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SAMT09 - Web of Data Tutorial - Part 2
 

SAMT09 - Web of Data Tutorial - Part 2

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    SAMT09 - Web of Data Tutorial - Part 2 SAMT09 - Web of Data Tutorial - Part 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia Part 2: Linked Multimedia Bernhard Haslhofer, Bernhard Schandl, Andreas Langegger, Wolfgang Halb, Tobias Bürger 1 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Agenda   Multimedia Interlinking: Concept + Vision   Multimedia Annotations   Enriching Personal Media Collections 2 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Multimedia Interlinking   Concept and Vision of a Web of Video Data   Applying the Linked Data principles to multimedia content   W3C Video on the Web activity   Fragment Identification   Media Annotation 3 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Vision of a Web of Video Data   Aim: Make video an integral part of the Web in which users can seamlessly consume and create videos   Requirements:   Deep Linking: timed URIs   Metadata: Time-aligned annotations & tags   Search-ability: Searching media using text   Dynamic composition of video mashups   Discoverability: Hyperlinking from inside media to other Web resources   Share-ability: Integrated handling of metadata with the content   Personalisation: Dynamic composition of media web content cf. Silvia Pfeiffer “Architecture of a Video Web - Experience with Annodex” W3C Video on the Web workshop, 13.12.2008 4 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Why? Source: Cisco's Global Consumer Internet Traffic Forecast, Cisco, 2009 5 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Example 1: Where is Danny? 6 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Example 2: Who is Jack?   Region-based annotation in Flickr   Cannot be taken outside of Flickr   Can only be accessed via the Flickr API 7 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Example 3: Complex Query 1.  show me photos of actors participating in the SHINING movie visiting a country in Europe   LinkedMovieDB: list of actors participating in SHINING-: [L- ACT]   Geonames: list European countries -: [L-EC]   Google: list photos taken in a country of [L-EC] -: [L-ECP]   Google: in [L-ECP] find regions that depict members of [L- ACT] -: result 2.  give me a summary of all scenes from arbitraty videos where actors talk to a film producer 8 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Linked Data: Current State of Practice   Linked Data currently mostly applied for textual resources (cf. LOD cloud)   If any media resources are interlinked then on a global level (cf. BBC)   Some communities demand for methods to link on a more fine grained level (cineasts, biologists, etc.) [Schroeter and Hunter, 2007] 9 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Problems   How to address and retrieve parts of multimedia content (e.g., a region of an image, sequence of a video)   How to describe parts of multimedia content in the Web of Data? cf. M. Hausenblas, R. Troncy, T. Bürger, and Y. Raimond “How to apply Linked Data principles to multimedia fragments” Proceedings of LDOW 2009, 2009. 10 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Interlinking Multimedia (iM) 1.  Apply linked data principles for fine-grained identification and description of multimedia fragments -> W3C Media Fragments WG 2.  Describe multimedia content -> W3C Media Annotations WG 3.  Deploy legacy multimedia metadata formats on the Web of Data -> ramm.x 4.  Develop specialized interlinking methods for multimedia   User-contributed, game-based interlinking   Collaborative interlinking, cf. MetaVidWiki   (Semi-)automatic methods: Multimedia analysis 11 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Media Fragments WG Goal Provide URI-based mechanisms for uniquely identifying fragments for media objects on the Web, such as video, audio, and images. Credits: Slides about Media Fragments WG by the Media Fragments WG. 12 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Media Fragments: Use Case and Requirements   Document: http://www.w3.org/2008/WebVideo/Fragments/wiki/ Use_Cases_&_Requirements_Draft   Link to, Display, Bookmark, Annotate, Search, etc. media fragments   Type of fragments: four dimensions considered   time ([point?] interval), space ([point?] rectangle), track and id (named fragment)   Protocols covered: HTTP(S), RTSP 13 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Technological Survey   Media Fragments URI already present on the Web ... but with very different syntax and behaviour   Google Video: (#50m16s)   YouTube: (#t=1m45s)   Archive.org powered by TemporalURI: (?t=74.5 )   Videosurf: (?t=140&e=184)   Microsoft IIS 7.0: (Fragments(video=20000000))   Other time-clipping and spatial clipping methods:   MPEG-21: time, space, track, id (mp(/CD/track/~time(%27npt %27,%270%27,%2760%27))   SVG: space (svgView(14.64,15.73,146.98,147.48))   SMIL: time (clipBegin, clipEnd), space (panZoom, area), media markers   MPEG-7: time, space, modality 14 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Media Fragments 1.0   Syntax   http://www.example.com/movie.mov#t=12.33,21.16   http://www.example.com/ movie.mov#t=smpte-25:00:12:33:06,00:21:16:00   http://www.example.com/movie.mov#xywh=20,20,40,40   http://www.example.com/movie.mov#xywh=pixel:20,20,40,40   http://www.example.com/movie.mov#track='audio1'   http://www.example.com/movie.mov#id='the%20kiss%20scene'   http://www.example.com/ movie.mov#track='audio2'&t=12.33,21.16 15 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Media Annotation WG: Purpose 16 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Media Annotations WG: Core Ontology   Goal: to develop a simple lingua franca 17 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Bringing Legacy Metadata to the Web of Data: ramm.x   Problem: How to make existing multimedia metadata in legacy formats (e.g., MPEG-7) available on the Semantic Web?   Aim: To deploy existing legacy metadata in HTML documents and by that integrate external descriptions in a RICO by reference.   Ramm.X uses RDFa, formalisations of metadata standards, and the Ramm.X vocabulary to deploy multimedia metadata. 18 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Interlinking Methods 1.  Automatic Interlinking 2.  Emergent Interlinking x 3.  User Contributed Interlinking UCI 4.  Game based Interlinking GBI x Quality AI EI x x # Annotations Time 19 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • References   Michael Hausenblas, Raphael Troncy, Tobias Bürger, and Yves Raimond "Interlinking Multimedia: How to Apply Linked Data Principles to Multimedia Fragments" In: Proceedings of Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2009), co-located with the 18th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2009), Madrid, Spain, 2009   WonSuk Lee, Tobias Bürger, Felix Sasaki, Véronique Malaisé, Florian Stegmaier, and Joakim Söderberg (eds.) "Ontology for Media Resource 1.0" W3C Media Annotation Working Group, W3C Working Draft 18 June 2009, 2009.   Raphaël Troncy, Erik Mannens, Michael Hausenblas, Jack Jansen, Yves Lafon, Silvia Pfeiffer, and Davy van Deursen "Media Fragments URI 1.0" W3C Working Draft 18 November 2009, 2009.   Silvia Pfeiffer “Architecture of a Video Web - Experience with Annodex” W3C Video on the Web workshop, 13.12.2008, 2008. 20 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • What’ll come next   Multimedia annotations: The LEMO framework   Enriching personal media collections 21 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia Part 1: Linked Open Data: Vision, Concepts and Technologies Bernhard Haslhofer, Bernhard Schandl, Andreas Langegger, Wolfgang Halb, Tobias Bürger 22 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Agenda   Introduction   Multimedia Interlinking   Producing Linked Data   Multimedia Annotations   Existing Data Sets   Enriching Personal Media Collections   Linking Data   Consuming Linked Data 23 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Many interpretations   An annotation is…   … a remark, explanation, or interpretation added to the original document   … a means to make implicit structures explicit   … a datum created by a third party that can take the form of a written note, a symbol, a drawing, or a multimedia clip   ...   There are different interpretation of the term Annotation in different domains 24 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 25 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Many solutions 26 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Many solutions 27 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • What is LEMO?   A Web-based, multimedia annotation framework   Consisting of   A semantic backend-end storage   Front-ends for image, audio, and video annotations   Online Demo at: http://dme.arcs.ac.at/annotation/econnect- annotation-showcase.html 28 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Driving requirements   Objects to be annotated are multimedia   Need a uniform data model, no content-type specific solution   Annotations often address specific content parts (fragements)   Need a uniform fragment identification approach   Shift towards the Web   Do no lock annotation data in closed data stores but…   Expose annotation data as Linked Data on the Web (following the Linked Data Principles) 29 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Driving Requirements   Reuse of existing standards   (Semantic) Web Standards   URI, HTTP, RDF, RDF/S, OWL   RESTful Web Service Design   Annotea data model & protocol   Xpointer, MPEG21, SVG, etc. for fragment identification 30 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Why not use Annotea as it is?   Annotea is for the annotation of Web pages; LEMO should also support annotation of embedded content items   Annotea doesn’t assign datatypes to its properties; LEMO uses OWL’s (data)typing features   Annotea doesn’t support multimedia fragment identification; LEMO uses MPEG-21 (multimedia) fragment identification 31 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • A Uniform Annotation Model   annotation profiles; cf. application profiles for metadata interoperability   an Annotea-based core model   with content- and annotation-type specific model extensions   implemented as light-weight software components (add-ons) 32 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • A Uniform Annotation Model 33 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • A Uniform Annotation Model 34 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Uniform Fragment Identification   introduce a fragment element with URI range   follow MPEG-21 media pointer scheme   an annotation can define multiple fragments   URI-encoding of fragments   minimal consensus   content-type specific extensions 35 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Uniform Fragment Identification 36 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Uniform Fragment Identification 37 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Annotations as Web Resources 38 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Annotations as Web Resources 39 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • References   The LEMO Annotation Framework (paper)   http://www.cs.univie.ac.at/upload//550/papers/ lemo_framework_final.pdf   The LEMO Annotation Framework (code)   http://europeanalabs.eu   Open Annotation Collaboration   http://www.openannotation.org/ 40 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Agenda   Introduction   Multimedia Interlinking   Producing Linked Data   Multimedia Annotations   Existing Data Sets   Enriching Personal Media Collections   Linking Data   Consuming Linked Data 41 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Enriching Personal Media Collections 42 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Goal   to raise problem awareness for personal semantic multimedia   to introduce the basic concepts of semantic personal information management   to introduce recent research and tools from the semantic desktop community   to indicate overlaps and potential for cross- fertilization 43 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • The Web   The World Wide Web is designed for humans, not machines.   Automatic information processing is hard.   But at least, there is a common technology infrastructure (URIs, HTTP, HTML, browsers, etc.).   This is a solid basis to build upon: the Semantic Web and Linked Data reuse and extend the human-centric Web. 44 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • The Desktop   On your desktop, this problem is even worse:   No unified identification of data items.   No standardized, simple communication protocol.   No agreed, open representation format for data.   No means to store and retrieve semantic annotations. 45 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • How does your desktop look like?   files   emails   documents   contacts   media   ...   at most: fulltext search ... which doesn’t work well for multimedia data  46 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • … organize Invitation E-Mail meeting in Belfast … Time Schedule Attendee Dirk Belfast Weather Meeting Agenda 47 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • How are data organized?   Hierarchical structures (aka data silos) for files, emails, bookmarks, applications, ...   Separate organization metaphors for contacts, calendars, communication, ...   Multimedia data: media-dependent metadata (look at your music player or your photo manager), locked away in files or in application-specific data bases.   The walled personal information garden ... 48 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 49 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Personal Multimedia   For the organization of multimedia data, metadata is key.   How to manage your personal metadata? 50 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • The Semantic Desktop   The vision of the Semantic Desktop is to create an infrastructure for the management of meaningful metadata about resources that covers the entire personal sphere of information.   In fact, the Semantic Desktop is your personal Semantic Web. 51 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • How?   assign globally unique, immutable URIs to all resources.   collect / store / index resource descriptions and relations between resources.   provide uniform access to these descriptions.   integrate these descriptions into applications and make use of them.   social semantic desktop: share and communicate personal resources. 52 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Why?   The Semantic Desktop reflects the user’s Personal Information Model — i.e., the user’s view on their data.   This allows tools to deliver information when it is actually needed. 53 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Topic Project … organize Invitation E-Mail meeting in Management CID Belfast … Time Schedule Attendee Dirk Belfast Weather Meeting Agenda 54 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • What can the Semantic Desktop deliver?   Contextualized, semantic search   find information more efficiently   Similarity metrics and recommendations   show the user what they already have in their data space   Data analysis and information extractions   understand and interpret what is there 55 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • What can the Semantic Desktop deliver?   Semantic Tagging   relate things and concepts   Semantic Personal Wikis   useful notetaking and semistructured resource description   User Interfaces   faceted search, drag+drop annotations, etc. 56 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Recent Research Projects   NEPOMUK (EU FP6) [Gro07]  has (amongst others) defined a reference architecture and ontologies for the representation of personal information  reference implementation (desktop service), based on Java/Eclipse  goal: infrastructure for existing OS  integration in KDE 4  raised significant public awareness (2 times slashdotted) 57 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Commercial Break   Results from NEPOMUK and other projects are commercialized, have a look at www.gnowsis.com 58 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Recent Research Projects  Haystack [Kar07]  has presented a new metaphor for interacting with data  dynamically assembled user interfaces  dynamically assembled workflows and data conversions  basically an OS modeled in RDF 59 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Many more   DeepaMehta   DBin   Chandler   Semex   iMeMex   IRIS   X-COSIM   ... 60 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Semantic Desktop Infrastructure   SemDAV [Sch09]   combines aspects from the Semantic Web and file systems into a unified data model   provides storage and query mechanism for semantic files   provides virtual file system access for file-based applications   provides an API for “semantic” applications   provides file browser-like user interaction metaphors 61 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 62 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Semantic Desktop Infrastructure   TripFS [Sch09a]  exposes a file system as Linked Data  assigns immutable URIs to files and traces file system modifications  extracts metadata from files and exposes them as RDF  provides a SPARQL endpoint over the file system  links files to external data sources (e.g., MusicBrainz, ACM, ...) 63 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 64 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Semantic Desktop Infrastructure   Aperture [Sau06]  a generic framework for extraction of metadata from digital resources  provides extractors, crawlers, monitors, ... for different kinds of data sources (e.g., file system, email, web pages, web services, ...)  can be extended and customized  open-source 65 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Semantic Desktop Infrastructure   Nepomuk-KDE  core components from NEPOMUK (resource identification, triple store, ontologies) have been integrated in KDE 4 and are now part of the standard distribution.  first implemented application: tags, comments and ratings for files  much more to follow (e.g., Gwenview image viewer, Bangarang media player,...) 66 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 67 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 68 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 69 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 70 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 71 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • 72 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • Summary   The Semantic Desktop is highly relevant for the management of personal media collections — metadata is key!   It is there! – just use it.   Questions? bernhard.schandl@univie.ac.at 73 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • References & Credits   [Gro07] Tudor Groza et al., The NEPOMUK Project – On the Way to the Social Semantic Desktop. Proc. I- Semantics 2007   [Kar07] David Karger, Haystack: Per-User Information Environments Based on Semistructured Data, in: Beyond the Desktop Metaphor, MIT Press, 2007.   [Sch09] Bernhard Schandl et al., The Sile Model — A Semantic File System Infrastructure for the Desktop. Proc. ESWC 2009 74 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009
    • References & Credits   [Sch09] Bernhard Schandl, TripFS: Exposing File Systems as Linked Data. Triplification Challenge 2009.   [Sau06] Leo Sauermann et al., Semantic Desktop 2.0: The Gnowsis Experience. Proc. ISWC 2006 75 SAMT 2009 – Tutorial Web of Data in the Context of Multimedia (WoDMM) Graz, Austria - 2 Dec 2009