3nd part final
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  • Groups formed militias for self protection which gradually grew and overtook the Lebanese army in strength and size

3nd part final 3nd part final Presentation Transcript

  • Timeline: Civil War Catalysts
    • 1958: Arab Nationalism Culminates in the Summer of 1958 Rebellion; the Lebanese Government Benefits from US Intervention
    • 1969: Agreement Between the Lebanese Government and the PLO Permits the PLO to Supervise Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon
    • 1970: After Black September, Raids by the PLO into Israel and Subsequent Retaliation Begin
    • 1970s: Muslims (Especially the Shi’a) Called for a Redraft of the Constitution According to Demographic Changes
    • 1974: PLO’s Activities Inspired the Shi’as, Who Form the Amal Movement in 1974 to Promote Their Political and Economic Status: ‘Movement of the Dispossessed’ (Later to Become Hezbollah)
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  • Regions of Lebanon Shia Maronite & Druze Sunni Shia
  • Intra-Lebanon Division of Labor Core-Periphery Relationship
  • Socio-Economic Gaps
    • In the 1950s, the Middle and Upper Class Captured 80% of the National Income.
    • the Poor and Very Poor (50% of the Population) Garnered 18% of Lebanon’s Income.
    • The Richest 4% Earned 33% of the Income.
    • A Middle Class Emerged in Beirut and the Mount; Class Distinctions were more Evident in Landlord-Dominated Rural Areas.
    • Sectarian Implications
    • Poverty Levels Today: (Living Conditions Index)
    Place Low Intermediate High Beirut 18.4 38.7 43.0 Beirut Suburbs 24.7 43.6 31.7 Remaining Mount 43.8 37.6 18.7 Lebanon North 36.9 44.7 18.4 Lebanon South 51.0 39.8 9.3 Nabatieh 40.6 43.3 15.9 Bekaa 32.1 41.6 26.4
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  • Beirut: “Jewel in the Crown of the Empire” Empire”
  • Beirut: Economic Divides
  • North-South Divide
  • Summer of 2006: BBC Photos
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/06/in_pictures_beirut_to_southern_lebanon/html/1.stm
  • Current status
    • Elections and attempts to create stability since the Civil War
    • Talif Accord (1989) gave equal christian-Muslim representation in parliament; consolidated the power of the Sunni Prime Minister and Sunni Prime Minister and Shiite Speaker at the expense of the Maronite President
    • The last president stood down in November 2007 after parliament failed to agree on a successor
    • BBC news clip http://www.bbc.co.uk/mediaselector/check/player/nol/newsid_7100000/newsid_7108600?redirect=7108638.stm&news=1&bbwm=1&bbram=1&nbwm=1&nbram=1&asb=1