Industrial areas in Mumbai1. Sai udyog industrial estate, Mira Bhayander2. Kandivali industrial estate, charkop3. Taloja i...
19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as asource of light as without apipeline infrastructure, it was diff...
NUCLEAR1997-98 55 35 7 2 12001-02 50 32 15 2 12006-07 50 32 15 2 12010-11 53 3014 2 12024-25 50 25 20 2 3Source: India Hyd...
Polyethylene Pipes: The pipes are installed at a safe and secure depth. It provides low-pressure gas (110 mBAR) to individ...
Gas Distribution. 8. GAIL GAS: It is a wholly owned subsidiary of GAIL (India)Limited. 9. ADANI GAS: ADANI GAS is a wholly...
future growth to create a master database of Demand centers. Optimization & Planningof CGD network considering feasibility...
can involve high maintenance cost and poor burner-tip efficiency. CGD companies canleverage the high calorific value aspec...
natural gas in India would be in the larger interest of the consumers, and also benefit themarket development of natural g...
basis. 4. Provide basis for resolution of disputes.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com24. 24 Biblio...
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Industrial areas in mumbai

  1. 1. Industrial areas in Mumbai1. Sai udyog industrial estate, Mira Bhayander2. Kandivali industrial estate, charkop3. Taloja industrial estate4. Vaibhav industrial estate, Andheri east5. Ghatkopar industrial estate6. Badlapur industrial estate7. Dombivali industrial estate8. Kalyan industril estate9. Ambernath10. Dombivali11. Ulhasnagar12. Bhiwandi13. Panvel14. KhargharTypes of major industries in these industrial estatesManufacturing, chemicals, textiles, pharmaceuticals, forging, paints, petrochemicals, resins.Fuel used by these industriesFurnace oil, LPG, Electricity, Coal, Diesel1. 1 Report on CGD Business: in India School of Petroleum Management, Gandhinagar,Gujarat, India Prepared by Executive-MBA-2010 student: AbhikTushar Das (20104001)Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com2. 2 Contents: Contents: S No. Topic Page Number 1 Natural Gas facts 3 2 Overview ofCGD business in India 4 3 CGD Infrastructure 8 4 Natural Gas Transportation Network11 5 Supply Chain in CGD 13 6 Project Management aspects 15 7 Market Development17 8 Customer Service issues 18 9 Major Commercial Issues 19 10 QHSE in CGD 20 11CGD Regulation 21Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com3. 3 Natural Gas facts: Natural Gas facts:Natural gas (also called Marsh Gas, Swamp Gasor Landfill Gas) is a naturallyoccurring gas mixture as a result of the decay of plant/animal remains,consists primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higherhydrocarbons(primarily ethane). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, incoalbeds, as METHANE CLATHRATES, and is an important fuel source and amajorfeedstock for fertilizers.Most of the natural gas that is brought out from under theground is millionsand millions of years old. Britain was the first country tocommercialize the useof natural gas. Around 1785, natural gas produced from coal wasused to lighthouses, as well as streetlights. The American natural gas industry gotitsbeginnings in this area in 1859, when Colonel Edwin Drake (a formerrailroadconductor who adopted the title Colonel to impress the townspeople) dug thefirstwell to hit oil and natural gas at 69 feet below the surface of the earth.During most of the
  2. 2. 19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as asource of light as without apipeline infrastructure, it was difficult to transportthe gas very far, or into homes to beused for heating or cooking. In 1885,Robert Bunsen invented what is now known as theBunsen burner. Hemanaged to create a device that mixed natural gas with air in therightproportions, creating a flame that could be safely used for cooking andheating. Oneof the first lengthy pipelines was constructed in 1891 which was120 miles long, andcarried natural gas from wells in central Indiana to the cityof Chicago.Based on the typeof source Natural gas is classified as associated and non-associated gas and there is of nosignificance when end use is concerned. 1. Associated gas is natural gas found in crudeoil reservoirs either dissolved or in conjunction with crude oil deposits and it is alsocalled as Oil well gas 2. Non-associated gas is Natural gas found in reservoirs separatefrom crude oil wells and it is also called as Dry gasBased on the sulphur content thenatural gas is classified as sour gas whichcontains higher level of sulphur content in itscomposition and sweet gas hasWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com4. 4very little or nil sulphur. The thermal efficiency varies from 9000 to 13500K.calper Kg based on the composition of Gas.Natural Gas Transportation modes: Throughpipelines as gas Through tankers as liquid (LNG)Natural Gas Distribution modes:For industrial/ house hold consumers (PNG) For transport vehicles(CNG)Approximate Composition of NG:Name Chemical Formula Composition(%)Methane CH4 70-90%Ethane C2H6 0-20%Propane C3H8Butane C4H10CarbonDioxide CO2 0-8%Oxygen O2 0-0.2%Nitrogen N2 0-5%Hydrogen sulfide H2S 0-5%Rare gases A, He, Ne, Xe traces Overview of CGD business in India:Ministry ofPetroleum & Natural Gas established the Petroleum and NaturalGas Regulatory Board(PNGRB) with effect from 01.10.2007, under thePetroleum and Natural Gas RegulatoryBoard Act 2006, to regulate therefining, processing, storage, transportation, distribution,marketing and saleof petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas excludingproduction ofcrude oil and natural gas. The Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory BoardAct-2006 provides the legal framework for the development of the natural gaspipelinesand city or local gas distribution networks. With the arrival of theWednesday, 21December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com5. 5PNGRB the implementation of PNG in various cities is being taken up in aphasedmanner as and when the bids are called for by the Regulator.Gas supply sources in India:1. APM (Administered Pricing Mechanism) Gas from traditional fields of State PSU(Public Sector Undertakings) 2. KG (Krishna Godavari) Basin gas from private players 3.CBM (Coal Bed Methane) gas 4. RLNG (Re-gasified Liquefied Natural Gas)importsLargest Gas producing countries: 1. United States = 19.3% 2. Russia = 18.4% 3.Canada = 5.0% 4. Iran = 4.3% 5. Qatar = 3.6% 6. Norway = 3.3% 7. China = 3.0% 8.Saudi Arabia = 2.6% 9. Indonesia = 2.6% 10.Algeria = 2.5%, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com6. 6India is the 7th largest energy producer, the 4th largest primary energyconsumer andthe 13th largest Natural Gas consumer in the world. Hence it isevident that India lacksgas usage in its energy basket. According to the IndiaHydrocarbon Vision 2025, thecontribution of Natural Gas in the Indian energybasket shall grow to a significant25%.Share of future energy supply in India (%)YEAR COAL OIL GAS HYDEL
  3. 3. NUCLEAR1997-98 55 35 7 2 12001-02 50 32 15 2 12006-07 50 32 15 2 12010-11 53 3014 2 12024-25 50 25 20 2 3Source: India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025SUPPLY/DEMAND-NATURAL GASMMSCMD (in million standard cubic meters per day)YEARSDEMAND1999-2000 1102001-2002 1512006-2007 2312011-2012 3132024-2025391Source: India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com7. 7Gas demand break-up:As evident from the trend, City Gas has a huge upside potentialbased onGovernment of India’s Hydrocarbon Vision-2025 and the existing fuel mix inourenergy basket. The infrastructure development for transporting the gasfrom well head/regassification terminals to the end user involves laying of GasHighways which arecapital intensive and hence have long gestation periods.Moreover, with Durban ClimateChange talks moving towards a substantialoutcome, India being the fourth largest GHGemitter in absolute terms wouldface emission cut targets by 2020. Switching over tocleaner fuel would helpIndia achieve reduction in Carbon footprints.Subsidy on LPG(cooking fuel) is another contentious issue concerning thenational exchequer withsubsidy bills denting the fiscal deficit targets.Substituting LPG (Liquefied PetroleumGas) by PNG (Piped Natural Gas) wouldWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com8. 8reduce the Governments subsidy burden and help market price realization forcookingfuel. Natural Gas would also reduce dependence on Kerosene andFirewood as source ofcooking fuel which have high carbon emissions. CGD Infrastructure:CGD ValueChain:CNG stations are of four major types depending upon the structure andoperations:1. CNG Mother Stations: Mother Stations are connected to the pipeline and have highcompression capacity. These stations supply CNG to both vehicles and daughter stationsthrough mobile cascades 6 . The Mother Station requires heavy investment towardscompressor, dispensers, cascades, pipelines etc. 2. CNG Online Station: CNG vehiclestorage cylinders need to be fitted at a pressure of 200 bars. Online stations are equippedwith a compressor of relatively small capacity, which compresses low-pressure pipelinegas to the pressure of 250 bars for dispensing CNG to the vehicle cylinder.Wednesday,21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com9. 9 3. CNG Daughter Station: The Daughter Stations dispense CNG using mobilecascades. These mobile cascades at daughter stations are replaced when pressure falls andpressure depleted mobile cascade is refilled at Mother Station. The investment is leastamong all types of CNG stations. 4. CNG Daughter-Booster Station: Installing a boostercompressor can eliminate drawbacks of daughter stations. The mobile cascade can beconnected to the dispensing system through a booster. Daughter booster is designed totake variable suction pressure and discharge at constant pressure of 200 bars to thevehicle being filled with CNG. Pipeline pressure Specifications Main transmission gridline pressure (High Pressure System) = 14‐19 bar, Steel Distribution/Service line pressure(Medium Pressure System) = 4 to 1.5 bar, MDPE Domestic connection pressure (LowPressure System) = 21 mbar, GISupply pressure (large commercial consumer) 2 barSupply pressure (small commercial 300 mbar consumer) Wednesday, 21 December 2011Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com10. 10 LMC: Last Mile ConnectivityGas Supply System Comprises of: 1. The ServiceRegulator: It is housed in a grey metal kiosk, which reduces the gas pressure from 4 BARto 110 mBAR and ensures the flow of gas at constant pressure at all time. 2. Buried
  4. 4. Polyethylene Pipes: The pipes are installed at a safe and secure depth. It provides low-pressure gas (110 mBAR) to individual buildings. 3. The Riser Pipe (GI pipe): This is anexternal connection on the building to each apartment. Each Riser Pipe (GI pipe) has aRiser Isolation Valve. 4. The Meter Control Valve: Fitted in the entrance of the house /flat, this valve is between the riser pipe and your meter. 5. The Meter Regulator: Installedbefore the meter, the meter regulator reduces the gas pressure from 110 mBAR to 21mBAR 6. The Appliance Valve: This valve switches on/off the gas to burningappliance.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com11. 11 Natural Gas Transportation Network:Natural Gas is transported in two ways;Through Pipelines (gaseous mode) Through compressed cylinders (liquidmode)According to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubicfeet(TCF) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2011. EIA estimates thatIndiaproduced approximately 1.8 TCF of natural gas in 2010, a 63 percentincrease over 2008production levels. The bulk of Indias natural gas productioncomes from the westernoffshore regions, especially the Mumbai Highcomplex, though recent developments offields in the Krishna-Godavari (KG)basin. Currently trunk lines installed are around11000 KM (300MMSCMD)mainly in northern and western India by GAIL =67%,RGTIL =14% andGSPL=11%, OIL/Gujarat gas =8%.Major Gas Pipelines in India:1.EAST WEST PIPELINE (EWPL): 1385 kilometers2. HAZIRA-BIJAIPUR-JAGDISHPUR (HBJ): 3397 kilometers3. DAHEJ-VIJAIPUR PIPELINE (DVPL): 770kilometers4. DAHEJ-HAZIRA-URAN PIPELINE (DUPL): 500 kilometers5. GujaratGas Grid: 1550 kilometersGAIL owns and operates over 8000 km of pipeline and hasabout 2/3rd marketshare in the Natural Gas business in India. Other players includeRGTIL andGSPL with a combined pipeline network of 3000 kilometers. However thereisimmense scope of growth in this sector with the ambitious Gas HighwayProjectconnecting the east coast and the west coast with the hinterland.Wednesday, 21December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com12. 12Future expansion plans: Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) plans to add 6,663kilometers of pipelines by FY13. RELIANCE GAS TRANSPORTATIONINFRASTRUCTURE (RGTIL) plans to add 2,875 kilometers of pipelines. GUJARATSTATE PETRONET (GSPL) aims to add around 800 kilometers of pipelines to itsexisting capacity in Gujarat.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com13. 13 Supply Chain in CGD:CGD Companies in India: 1. MAHANAGAR GASLIMITED (MGL): MGL is a joint venture between GAIL (India) Ltd, the BG Group,(U.K.) and the Government of Maharashtra. 2. SABARMATI GAS LIMITED (SGL):Sabarmati Gas, a retail joint venture between Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) andGujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC). 3. INDRAPRASTHA GAS LIMITED(IGL): IGL is a joint venture between GAIL and Bharat Petroleum. 4. AAVANTIKAGAS LIMITED (AGL): AGL is a Joint Venture company of GAIL (India) Limited andHindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL). 5. BHAGYANAGAR GASLIMITED (BGL): BGL is promoted by GAIL (India) Limited and Hindustan PetroleumCorporation Limited (HPCL) 6. CENTRAL UTTAR PRADESH GAS LIMITED(CUGL): GUGL is a joint venture between GAIL (India) Limited and Bharat PetroleumCorporation Limited. 7. CHAROTAR GAS (Cooperative Company): CHAROTAR GASSAHAKARI MANDALI LTD is the first Co-Operative Sector in India in area of City
  5. 5. Gas Distribution. 8. GAIL GAS: It is a wholly owned subsidiary of GAIL (India)Limited. 9. ADANI GAS: ADANI GAS is a wholly owned subsidiary of the ADANIENTERPRISE LTD (AEL). 10. GUJARAT GAS COMPANY LIMITED (GGCL):GGCL was originally promoted by the Gujarat government and the Mafatlal Group.BGWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com14. 14 Group acquired a majority stake (65.12%) in GGCL in 1997 and plan to exit in2011-12. 11. GUJARAT STATE PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED (GSPCGAS): GSPC GAS is a wholly owned subsidiary of the GSPC Group. 12. GREEN GASLIMITED: Green Gas is a joint venture between GAIL (India) Limited and Indian OilCorporation Limited. 13. HARYANA CITY GAS DISTRIBUTION LIMITED (HCG):HCG is a company promoted by SKN- BENTEX group of Industries. 14.MAHARASHTRA NATURAL GAS LIMITED (MNGL): MNGL is a closely heldcompany promoted by BPCL and GAIL with Govt. of Maharashtra. 15. TRIPURANATURAL GAS COMPANY LIMITED (TNGCL): TNGCL is a joint venture of TIDCLtd. [A Govt. of Tripura undertaking], AGCL [A Govt. of Assam undertaking] andGAIL.As is evident from the list, GAIL and BPCL/ HPCL/ IOCL are JV partners inallCGD ventures till date. This is done to ensure supply security of Gas ataffordable ratesas opposed to sourcing from spot LNG markets which couldjack up gascosts.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com15. 15 Project Management aspects:Project Management for City Gas networks wouldconsist of setting up of; 1. Gas Transportation Network 2. Gas DistributionNetworkAspects of Project Management associated with; a. Transportation: Planning ofIntegrated pipeline network development for connecting major consumer centers such asSpecial Economic Zones (SEZ’s), Industrial units, Power plants, Fertilizer units andcommercial establishments including related investigations. GIS/GPS/Remote Sensingbased Feasibility studies for identification of Route for laying cross country pipelines.GIS based Route optimization studies considering factors such as Terrain, LandDevelopment, Environment clearance, Ease of Construction, Land cost, Accessibility forO&M, pipeline Economics and other constraints. Preliminary 3D analysis of pipelinecorridors using latest satellite stereo images, generation of Alignment Sheets, Cadastralmapping including generation & management of ownership details. DetailedHydrological Studies for pipeline crossing locations of water bodies including majorrivers with firm recommendations regarding depth of pipeline burial. Stability analysisincluding slope protection works on turnkey basis (EPC) for laying pipeline in highlyerosive type of soil, GHAT regions & hilly terrains. Project Management ConsultancyServices (PMC) for pipeline construction involving Quality Monitoring, ProgressMonitoring, Certification of bills and close out reports. IT enabled project monitoringapplications for Quality measures including online/web progress reportingsystems.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com16. 16 WEB based Asset Management - Design and development of web application tosupport activities in the area of engineering, construction, Health-Safety-Environment(HSE) and Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of pipelines. b. Distribution:Development of accurate Base maps and GIS database using high resolution satelliteimageries for showing present and future development to facilitate prioritization ofdevelopment of Gas distribution network. Study of Demand and Supply by undertakingfield survey and interaction with all concerned statutory bodies including projection of
  6. 6. future growth to create a master database of Demand centers. Optimization & Planningof CGD network considering feasibility of laying pipeline from the availability ofcorridor (by scanning for foreign utilities using GPR/pipe locator), Ease of construction,O&M, Disaster management and Environmental impact. Preparation of corridormapping, Identification of various statutory authorities and ownership along theidentified pipeline corridor including preparation of necessary proposals and obtainingnecessary clearance/approval (ROW: Right-of-Way and ROU: Right-of-Use). Designof CGD network including optimization, selection of suitable material and finalization ofthickness including preparation of Bill-of- Quantity (BOQ) and Tender documentsFloating of tenders, bid evaluation and appointment of contractors Trenchlesstechnology for laying pipeline in Dense Urban area including renovating old pipelines.Project Management Consultancy Services (PMC) for CGD network constructioninvolving Quality Monitoring, Progress Monitoring, Certification of bills and close outreports. IT enabled project monitoring applications including for Quality measures,online/web progress reporting systems. WEB GIS solution for City Gas Distributionoperation & maintenance - Design and development of web application to manage citygasWednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com17. 17 distribution enterprise geo database with functions to support Marketing,Engineering and O&M. Market Development:The CGD Market consists of gasconsumers whose gas usage is less than 0.5MMSCMD and hence can be classified as; 1.Automobile users refilling CNG in vehicles: Natural gas replaces conventional fuels likeGasoline and Diesel which demand a modified engine design for adapting to the change.The market development in this segment would depend upon Government’s subsidypolicies on Diesel as well as international crude oil prices which would influence thebuyer sentiments. The cost of conversion (CNG kit installation) also plays a major role inconsumer demand for the fuel as is the availability of Gas in remote destinations. 2.Domestic PNG User for cooking and heating purposes: Domestic LPG is highlysubsidized by the Government of India and is delivered to the consumer in filledcylinders. As cylinders can be stored, LPG offers reliability of supply as well as low costof ownership. Natural Gas cannot be stored in cylinders and hence is routed to thecustomer through a network of Gas pipelines up to the point of usage. Since laying of gaspipelines involve high fixed costs, the whole cost is unfeasible to be borne by the Gascompany. Hence the consumer needs to share the cost burden which acts as a disincentiveas against LPG ownership costs. 3. Commercial establishments like Hotels, garages,restaurants etc: Commercial establishments are supplied with LPG at an unsubsidizedrate. These establishments use moderately higher volumes of gas as compared todomestic users. Frequent changing of cylinders pose logistical challenges to theseestablishments in terms of costs and availability of gas. But India is dominated byunorganized retail wherein supplying PNG to roadside food vendors is not feasible.Hence policies framed by Government and local bodies (Municipalities) would help indeveloping markets for CGD companies in this sector.Wednesday, 21 December 2011Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com18. 18 4. Small and Medium Enterprises (SME): Small-scale factories offer the mostlucrative business opportunity for CGD companies. These establishments thrive onDiesel/ Fuel Oil for heating their furnaces and incur huge logistical cost of storage. Someprocesses which demand clean fuel opt for commercial LPG which is costly. Use of FO
  7. 7. can involve high maintenance cost and poor burner-tip efficiency. CGD companies canleverage the high calorific value aspect of gas and can promote near- zero emissions formarketing their product.Though gas can substitute existing fuels, affordability remains akey issue. Withspot-LNG rates peaking by the day, the cost of ownership for gasusersbecomes high and hence unfeasible. Support from financial institutions andCGDcompanies are required to incentivize businesses to switch over fromtraditional fuels to amore efficient and clean fuel. Moreover internationalregulations in the form of emissiontargets (KYOTO Protocol) can aid the gasbusiness. Customer Service issues:Customersare most valuable for any businesses, hence identifying andaddressing customer serviceissues is of paramount importance. The mainareas of concern for a CGD customer can belisted as; 1. Quality of Gas: The calorific value of Gas determines the quality of gas. Thelower the calorific value more volume of gas would be required to get the desired amountof heat energy. The quality of gas in a CGD network depends upon the HHV (HighHeating Value), LHV (Low Heating Value) and the WOBBE Index. The gas quality alsodepends upon the share of non-combustibles (Nitrogen, CO2, H2S, and inert gas) in thegas. The customer needs to be convinced that the gas quality at the burner- tip is optimumto the price paid. 2. Safety of equipment: Natural Gas being highly combustible can be asource of potential hazard if not handled adhering to safety precautions. CNG is stored athigh pressures and hence equipments need to be builtWednesday, 21 December 2011Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com19. 19 conforming to safe design standards. Consumers need to be assured of safeworking of equipments and round-the-clock emergency support. 3. Reliability of supply:As Natural Gas cannot be stored, the supply reliability has to be 100%. Any disruptionsin supplies can result in direct impact on business operations which could lead to losses.In case of CNG, refilling time has to be minimized to attract potential customers.Serpentine queue’s at refilling station is a common sight which dissuades automobileusers to switch over to Gas. 4. Billing issues: Erroneous metering can result in over/under billing which could be detrimental to customer sentiments. As gas cannot be easilymeasures (against LPG/ Oil which can be weighed/ measured) the consumer relies on thequality of meters supplied by the CGD Company. Regular calibration of meters wouldreduce billing errors and installing smart meters would help CGD companies avoid issuesof meter tampering. Major Commercial Issues: As demand for Natural Gas increases,CGD companies are faced withcommercial challenges such as; 1. Sourcing of cheap gas:Due to high price differential between APM/ non-APM/ RLNG, CGD companies need tofix long term purchase contracts to ensure consistent prices of supplies as well as to avoidfrequent tariff revisions which dissuades consumer buying attractiveness. 2. Deliverycontracts: CGD companies need to ensure robust contracts to avoid take-off failureswhich lead to under-utilization of its network capacity. Take-or-pay contracts withaccurate nomination are essential to determine the consumer usage pattern whichprevents supply/ delivery shocks.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com20. 20 3. Capacity booking: Optimum capacity booking to minimize the transportationcharges of gas over long distances can help CGD companies increase margins. 4. Gaspooling: The proposed concept of gas pooling by the Government of India to reduce pricevolatility as it is extremely difficult for price sensitive consuming industries to planoperations purely based on LNG from future sources. A single benchmarked price of
  8. 8. natural gas in India would be in the larger interest of the consumers, and also benefit themarket development of natural gas in this country. QHSE in CGD:Natural GasMSDS:Natural Gas is a highly flammable gas and hence handling large volumesofNatural Gas can be a challenging task. CGD network passes through denselypopulatedareas and hence the potential threat of any hazard is significantlylarge. PNGRBregulations of T4S (Technical Standards and Specificationsincluding Safety Standards)include; 1. Schedule – 1A MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 2. Schedule - 1BWELDING 3. Schedule – 1C PIPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND FABRICATIONDETAILS 4. Schedule – 1D DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND TESTING 5. Schedule –1E OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURESWednesday, 21 December2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com21. 21 6. Schedule – 1F CORROSION CONTROL 7. Schedule – 1GMISCELLANEOUSQHSE issue in CGD business; 1. High transmission pressures 2.Remote location of transmission pipelines (high emergency response time) 3.Distribution lines pass through thickly populated areas 4. No control of source of ignitionnear pipelines 5. Pipelines are buried; hence maintenance and leak detection is tedious 6.Consumers are not well equipped to deal with exigencies 7. Unplanned/ un-notifieddredging by external agencies 8. Use of non-standard fittings by the customer (CNGkits)Possible solutions; 1. Use of SCADA/ GIS to map remote pipeline networks 2.Automatic isolation valves 3. Customer education programs 4. Proper route mapping andmarking as hazardous zone 5. Proper Leak Detection Equipments to prevent majordisasters 6. Synchronization with local bodies/ agencies to avoid pipeline damage,notifying fire brigade about new gas pipeline routes in a given area 7. Undertake AssetIntegrity Management (AIM) of all equipments 8. Follow design/ operating standards asprescribed by OISD 9. Prepare robust Disaster Management Plan (DMP) to deal withdisasters CGD Regulation: PNGRB objectives: To regulate the refining, processing,storage, transportation, distribution, marketing and sale of petroleum, petroleum productsand natural gas excluding production of crude oil and natural gas so as to protect theinterest of consumers and entities engaged in specifiedWednesday, 21 December 2011Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com22. 22 activities and to ensure uninterrupted & adequate supply and to promotecompetitive markets. Why PNGRB: 1. It promotes market dynamics 2. Protects customerinterest 3. Set up operating guidelines in business 4. To ensure benefits of Naturalresources to all 5. Fixes network tariff and quality benchmarksPost APM regime, theGovernment needed a regulator to oversee the marketfor CGD which started to grow withthe entry of private players in the erstwhilePSU dominated market.PNGRB regulationsprovide;Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email: abhiktushardas@gmail.com23. 23Third-Party Access codes: This Access Code aims at establishing industrywidetransparent and uniform principles for allowing entities to gain/ allow access tothepipeline systems and CGD networks. The present access code coversproviding access toboth the natural gas transmission pipelines and CGDNetworks.The objective of thisaccess code is to; 1. Promote the development of a competitive gas market byestablishing uniform principles for owners and users of gas pipelines to allow transparentand non-discriminatory access to the gas pipelines and CGD networks. 2. Prevent abuseof monopoly power. 3. Ensure that a pipeline/CGD owner provides minimum service ofaccess to available capacity on a "firm service" basis and/or on "interruptible service"
  9. 9. basis. 4. Provide basis for resolution of disputes.Wednesday, 21 December 2011 Email:abhiktushardas@gmail.com24. 24 Bibliography: transmission-company dia.pdfWednesday,21 December 2011 Email: