Ujian compre

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Ujian compre

  1. 1. Lingustics ==> scientific study of languageMain branches of lingustics :1. Morphology = study of words formation2. Phonetics = study of speech sounds / how speech sounds are made3. Phonology = study of sounds pattern or system of language / how speech sounds are used to convey meaning4. Pragmatics = study of language meaning in context5. Syntax = study of sentences structure / how the words combineto form a grammatical sentences6. Semantics = study of language meaninglanguage : the system that uses some physical sgn (gesture, sound, mark)to express meaning for communicationPhonetics and phonology are related, dependent fields for studying aspects of language.Phonetics is the study of sound in speech; phonology is the study (and use) of soundpatterns to create meaning. Phonetics focuses on how speech is physically created andreceived, including study of the human vocal and auditory tracts, acoustics, andneurology. Phonology relies on phonetic information for its practice, but focuses on howpatterns in both speech and non-verbal communication create meaning, and how suchpatterns are interpreted. Phonology includes comparative linguistic studies of howcognates, sounds, and meaning are transmitted among and between human communitiesand languages.Example: just  dʒ stDefinition of language:A language is an arbitrary system of articulated sounds made use of by a group ofhumans as a means of carrying on the affairs of their society (Francis,1958:13).From the definition above , it can be known: 1. Language is systematic. 2. Language is basically oral, and that the oral symbols represent meaning related to life situations and experiences 3. Language has a social function and without it society would not exist.Linguistics is the scientific study of language.It deals with a particular body of material: spoken and written language.Linguistics is divided into five main branches, they are: 1. Phonetics
  2. 2. 2. Phonemics 3. Morphemics 4. Syntax 5. Semantics1. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics dealing with sound features or qualities and their arrangement into speech sounds, or phones.2. Phonemics is a branch of linguistics dealing with phones and their arrangement into groups or families , called phonemes.3. Morphemics is a branch of linguistics dealing with speech sounds and their arrangement into meaningful groups called morphs. It is also concerned with the arrangement of these morphs into family called morphemes and their combination of morphemes into words.4. Syntax is a branch of linguistics dealing with syntactic structures which are called phrases, clauses, and sentences.5. Semantics is a branch of linguistics dealing with the study of meaning of language.Drama: the taming of the screw, hamlet, king learProse: Possessing or exhibiting unpoetical characteristics; plain; dull; prosaic; as, theprose duties of life.Poetry:Poetry is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, andrhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. Poetry has been knownto employ meter and rhyme, but this is by no means necessary.“Fire and Ice”Complete TextSome say the world will end in fire,Some say in ice.From what I’ve tasted of desireI hold with those who favor fire.But if it had to perish twice, 5I think I know enough of hateTo say that for destruction iceIs also greatAnd would suffice.Summary
  3. 3. The speaker considers the age-old question of whether the world will end in fire or in ice.This is similar to another age-old question: whether it would be preferable to freeze todeath or burn to death. The speaker determines that either option would achieve itspurpose sufficiently well.A grammar which puts together the patterns of the language and the things you can dowith them is called a functional grammar.Systemic Function Linguistics views language as a resource for making meanings. Thismay mean that every single utterance of language is used to communicate meanings ormessages. In this view the meanings relate to (1) the construal of the inner and outerworld of experience, (2) the interaction with language, and (3) the organization of theinner and outer world of experience and the interaction with language.An utterance, therefore, has those three meanings: ideational or experiential meaning,interpersonal meaning and textual meaning. These three meanings are known asmetafunctions.Sociolinguistics means the study of how the people around you and your heritage canchange the way you speak. (noun)An example of sociolinguistics is a study of Spanish and English being spoken togetheras Spanglish.Psycholinguistics is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enablehumans to acquire, use, and understand language.It is concerned with the relationship between the human mind and the language as itexamines the processes that occur in brain while producing and perceiving both writtenand spoken discourse.for example, as non-invasive techniques for studying the neurological workings of thebrain become more and more widespread, neurolinguistics has become a field in its ownright. Psycholinguistics covers the cognitive processes that make it possible to generate agrammatical and meaningful sentence out of vocabulary and grammatical structures, aswell as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, text, etc.semiotic The theory and study of signs and symbols, especially as elements of languageor other systems of communication, and comprising semantics, syntactics, andpragmatics. It is the study of how meaning is created, not what it is. Below are some brief
  4. 4. definitions of semiotic terms, beginning with the smallest unit of meaning and proceedingtowards the larger and more complex:Maher goes to Bunta Island. He arrived there tomorrow.The word he and there is deixis.He refers to Maher, there refers to Bunta Island.The development of language in children. the process of learning a native or Secondlanguage acquisition (also known as second language learning or sequential languageacquisition) refers to the process by which a person learns a "foreign" language--that is, alanguage other than his or her mother tongue.Example:"For children, acquiring a language is an effortless achievement that occurs:- without explicit teaching,- on the basis of positive evidence (i.e., what they hear),- under varying circumstances, and in a limited amount of time,- in identical ways across different languages.Varieties language: Linguists commonly use language variety (or simply variety) as acover term for any of the overlapping subcategories of a language, including dialect,idiolect, register, and social dialect.Ex: "[A] variety can be regarded as a dialect for some purposes and a language forothers, and casual ambivalence about such matters is common worldwide.Discourse analysis: The study of the ways in which language is used in texts andcontexts. See also: Conversation Analysis Discourse Discourse Marker
  5. 5. Rhetoric[Discourse analysis] is not only about method; it is also a perspective on the nature oflanguage and its relationship to the central issues of the social sciences.mood, theme/rheme, metafunction,sociolinguistics,phsycholinguistics dan semiotic.Cari meaning dan contohnya!

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