To achieve three-dimensional fluid tight seal of root canal
To achieve total obliteration of root canal space so as to
prevent ingress of bacterias and body fliuds into root canal
space as well as egress of bacterias which are left in root
To prevent bacterial microleakage.
To replace the empty root canal space with an inert filling
material so as to prevent recurrent infection.
TIMING OF OBTURATION
The canal should be reasonably dry with no weeping of
fluids in the form of bleeding or serous fluids.
When patient is without sensitivity on percussion.
After optimal cleaning and shaping is achieved.
Teeth with no periradicular radiolucency.
The material should be easily introduced into
the root canal.
It should seal the canal laterally as well as
It should not shrink after being inserted.
It should be impervious to moisture.
It should be bactericidal, or at least ,should
It should be radioopaque.
It should not stain tooth structure.
It should not irritate periradicular tissue or
affect tooth structure.
It should be sterile, or easily and quickly
sterilized immediately before insertion.
It should be easily removable from the root
canal if necessary.
Solids or metal cores:
Cements and pastes:
Most commonly used solid – core filling material.
Gutta – percha is derived from two words.
GEETAH –meaning gum
PERTJA –name of the tree
Gutta – percha is a dried coagulated extract
derived from BRAZILLIAN trees(PALAQUIUM)
belonging to SAPOTACEAE family.
Gutta – percha was earlier used
As restorative material
As splints for holding fractured joints
To control hemorrhage in extracted
In skin diseases like psoriasis, eczema
In manufacturing of golf balls
Edwin truman:introduced gutta percha as
temporary filling material.
Bowman: first to use gutta percha as root filling
In crude form:
Also contains tannins,salts,saccharine
Different forms of GP
Pliable and tachy at 56-64 degree
avaialable in form of bars and
Comes directly from trees
Used in thermoplastized obturation
Most of the commercially avaialable
products are in beta form
Rigid and solid 42-44 degree
Used for manufacturing GP points and
Exists in molten stage
Phases of Gutta percha
Phases are inter-convertible
-Alpha-runny,tacky and sticky(lower viscosity)
-Beta-solid,compactable and elongatable(higher
-On heating GP expands which acounts for
increased volume of material which can be
compacted into root canal
GP shrinks as it reaches normal temperature
- Vertical pressure should be applied in all warm
GP technique to compensate for volume change in
- GP should always be used with sealer and
cement to seal root canal space at GP lacks
Rejuvenation technique for GP by
Sorien and Oliet
Aging of GP causes brittleness because of the
Storage under artificial light also speeds up the
In this technique GP is immersed in hot
water(55 degree) for 1 or 2 sec then
immediately immersed in cold water for few
Sterilization of GP
GP cannot be heat sterilized
For dis-infection of GP they should be
immersed in 5.25% NaOCl for 1 min.then GP
should be rinsed in hydrogen peroxide or ethyl
The aim of rinsing is to remove crsytalized
NaOCl before obturation as these crystalized
particles impaired the obturation
GP is soluble in in certain solvents like
chloroform eucalyptus oil.this property can be
used to plastisize GP by treating with the
solvent for bettar filling in the canal , but It has
shown that GP shrinks when solidifies .
GP also shows some tissue irritation which is
due to high content of ZnO
standard cones are of same size and shape as that of
ISO endodontic instruments(2% taper from size nos. 15 to
Non-standardised cones perceive form of root
canals.The conventional sizesw include:
iii)Greater taper guttapercha points
Available in 4% , 6% , 8% , 10% taper
iv) Variable taper gutta percha points suiting
the taper of variable taper shaping instruments
like the Protaper F1,F2,and F3.
v) Gutta percha pellets or bars
these are used in thermoplastisized
ex: Obtura system
vi) Precoated core carrier guttapercha
In these stainless steel , titanium / plastic
carriers are precoated with alpha phase
ex: Therma fil
They use low viscosity guttapercha
ex: Successful & Alpha seal
viii) Gutta flow
In this guttapercha powder is
incorporated into resin based sealer
ix) Guttapercha sealers like Chloropersha &
Eucopercha , In these guttapercha is
dissolved in Chloroform/eucalyptol
x) Medicated guttapercha – Calcium hydroxide
Iodoform or chlorhexidine diacetate
containing GP points
Compactability-adaptation to canal walls
It is easily sterilized prior to insertion and does
not encourage bacterial growth.
It is nonstaining and impervious to moisture.
Inertness-makes it non-reactive material
Radioopacity-easily recognisable on
Plasticity-becomes plastic when heated
Dissolve in some solvents-like chloroform,
eucalyptus oil etc.This property makes it more
versatile as canal filling material.
It is probably least toxic and least irritating root
canal filling material.
Lack of rigidity-Bending of gutta percha is seen
when lateral pressure is applied. So, difficult to
use in small canals.
Easily displaced by pressure.
Lacks adhesive quality.
Calcium hydroxide containing gutta percha:
Made by combining 58% of calcium hydroxide
in matrix of 42% gutta percha.They are available in
ISO size of 15-140.
Ease of insertion and removal
Minimal or no residual fit
Firm for easy insertion
Short – lived action
Lack of sustained release
Calcium hydroxide plus points:
Along with Ca(OH)2 they contain TENSIDE which
reduces the surface tension.These are more
Iodoform containing gutta percha:
Remains inert untill it comes in contact with
tissue fluids.On coming in contact with tissue
fluids, free iodine is released, which is antibacterial
Chlorhexidine diacetate containg gutta percha:
In this gutta percha matrix is embedded in 5%
chlorhexidine diacetate. This material is used as an
Resilon is a high performance polyurethane.It
is a polycaprolactone core material with
difunctional methacrylate resin , bioactive
glass, bismuth and barium salts as fillers and
pigments.A resin sealer is always employed
with core filling material for obturation.
Available in the form of ISO sized points and
pellets for use with obtura III(Obtura spartan)
This system can be placed using lateral
compaction, warm vertical compaction and
thermoplastic injection.Resilon requires 150 degree
centigrade temperature for thermoplasticized
Resilon also reinforces root canal due to adhesive
There exist doubt in susceptibility of this material
to hydrolytic enzymes.Further clinical trials are
required to recommend this material as an
alternative to gutta percha.
Silver cones contain traces of metal like copper,
nickel which add up the corrosion of the silver
points when they come in contact with saliva
or body fluids.The corrosion products are toxic
and leads to endodontic treatment failure.
A silver cone is stiffer than gutta percha and
can be easily inserted in a fine, tortuous canal.
They cannot confirm with the shape of root
canal because they lack plasticity.