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  • 1. Metadata is back!Bernhard Haslhofer - Cornell UniversityJCDL 2011 - Semantic Web Technologies for Libraries and Readers WorkshopOttawa, CanadaThursday, June 16th 2011
  • 2. Book Example <img src="catcher-in-the-rye-book-cover.jpg" /> The Catcher in the Rye - Mass Market Paperback by <a href="/author/jd_salinger.html">J.D. Salinger</a> Price: $6.99 In Stock Product details 224 pages Publisher: Little, Brown, and Company - May 1, 1991 Language: English ISBN-10: 0316769487
  • 3. Book Example<div itemscope itemtype=""> <img itemprop="image" src="catcher-in-the-rye-book-cover.jpg"/> <span itemprop="name">The Catcher in the Rye</span> -  <link itemprop="bookFormat" href=" Paperback">Mass Market Paperback by <a itemprop="author" href="/ author/jd_salinger.html">J.D. Salinger</a> <div itemprop="offers" itemscope itemtype=" Offer">  Price: <span itemprop="price">$6.99</span>  <meta itemprop="priceCurrency" content="USD" />  <link itemprop="availability" href="">InStock <link itemprop=”url” href=” The_Catcher_in_the_Rye”> </div> ...</div>
  • 4. The story so far...
  • 5. Library Catalogue Controlled Vocabulary (c) Vienna University Library Metadata(c) Bill Steele/Cornell Chronicle Identifier (c) Vienna University Library
  • 6. OPACMetadata Controlled Vocabulary Identifier
  • 7. WWW / Wikipedia / Search EnginesIdentifier?Metadata?Controlled Vocabulary?
  • 8. getMetadata(Web): void
  • 9. Semantic Web - Early Vision "Mom needs to see a specialist and then has to have a series of physical therapy sessions. Biweekly or something. Im going to have my agent set up the appointments." “The Semantic Web will bring structure to the meaningful content of Web pages, creating an environment where software agents roaming from page to page can readily carry out sophisticated tasks for users” “For the semantic web to function, computers must have access to structured collections of information and sets of inference rules that they can use to conduct automated reasoning.”~2000 2011
  • 10. Semantic Web Technologies User Interface & Applications Trust Proof Unifying Logic Ontology: Rules: RIF Query: OWL SPARQL RDF-S Crypto Data Model: RDF XML URI Unicode~2000 2011
  • 11. RDFa & Microformats • Mechanisms to embed structured metadata in Web pages • Define and/or reuse (X)HTML attributes to augment information in Websites with machine-readable semantics~2000 2011
  • 12. RDFa Example <div xmlns="" xmlns:rdf="" xmlns:rdfs="" xmlns:v=""> <div about="" typeof="v:VCard"> <span property="v:fn">Bernhard Haslhofer</span> <span property="v:nickname">behas</span> <div rel="v:adr"> <div typeof="v:Address v:Work"> <span property="v:street-address">301 College Avenue</span> <span property="v:locality">Ithaca</span>, <span property="v:postal-code">14850</span>, <span property="v:country-name">United States</span>. </div> </div> <a rel="v:email" href=""></a>. </div> </div>~2000 2011
  • 13. Microformats Example <div class="vcard"> <span class="fn">Bernhard Haslhofer</span> <div class="adr"> <div class="street-address">301 College Avenue</div> <span class="locality">Ithaca</span> <span class="postal-code">14850</span> <span class="country-name">United States</span> </div> <a class="email" href=""></a> </div>~2000 2011
  • 14. Linked Data • There is lots of information on the Web • ... valuable information that can be (re-)used • Problem • information is usually expressed in the form of HTML documents • the underlying raw data are locked in closed data silos (mostly DBMS)~2000 2011
  • 15. Why Linked Data? • The Web is successful because it provides • Uniform encoding (HTML) • Uniform addressing (URI) • Uniform transportation (HTTP) for the exchange of documents. • Why not apply the same mechanism to the underlying data?~2000 2011
  • 16. What is Linked Data? • A pragmatic method to build a Web of Data • Architectural style based on SW standards • Intelligent agents not primary focus Web~2000 2011
  • 17. Publishing Data • Distinguish between non-information and information resource • Sample non-information resource • • Sample information resource • - HTML • - RDF~2000 2011
  • 18. Retrieving Linked Data~2000 2011
  • 19. Microdata (HTML5) • A very young HTML 5 proposition that extends Microformats and addresses its shortcomings • Items are created within an itemscope • Ever item is assigned an arbitrary number of properties (itemprop) • Uses global identifiers for typing and naming items~2000 2011
  • 20. Microdata Example<div itemscope itemtype=""> <span itemprop="name">Bernhard Haslhofer</span>, <span itemprop="nickname">behas</span>. <div itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype=""> <span itemprop="street-address">301 College Avenue</span> <span itemprop="locality">Ithaca</span> <span itemprop="country-name">United States</span> </div></div>~2000 2011
  • 21. Google Rich Snippets / SEO~2000 2011
  • 22. Facebook~2000 2011
  • 23. Facebook~2000 2011
  • 24. 2011
  • 25. technical / conceptual complexity User Interface & Applications Trust Proof Unifying Logic Ontology: Rules: RIF Query: OWL SPARQL RDF-S Crypto Data Model: RDF XML URI Unicode RDFa Microdata Microformats~2000 2011
  • 26. Where are we now?
  • 27. (c)
  • 28. What next?
  • 29. Deal with with• Ignore it?• Adopt it?• Align existing library models with• provides an extension mechanism for • properties • classes
  • 30. Data Quality / Resource Sync• The Web is not static• Resources and their representations might change or disappear over time• Make sure that • applications can synchronize resources and learn about changes • go back in time
  • 31. Use Web Data in Apps• Aggregate Web resources into special collections• DBpedia provides resource descriptions translated into 90+ languages!!!• Use URIs instead of labels for tagging• Combine and mesh up data• Analyze data ...
  • 32. Summary
  • 33. Metadata is back• Metadata was introduced in the 19th century to deal with the information overload• Cataloguing rules and workflows evolved over time• The Web seemed to work pretty well without metadata (info retrieval, nat.lang processing)• Now we have strong indicators that structured metadata on the Web will play an important role in future• Shouldn’t libraries / librarians be part of that?
  • 34. References• Coyle, K.: Library Data in a Modern Context. In: Understanding the Semantic Web: Bibliographic Data and Metadata. Library Technology Reports. January 2010• (Linked Data in Libraries State-of-the-Art)
  • 35. BACKUP
  • 36. Metadata Building Blocks class relationship Schema Definition Language property Metadata Schema Title Author Genre Title The Catcher in the Rye Metadata Author Salinger, J.D. Genre Fiction (Digital / Non-Digital) Information Object
  • 37. Google Rich Snippet Types • Reviews • People • Products • Businesses and organizations • Recipes • Events~2000 2011
  • 38.
  • 39. Facebook~2000 2011
  • 40. Microformats RDFa flat namespace XML namespaces support HTML4, XHTML 1.1, and support for XHTML 1.1 HTML 5 use latent HTML attributes introduces new metadata attributes vocabulary defined by one open to any RDF-based vocabulary organization/communitycp.: 2011
  • 41. Publishing Data GET Accept: application/rdf+xml 303 See Other Location: GET Accept: application/rdf+xml 200 OK ... <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <rdf:RDF ...~2000 2011