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Sales And Distribution Management



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  • 1. Sales and Distribution Management Dr. Prashant Mishra [email_address]
  • 2. Nature of Personal Selling
    • Most salespeople are well-educated, well-trained professionals who work to build and maintain long-term relationships with customers.
    • The term salesperson covers a wide spectrum of positions from:
      • Order taker (department store salesperson)
      • Order getter (someone engaged in creative selling)
      • Missionary salesperson (building goodwill or educating buyers)
  • 3. What is Personal Selling?
    • Involves Two-Way, Personal Communication Between Salespeople and Individual Customers Whether:
      • face to face,
      • by telephone,
      • through video conferencing,
      • or by other means.
  • 4. The Role of the Sales Force
    • Personal selling is effective because salespeople can:
      • probe customers to learn more about their problems,
      • adjust the marketing offer to fit the special needs of each customer,
      • negotiate terms of sale, and
      • build long-term personal relationships with key decision makers.
  • 5. The Role of the Sales Force Sales Force Serves as a Critical Link Between a Company and its Customers Since They: Represent Customers to the Company to Produce Customer Satisfaction Represent the Company to Customers to Produce Company Profit
  • 6. Characteristics of Personal Selling
    • Flexibility
    • Identify best prospects
    • Adapt to situations
    • Engage in dialogue
    • Builds Relationships
    • Long term
    • Assure buyers receive appropriate services
    • Solves customer’s problems
  • 7. Personal Selling Limitations
    • Can not reach mass audience
    • Expensive per contact
    • Numerous calls needed to generate sale
    • Labor intensive
  • 8. Personal Selling Tasks
    • Order taking
    • Routine
      • writing up orders
      • checking invoices
      • assuring prompt order processing
    • Suggestive selling
  • 9. Personal Selling Tasks
    • Order getting
    • Seeking out customers
    • Creative selling
    • Pioneering
    • Account management
  • 10. Personal Selling Tasks
    • Missionary
      • Detailer
      • Goodwill
      • “ Closers”
    • Cross-functional
    • Account service rep
  • 11. Some Traits of Good Salespeople Self-Confidence Initiative Persistence Enthusiam Job Commitment
  • 12. Step 1. Prospecting and Qualifying Steps in the Selling Process Step 2. Pre-approach Step 3. Approach Step 4. Presentation/ Demonstration Identifying and Screening For Qualified Potential Customers. Learning As Much As Possible About a Prospective Customer Before Making a Sales Call. Knowing How to Meet the Buyer to Get the Relationship Off to a Good Start. Telling the Product “Story” to the Buyer, and Showing the Product Benefits.
  • 13. Steps in the Selling Process Step 5. Handling Objections Step 6. Closing Step 7. Follow-Up Seeking Out, Clarifying, and Overcoming Customer Objections to Buying. Asking the Customer for the Order . Following Up After the Sale to Ensure Customer Satisfaction and Repeat Business.
  • 14. Alternative Steps: Find ’em Grab ‘em Show ‘em Answer ‘em Sell ‘em Keep ‘em
  • 15.
    • Identify and Qualifying Prospects
    • Prospecting: Identifying likely new customers
      • Leads
    • Qualifying: Evaluating a prospect’s potential
    Creative Selling Process
  • 16.
    • Approaching the Prospect
    • Contact
    • Rapport
    • “Only one chance to make a first impression”
    Creative Selling Process
  • 17.
    • Sales Presentation
    • Persuasive communication
    • Attention
    • Interest
    • Desire
    • “Tell the product’s story”
    Creative Selling Process
  • 18.
    • Handling Objections
      • Questions
      • Reservations
    • Understand Concern
    • Counterarguments
    • Acknowledge concern
    • Clues to process
    Creative Selling Process
  • 19.
    • Closing the Sale
    • Closing signals
    • Trial close
    • Ask for the sale
    Creative Selling Process
  • 20.
    • Following Up
    • Commitments met
      • Shipment
      • Performance
    • Reinforce relationship
    • Satisfied customers rebuy & recommend
    Creative Selling Process
  • 21. Sales Management Setting objectives Organizing activities Recruit, select, train, develop, manage, & motivate Motivate, evaluate, & control Planning Organizing Directing Controlling
  • 22. Organizing Sales Activities
    • Sales Territor y:
    • Geographic divisions
    • Customer types
    • Product lines
    • Selling task
  • 23. Geographic Division Sales Rep California Sales Rep Pacific NW Sales Rep Southeast Sales Rep Northeast District Sales Manager District Sales Manager District Sales Manager District Sales Manager Regional Sales Manager Regional Sales Manager Vice-President Marketing
  • 24. Customer Type New Account #1 New Account #2 Existing Account #1 Existing Account #2 New Accounts Manager Existing Accounts Manager Vice-President Sales
  • 25. Product Line Sales Rep Eastern Region Sales Rep West’n Region Sales rep Eastern Region Sales Rep West’n Region Snack Foods Sales Manager Beverages Sales Manager Vice-President Sales
  • 26. Directing the Sales Force
    • Recruiting and selecting
    • Training & develop
    • Compensating
    • Motivating
  • 27. Compensation Methods Straight salary or wage Salary plus commission Straight commission Commission with draw Quota-bonus plan
  • 28. Evaluation and Control
    • Required reports
    • Measurement against plan or sales standards
    • Expense control
    • Productivity
    • New account development
  • 29. Ethical Issues
    • Kickbacks, bribes and “gifts”
    • Price discrimination
    • Cheating on expense accounts
    • Misrepresentation
  • 30. Distribution Channel Design and Management
  • 31. Distribution’s Function
    • The major purpose of marketing is to satisfy human needs by delivering products of various types to buyers when and where they want them and at a reasonable cost.
    • The “when and where” is the function of Distribution
  • 32. What is a Distribution Channel?
    • A set of interdependent organizations (intermediaries) involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user.
    • Marketing Channel decisions are among the most important decisions that management faces and will directly affect every other marketing decision.
  • 33. Why are Marketing Intermediaries Used?
    • The use of intermediaries results from their greater efficiency in making goods available to target markets.
    • Offer the firm more than it can achieve on it’s own through the intermediaries:
      • Contacts,
      • Experience,
      • Specialization,
      • Scale of operation.
    • Purpose: match supply from producers to demand from consumers.
  • 35. Distribution Channel Functions Ordering Payments Communication Transfer Negotiation Financing Risk Taking Physical Distribution Information
  • 36. Typical Channels of Distribution ANUFACTURER ONSUMER HOLESALER ETAILER GENT
  • 37. Business-to-Business Channels Direct Wholesaler Agent
  • 38. Business-to-Business Channel Trends Disintermediation Infomediaries & Vertical Exchange
  • 39. Conventional Distribution Channel vs. Vertical Marketing Systems Vertical marketing channel Manufacturer Retailer Conventional marketing channel Manufacturer Wholesaler Consumer Consumer Retailer Wholesaler
  • 40. Types of Vertical Marketing Systems Corporate Common Ownership at Different Levels of the Channel Contractual Contractual Agreement Among Channel Members Administered Leadership is Assumed by One or a Few Dominant Members
  • 41. Vertical Marketing Systems
    • Corporate systems - total ownership
    • Administered - strong leadership
    • Contractual - legal relationships
  • 42. Planning the Channel of Distribution
    • Determining the structure
      • Marketing mix strategy
      • Organizational resources
      • External environmental factors
      • Market characteristics
      • Consumer preferences and behavior
      • The nature and availability of Intermediaries
      • Other environmental factors
  • 43. Customers’ Desired Service Levels
    • Lot size
    • Waiting time
    • Spatial convenience
    • Product variety
    • Service backup
  • 44. Steps in Distribution Planning
  • 45. Choosing a Distribution System Intensive Distribution Exclusive Distribution Selective Distribution Distribution Intensity
  • 46. Intensive Distribution
    • Seeks to obtain maximum product exposure at the retail level
    Producer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer
  • 47. Selective Distribution Product is sold in a limited number of outlets Producer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer Retailer
  • 48. Exclusive Distribution Product is sold in only one outlet in a given area Producer Retailer
  • 49. Developing Distribution Tactics Selecting Channel Partners Reward or Coercive Power Legitimate Power Economic Power Managing the Channel of Distribution Channel Leader Power Distribution Channels & the Marketing Mix
  • 50. Physical Distribution Materials Handling Moving Products Into, Within, and Out of Warehouses Warehousing Number Needed Where What Type Inventory Control When to order How much to order Order Processing Received Processed Shipped Physical DistributionFunctions Transportation Rail, Water, Trucks, Air, Pipeline, Internet
  • 51. Transportation Modes Rail Cost-effective for shipping bulk products, piggy-back, fishyback, birdyback. Water Low cost for shipping bulky, low-value, non perishable goods, slowest form. Truck Most important carrier for consumer goods, flexible. Air High cost, ideal when speed is needed or distant markets have to be reached Pipeline Carry petroleum based products, very low cost, requires little energy. Internet Web sites have products available, used especially for services.
  • 52. Channel Relationships
    • Cooperation
    • Conflict
    • Power
      • Coercive
      • Expert
      • Legitimate
  • 53. Decision Making Framework Do nothing Look for opportunities to reassure threatened channel and leverage your power Low (Smoke) Allow threatened channel to decline Act to avert or address conflict High (FIRE) Importance of threatened channel in terms of current or potential volume or profitability High Low Prospects of Destructive Conflict
  • 54. Channel Conflict: Identifying Threats
    • First, are the channels really attempting to serve the same end users?
    • Second, do channels mistakenly believe they are competing when in fact they are benefiting from each other's actions?
    • Third, is the deteriorating profitability of a griping player genuinely the result of another channel's encroachment?
    • Fourth, will a channel's decline necessarily harm a manufacturer's profits?
  • 55. Managing Channel Conflict
    • Differentiate the Channel offer
    • Define Exclusive Territories
    • Enhance or Change the Channels Value
  • 56. Managing Channel Conflict
    • Change the channels economic formula: (Grant rebates if an intermediary fulfill certain requirements; Adjust margins between products to support different channel economics; and Treat channels fairly to create level playing field)
    • Create Segment Specific Programs (certain services not available via direct channels)
    • Complement value proposition of the existing channel by introducing a new channel
    • Foster consolidation among intermediaries in a declining channel
  • 57. Managing Channel Conflict
    • Leverage Power (eg. Strong Brand) against the channel to prevent retaliation
    • Migrate volume to winning channel
    • Back off
  • 58. Other Distribution Management Issues
    • Reverse distribution
    One Coca Cola Distributor One thousand retailers OK Difficult
    • Ethical, Political, & Legal