Functional genomics = TheFunctional genomics = The
ability to perform genome-ability to perform genome-
wide patterns of genewide patterns of gene
expression and theexpression and the
mechanisms by which genemechanisms by which gene
expression is coordinated.expression is coordinated.
Genome = The completeGenome = The complete
complement of an organism’scomplement of an organism’s
genes; an organism’s geneticgenes; an organism’s genetic
Genome sizes and theGenome sizes and the
Numbers of Genes.Numbers of Genes.
DNA microarrays can beDNA microarrays can be
used to detect differences inused to detect differences in
the levels gene expression inthe levels gene expression in
different populations of cellsdifferent populations of cells
on a genome-wide level.on a genome-wide level.
Gene expression = A gene’sGene expression = A gene’s
ability to make a geneability to make a gene
Most genes code for proteinsMost genes code for proteins
(protein encoding genes) that(protein encoding genes) that
when expressed, produce awhen expressed, produce a
gene-specific protein.gene-specific protein.
DNA MicroarraysDNA Microarrays
A small 1 square centimeter chip that’s divided into
thousands of squares.
Each square contains many copies of a single gene.
Originally developed by Patrick Brown at the Stanford
University School of Medicine to determine which genes
are involved in yeast cell sporulation.
Applications of DNAApplications of DNA
microarray analysis.microarray analysis.
Genes that are involved in the development of an
Genes that are activated as a family of genes (gene
Genes that are involved in human cancers.
Earlier diagnosis of human cancers
Example of a cancer subtype determined via DNAExample of a cancer subtype determined via DNA
microarray analysismicroarray analysis..
Two subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
One group of tumor cells expressed a large group of
genes that are involved in early B cell development.
Another group of tumor cells expressed a large group of
genes that are involved in late B cell development.
Cancer subtypes.Cancer subtypes.
Physicians can determine which cancer subtype a patient
has and can predict patient survival chances.
Companies are trying to develop alternative drug
treatments for cancer subtypes that are not responsive to