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Microarray technology

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  • 1. Microarray technology
  • 2. Functional genomics = TheFunctional genomics = The ability to perform genome-ability to perform genome- wide patterns of genewide patterns of gene expression and theexpression and the mechanisms by which genemechanisms by which gene expression is coordinated.expression is coordinated.
  • 3. Genome = The completeGenome = The complete complement of an organism’scomplement of an organism’s genes; an organism’s geneticgenes; an organism’s genetic material.material.
  • 4. Genome sizes and theGenome sizes and the Numbers of Genes.Numbers of Genes.
  • 5. DNA microarrays can beDNA microarrays can be used to detect differences inused to detect differences in the levels gene expression inthe levels gene expression in different populations of cellsdifferent populations of cells on a genome-wide level.on a genome-wide level.
  • 6. Gene expression = A gene’sGene expression = A gene’s ability to make a geneability to make a gene product.product. Most genes code for proteinsMost genes code for proteins (protein encoding genes) that(protein encoding genes) that when expressed, produce awhen expressed, produce a gene-specific protein.gene-specific protein.
  • 7. DNA MicroarraysDNA Microarrays  A small 1 square centimeter chip that’s divided into thousands of squares.  Each square contains many copies of a single gene.  Originally developed by Patrick Brown at the Stanford University School of Medicine to determine which genes are involved in yeast cell sporulation.
  • 8. Applications of DNAApplications of DNA microarray analysis.microarray analysis.  Genes that are involved in the development of an organism.  Genes that are activated as a family of genes (gene expression profiling).  Genes that are involved in human cancers.  Earlier diagnosis of human cancers
  • 9. Example of a cancer subtype determined via DNAExample of a cancer subtype determined via DNA microarray analysismicroarray analysis..  Two subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.  One group of tumor cells expressed a large group of genes that are involved in early B cell development.  Another group of tumor cells expressed a large group of genes that are involved in late B cell development.
  • 10. Cancer subtypes.Cancer subtypes.  Physicians can determine which cancer subtype a patient has and can predict patient survival chances.  Companies are trying to develop alternative drug treatments for cancer subtypes that are not responsive to current drugs.