-off for the worlds across the Atlantic Ocean
    10. 10. ALIEN ENCOUNTERS: EUROPE IN THE AMERICAS • Columbus and the Discovery of America – Christopher Columbus reached the West Indies on October 12, 1492 – by the fifteenth century, western Europeans discover direct routes to the East – Prince Henry of Portugal sponsored improvements in navigation and voyages of exploration
    11. 11. • Spain’s American Empire – in 1493, Pope divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal – Portugal concentrated on Africa and Brasil – Spain concentrated on the Caribbean and Americas • The Indian and the European – European technological superiority, particularly in instruments of war, provided the tools for domination
    12. 12. • Relativity of Cultural Values – Europeans regarded as heathens because the did not worship the Christian God – most Indians were deeply religious – some Europeans believed Indians were minions of Satan, unworthy of Christianity – some, such as Spanish friars attempted to convert them – Indians exploited the land as Europeans did
    13. 13. – fished, hunted, & modified vegetation and wildlife – different approaches to land and government led to conflict – even in warfare, the two cultures differed – Indians fought to display valor, avenge insult, or to acquire captives – Europeans fought with the intent to obliterate the enemy
    14. 14. • Disease and Population Losses – Europeans brought with them diseases for which Indians had no immunities, particularly smallpox and measles – these diseases devastated Indian populations • Spain’s European Rivals – Spain dominated exploration of the Americas during 16th century due to its internal stability – but corruption over gold and silver began to erode this stability and the disruption of
    15. 15. • The Protestant Reformation – the sale of indulgences and the luxurious life-styles of popes led to a challenge by reformers such as Martin Luther and John Calvin – in England, Henry VIII’s search for a male heir led him to split from Rome when the Pope refused him a divorce
    16. 16. • English Beginnings in America – Queen Elizabeth supported the explorations of English joint-stock companies and encouraged privateers, such as Sir Francis Drake, to plunder Spanish merchant shipping – she supported colonization of New World – in 1587Sir Walter Raleigh settled Roanoke Island – after the Spanish Armada was destroyed, Spain could not stop English colonization of New World
    17. 17. • The Settlement of Virginia – London Company established first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown in 1607 – half the settlers died during first winter because of mismanagement, ignorance of environment, and scarcity of people skilled in manual labor and agriculture – London Company encouraged useless pursuits such as searching for gold rather than building a settlement
    18. 18. – settlement survived in part because Captain John Smith recognized the importance of building houses and raising food – aid from Native Americans – settlers’ realization that they must produce their own food and the introduction of tobacco as a cash crop saved the colony – James I revoked the company’s charter in 1624, and Virginia became a royal colony
    19. 19. • “Purifying” the Church of England – Under Elizabeth I, the Church of England became the official church – Elizabeth I’s “middle way” – Catholics who could not reconcile themselves left the country – others practiced their faith in private – other sects of Protestantism formed
    20. 20. – Puritans who objected to the rich vestments, the use of candles, and the use of music in services; Puritans’ belief in predestination also set them apart from the Anglican church – Some Puritans, later called Congregationalists, also favored autonomy for individual churches – Others, called Presbyterians, favored an organization that emanated up from the churches rather than down from the top – Puritan fears that James I leaned towards Catholicism further alienated them from the
    21. 21. • Bradford and Plymouth Colony – English Separatists set sail from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower to settle near the northern boundary of Virginia – since they were outside jurisdiction of London Company, they drew up the Mayflower Compact – a mutually agreed upon covenant that established a set of political rules – they elected William Bradford their first governor
    22. 22. • Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay Colony – a group of Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company – obtained a grant to the area between the Charles and Merrimack rivers – they founded Boston in 1630 – elected John Winthrop governor – founders established an elected legislature – voters and members of the legislature had to be members of the church – Under Charles I, Puritans were persecuted
    23. 23. • Troublemakers – Several groups dissented from the Massachusetts Bay colony – Roger Williams opposed alliance of church and civil government and championed the fair treatment of Indians – Banished from the colony, he founded the town of Providence and later established the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation
    24. 24. – Anne Hutchinson preached that those possessed of saving grace were exempt from rules of good behavior – General Court charged Hutchinson with defaming the clergy, brought her to trial, and banished her – Hutchinson and her followers left Massachusetts for Rhode Island in 1637
    25. 25. • Other New England Colonies – Congregations from Massachusetts settled in the Connecticut River valley – a group headed by Reverend Thomas Hooker founded Hartford in 1836 – their instrument of government, the Fundamental Orders – did not limit voting to church members
    26. 26. • French and Dutch Settlements – England was not alone in challenging Spain's dominance in the New World. – French planted colonies in the West Indies and, through the explorations of Cartier and Champlain, laid claim to much of the Saint Lawrence River area – Dutch also established themselves in the Caribbean and founded the colony of New Netherland in the Hudson Valley
    27. 27. • Maryland and the Carolinas – in 17th century, English colonization shifted to proprietary efforts – proprietors hoped to obtain profit and political power – Maryland was one of the first proprietary colonies – established under a grant to the Calvert family – Lord Baltimore hoped not only to profit but to create a refuge for Catholics
    28. 28. – Catholics remained a minority in the colony, and Baltimore agreed to the Toleration Act – guaranteed freedom of religion to all Christians – in what is now known as the Carolinas, proprietors, with the help of John Locke, drafted a plan of government called Fundamental Constitutions – two separate societies emerged in Carolina – north was poorer and more primitive – Charleston colony to the south developed an economy based on trade in fur and on
    29. 29. • The Middle Colonies – British eventually ousted the Dutch from New Amsterdam, which became New York – Quakers settled in New Jersey and Pennsylvania and there they drafted an extremely liberal constitution that guaranteed settlers freedom of conscience – William Penn, proprietor of Pennsylvania, treated the Indians fairly and permitted freedom of worship to all who believed in God; Penn’s ideas were more paternalistic than democratic
    30. 30. • Indians and Europeans as “Americanizers” – relationship between Native Americans and Europeans best characterized as interactive – Indians taught colonists how to grow food, what to wear, and new forms of transportation – Native Americans adopted European technology (especially weapons), clothing, and alcohol – out of the interaction between cultures
    31. 31. AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE MAKING • What Is an American? – Americans came from a variety of backgrounds – although they never completely abandoned their various heritages, they became different from their relatives who remained in Old World – Even the most rebellious seldom intended to create an entirely new civilization, but physical separation and a new
    32. 32. • Spanish Settlements in New Mexico and Florida – Franciscan friars shaped life in Spanish North America – Franciscans established strings of mission settlements along the upper reaches of the Rio Grande, in northern Florida, and along the coastal regions of present-day Georgia and South Carolina – friars instructed thousands of Indians in the rudiments of Catholic faith and taught them European agricultural techniques
    33. 33. – Franciscans exacted heavy price in labor from Indians – Indians built and maintained missions, tilled fields, and served friars; this treatment led to rebellions in many of the missions – although most rebellions were isolated and easily repressed – in 1680, the Pueblo Indians combined under a religious leader named Pope, razed the town of Santa Fe, and pushed Spaniards back to El Paso – by the 1690s, Spanish had regained
    34. 34. • The Chesapeake Colonies – southern colonies of English North America consisted of three regions: the Chesapeake Bay, the “low country” of the Carolinas, and the “back country” extending into the Appalachians – Not until the eighteenth century would common features prompt people to think of this as a single region
    35. 35. – although Virginia grew in decade after it became royal colony, death rate remained high – newcomers underwent a period of “seasoning,” or illness; those who survived developed immunities to the diseases of the region – life expectancy remained short, resulting in a society where living grandparents were a rarity – more often than not, before children reached maturity they had lost at least one parent; loss of both parents was not uncommon
    36. 36. • The Lure of Land – agriculture remained the mainstay of life in the Chesapeake and in the South – London Company saw little profit from agriculture, so it used land, its only asset, to pay off debts and to raise capital – availability of land attracted landless Europeans, many of whom could not afford passage
    37. 37. – thus a system of indentured servitude evolved to bring those with land and money together with those who wished to go to America – indentured servants worked for a period of years in exchange for their passage – those who survived the seasoning period and an often harsh period of servitude became free – many became landowners, but the best lands already belonged to large planters – ever-increasing need for labor and expense of meeting that demand with
    38. 38. • “Solving” the Labor Shortage: Slavery – first African blacks to arrive in America landed in Jamestown in 1619 – by about 1640, some, although certainly not all, blacks were slaves – racial prejudice and the institution of slavery interacted to bring about complete degradation of Africans in English colonies – although it spread throughout the colonies, slavery grew slowly at first – most colonists preferred white servants
    39. 39. – in the 1670s, improving economic conditions in England led to a slow flow of new servants – at the same time, slaves became more readily available – for a variety of reasons, indentured servitude gave way to slavery as a solution to the colonies’ need for labor
    40. 40. • Prosperity in a Pipe: Tobacco – unlike wheat, tobacco required no expensive plows to clear the land; it could be cultivated with a hoe – the crop required extensive human labor, but it produced a high yield and returned a high profit – the Tidewater region had many navigable rivers, and the planters spread along their banks
    41. 41. – the Chesapeake did not develop towns and roads because commerce traveled along the rivers – tobacco rapidly exhausted the soil, which worked to the advantage of larger agricultural units that could leave some fields to lie fallow
    42. 42. • Bacon’s Rebellion – distance from centers of authority made settlers in the Chesapeake difficult to subject to authority – a split developed between the ruling faction in Jamestown under Sir William Berkeley and settlers at the western edge of settlement – when Berkeley refused to authorize an expedition against Indians who had been attacking outlying settlements, western planters took matters into their own hands
    43. 43. – under Nathaniel Bacon, the westerners demonstrated a willingness to attack not only Indians but the governor as well – Bacon and his followers marched on Jamestown and forced Berkeley to grant them authority for further attacks on Indians – later they burned Jamestown – not long after, Bacon became ill with a “violent flux” and died – an English squadron then arrived and restored order
    44. 44. • The Carolinas – like their fellow colonists to the north, English and Scotch-Irish settlers in the Carolinas relied on agriculture – tobacco flourished in North Carolina – the introduction of Madagascar rice at the end of the 17th century provided South Carolina with a cash crop – in the 1740s, indigo was introduced into South Carolina
    45. 45. – the production of cash crops meant that the southern colonies could obtain manufactured goods and various luxuries from Europe – despite the obvious benefits of the situation, it prevented the development of a diversified economy in the southern colonies – slavery emerged early on as the dominant form of labor on South Carolina’s plantations – Blacks constituted a majority of the
    46. 46. – each colony promulgated regulations governing behavior of blacks, which increased in severity with the density of the black population – slaves came from different places and performed different tasks; there was no single “slave experience” – more skilled a slave, more difficult it became to prevent that slave from running away – few runaways became rebels – a few isolated reformers, mostly Quakers,
    47. 47. – even some Quakers owned slaves, and racial prejudice was common even among Quakers • Home and Family in the Colonial South – except for the most affluent planters, life in the southern colonies was primitive and uncomfortable – houses were small; furniture and utensils were sparse and crudely made – clothing for most was rough and, because soap was expensive, usually unwashed
    48. 48. – women only rarely worked in the fields, but their duties included tending animals, making butter and cheese, pickling and preserving, spinning, and sewing – women also cared for their own and often orphan children as well – education in the South was less widespread than in New England – in the early 18th century only a handful of planters achieved real affluence – these large planters controlled politics
    49. 49. – the spread-out population made it difficult to support churches – in spite of its standing as the official religion with the support of public funds, the Anglican church never became a powerful force in the South – in this society, social events such as births, marriages, and funerals were great occasions
    50. 50. • Georgia and the Back Country – this region included the Great Valley of Virginia, the Piedmont, and Georgia – Georgia was founded by a group of philanthropists in London, who conceived the idea of taking honest persons imprisoned for debt and resettling them in the New World
    51. 51. – the idealistic regulations governing the colony swiftly fell into disuse – Georgia developed an economy similar to South Carolina’s – settlers began to settle farther inland – in North Carolina, a dispute over representation in the assembly led to a pitched battle between frontiersmen and troops dispatched by the assembly – the Regulators, as the frontiersmen called themselves, were crushed and their leaders executed
    52. 52. • Puritan New England – New England enjoyed several advantages over the southern colonies, for example: – Boston had a dependable supply of water – the terrain and climate made for a much healthier habitat.
    53. 53. • The Puritan Family – the Puritans brought more supplies with them than other colonists, which helped ease their adjustment – in addition to supplies, Puritans brought a plan for an ordered society – Central to that plan was a covenant, an agreement to bind individuals to the group – Puritan families were nuclear and patriarchal
    54. 54. • Puritan Women and Children – mortality among infants and children was lower in New England than in the Chesapeake – few families escaped the loss of a child – the outbreak of the English Civil War ended the Great Migration – thereafter, high birthrate and low mortality rate accounted primarily for growth of the colony – as a result, the population of New England was more evenly distributed by age and sex than in colonies to the south
    55. 55. – Women’s childbearing years extended over two decades – social standards required that husbands rule over wives and that parents rule over children – children were expected to take on duties of adults at an early age, and liberal use of corporal punishment ensured strict discipline – older children might be sent to live with another family or apprenticed to a
    56. 56. • Visible Saints and Others – Puritans believed that church membership should be a joint decision between the would-be member and the church – obvious sinners were rejected out of hand – with the Great Migration, large numbers of applicants enabled the churches to restrict membership to “visible saints”
    57. 57. – a decade later, new conditions led to a reconsideration – fewer than half of all adults in New England were church members by the 1650s, and many young people refused to submit to the zealous scrutiny necessary for membership – growing numbers of nonmembers led to problems: – could they be compelled to attend churches? – could they be taxed but not allowed to vote?
    58. 58. – if baptism were restricted to church members and a majority of the community did not qualify, the majority of people would be living in a state of original sin – the solution was the Half-Way Covenant, which provided for limited membership for any applicant not known to be a sinner who would accept the church covenant
    59. 59. • Democracies Without Democrats – the colonies were largely left to govern themselves – in spite of seemingly repressive laws passed by the governments of Massachusetts and Connecticut, primary responsibility for maintaining order rested with the towns of the region
    60. 60. • Dedham: A “Typical” Town – in 1635, the heads of thirty households from Watertown established a new town at Dedham – they set up a form of representative government and a church; structure of government permitted all male adults who subscribed to the covenant to vote – but was colonial New England democratic? – most male New Englanders could vote
    61. 61. – they tended to elect men from the wealthiest; most established levels of the community – many voters did not bother to vote, because many offices were uncontested
    62. 62. • The Domini