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Resarch paper i cloud computing

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  • 1. Cloud computing service delivery model: Related Security issuesMandeep Devgan 1, Mandeep Singh 2, Sachin Majithia 3Lecturer ,CEC Landran Sr. Lecturer ,CEC Landran Asst Prof, CEC Landran low-cost disaster recovery and data storage solutions, on-demand security controls, real time detection of system tampering and rapid re-constitution of services. Abstract But the question of privacy and security needs to be Cloud computing is style of computing where addressed .Cloud computing moves the application massively scalable IT- enabled capabilities are delivered software and databases to the large data centers, where as a service to external customers using Internet the management of the data and services are not much technologies. In the last few years, cloud computing has reliable. This unique attribute, however, poses many grown from being a promising business concept to one new security challenges. These challenges include of the fast growing segments of the IT industry. But as accessibility vulnerabilities, virtualization vulnerabilities, more and more information on individuals and web application vulnerabilities such as SQL (Structured companies are placed in the cloud, security concerns Query Language) injection and cross-site scripting, begin to grow. Despite of all the popularity of the issues arising from third parties having physical control cloud, enterprise customers are still not strongly willing of data, identity and credential management issues, data to deploy their business in the cloud. Security is one of verification, tampering, integrity, confidentiality, data the major issues which reduces the growth of cloud loss and theft. Though cloud computing is targeted to computing and complications with data privacy and provide better utilization of resources using data protection continue to infect the market. In this virtualization techniques and to take up much of the paper the different security risks that create a threat for work load from the client, it is burdened with security the cloud is presented. This paper is a survey of risks. The complexity of security risks in a complete different security issues that has emanated due to the cloud environment is illustrated in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1, the nature of the service delivery models of a cloud lower layer represents the deployment models of the computing system. cloud namely private, community, public and hybrid cloud deployment models. The layer above the deployment layer represents the different delivery models that are utilized within a particular deployment model. These delivery models are the SaaS (Software as Introduction a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) delivery models. These These days Small and Medium Business companies are delivery models exhibit certain characteristics like on- increasingly realizing that they can gain fast access to demand self-service, multi-tenancy, ubiquitous best business applications or completely boost their network, measured service and rapid elasticity which infrastructure resources, at negligible cost, simply by are shown in the top layer. These fundamental switching into the cloud. The cloud providers must elements of the cloud require security which depends ensure that they provide the sufficient security as they and varies with respect to the deployment model that is are responsible for it. The cloud offers many benefits used, the way by which it is delivered and the character like fast deployment, pay-for-use, lower costs, it exhibits. Some of the fundamental security challenges scalability, rapid elasticity, ubiquitous network access, are data storage security, data transmission security, greater resiliency , protection against network attacks, application security and security related to third-
  • 2. Ubiquitous Rapid Measured Security network Elasticity service related to third party On-demand resources Multi-Tenancy self service Application security Software as a Platform as a service Infrastructure as a service (SaaS) (PaaS) service (IaaS) Data transmission security Private Community Public Hybrid Data cloud cloud cloud cloud storage securityFig 1. Complexity of security in cloud environmentParty resources.. IaaS is the delivery of computer application platform and software as services to theinfrastructure (typically a platform virtualization consumer. IaaS is the foundation of all cloud services,environment) as a service. Rather than purchasing with PaaS built upon it and SaaS in turn built upon it.servers, software, data center space or network Just as capabilities are inherited, so are the informationequipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully security issues and risks. Organizations using cloudoutsourced service. One such example of this is the computing as a service infrastructure, critically like toAmazon web services. PaaS is the delivery of a examine the security and confidentiality issues for theircomputing platform and solution stack as a service. It business critical insensitive applications. Yet,facilitates the deployment of applications without the guaranteeing the security of corporate data in thecost and complexity of buying and managing the ’’cloud’’ is difficult, if not impossible, as they provideunderlying hardware and software layers. PaaS provides different services like SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS.. SaaS is athe facilities required to support the complete lifecycle software deployment model where applications areof building and delivering web applications and remotely hosted by the application or service providerservices. An example of this would be GoogleApps. and made available to customers on demand, over the Internet. The SaaS model offers improved operational efficiency and reduced costs. However, most enterprises are still uncomfortable with the SaaS model2. Security issues in service models due to lack of visibility about the way their data isCloud computing utilizes three delivery models by stored and secured. IaaS completely changes the waywhich different types of services are delivered to the developers deploy their applications. Instead ofend user. The three delivery models are the SaaS, PaaS spending big money with their own data centers orand IaaS which provide infrastructure resources, managed hosting companies and then hiring operations staff to get it going, they can just go to Amazon Web
  • 3. Services or one of the other IaaS providers, get a virtual center, along with the data of other enterprises. Mostserver running in minutes and pay only for the enterprises are familiar with the traditional on- premiseresources they use The cloud has a compelling value model, where the data continues to reside within theproposition in terms of cost, but ‘‘out of the box’’ IaaS enterprise boundary .As a result there is a great deal ofonly provides basic security and applications moving worry with the lack of control and knowledge of howinto the cloud will need higher levels of security their data is stored and secured in the SaaS model. Theprovided at the host. PaaS is one layer above IaaS on layered stack for a typical SaaS vendor and criticalthe stack and abstracts away everything up to OS, aspects that must be covered across layers in order tomiddleware, etc. ensure security of the enterprise data is illustrated in Fig. 2. The following key security elements should be3. Security issues in SaaS considered as an integral part of the SaaS application development and deployment process:In SaaS, the client has to depend on the provider forproper security measures. The provider must keep  Data securitymultiple users’ from seeing each other’s data. So it  Network securitybecomes difficult to the user to ensure that right  Data localitysecurity measures are in place and also difficult to getassurance that the application will be available when  Data integrityneeded. The SaaS software vendor may host the  Data segregationapplication on its own private server or deploy it on a  Data accesscloud computing infrastructure service provided by a  Authentication and authorizationthird-party provider (e.g. Amazon Google, etc.). The  Data confidentialityuse of cloud computing helps the application service  Web application securityprovider reduce the investment in infrastructure  Virtualization vulnerabilityservices and enables it to concentrate on providing  Availabilitybetter services to customers. Over the past decade  Backupcomputing has become a product. Enterprises todayguard data and business processes with access control  Identity management and sign-on process.and compliance policies. However, in the SaaS model,enterprise data is stored at the SaaS provider’s data
  • 4. Fig. 2. Security for the SaaS stack.3.1 Data Security secured in order to prevent leakage of sensitive In the SaaS model, the enterprise data is information. This involves the use of strongstored outside the enterprise boundary, at the SaaS network traffic encryption techniques such asvendor end. As a result the SaaS vendor must adopt Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and the Transportadditional security checks to ensure data security Layer Security (TLS) for security. However,and prevent breaches due to security vulnerabilities malicious users can exploit weaknesses inin the application or through malicious employees. network security configuration to sniff networkThis involves the use of strong encryption packets. The following assessments test andtechniques for data security and fine-grained validate the network security of the SaaS vendor:author- ization to control access to data. In cloudvendors such as Amazon, the Elastic Compute  Network penetration and packetCloud (EC2) administrators do not have access to analysiscustomer instances and cannot log into the Guest  Session management weaknessesOS. EC2 Administrators with a business need are  Insecure SSL trust configuration.required to use their individual cryptographicallystrong Secure Shell (SSH) keys to gain access to a Any vulnerability detected during these tests can behost. All such accesses are logged and routinely exploited to hijack active sessions, gain access to useraudited. While the data at rest in Simple Storage credentials and sensitive data.Service (S3) is not encrypted by default, users canencrypt their data before it is uploaded to AmazonS3, so that it is not accessed or tampered with by 3.3. Data localityany unauthorized party. Malicious users can exploitweaknesses in the data security model to gain In a SaaS model of a cloud environment, theunauthorized access to data. The following consumers use the applications provided by the SaaSassessments tests validate the security of the they do not know where the data is getting stored. Inenterprise data stored at the SaaS vendor: many a cases, this can be an issue. Due to compliance and data privacy laws in various countries, locality of  Cross-site scripting[XSS] data is of utmost importance in many enterprise  Access control weaknesses architecture. A secure SaaS model must be capable of  OS and SQL injection flaws providing reliability to the customer on the location of  Cross-site request forgery[CSRF] the data of the consumer.  Cookie manipulation  Hidden field manipulation  Insecure storage 3.4. Data integrity  Insecure configuration. Data integrity is easily achieved in a standalone system Malicious users can exploit weaknesses in with a single database using constraints and network security configuration to sniff network transactions. Transac- tions should follow ACID packets. The following assessments test validate (atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability) the network security of the SaaS vendor : properties to ensure data integrity. Next in the complexity chain are distributed systems. In a 3.2. Network security distributed system, there are multiple databases and multiple applications. In order to maintain data In a SaaS deployment model, sensitive data is integrity in a distributed system, transactions across obtained from the enterprises, processed by the multiple data sources need to be handled correctly in a SaaS application and stored at the SaaS vendor fail safe manner. This can be done using a central end. All data flow over the network needs to be
  • 5. global transaction manger. Each application in the Any vulnerability detected during these tests can bedistributed system should be able to participate in the exploited to gain access to sensitive enterprise data ofglobal transaction via a resource manager. This can be other tenants.achieved using a 2-phase commit protocol. SaaSapplications are multi-tenant applications hosted by athird party. One of the biggest challenges with web 3.6. Data accessservices is transaction management. At the protocollevel, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) does not Data access issue is mainly related to security policiessupport transactions or guaranteed delivery, so the only provided to the users while accessing the data. In aoption is to implement these at the API level. Although typical scenario, a small business organization can use athere are standards available for managing data integrity cloud provided by some other provider for carrying outwith web services such as WS-Transaction and WS- its business processes. This organization will have itsReliability, these standards are not yet mature and not own security policies based on which each employeemany vendors have implemented these. Most SaaS can have access to a particular set of data. The securityvendors expose their web services APIs without any policies may entitle some considerations wherein somesupport for transactions. The lack of integrity controls of the employees are not given access to certainat the data level (or, in the case of existing integrity amount of data. These security policies must becontrols, bypassing the application logic to access the adhered by the cloud to avoid intrusion of data bydatabase directly) could result in profound problems. unauthorized users. The SaaS model must be flexibleArchitects and developers need to approach this danger enough to incorporate the specific policies put forwardcautiously, making sure they do not compromise by the organization. The model must also be able todatabases’ integrity in their zeal to move to cloud provide organizational boundary within the cloudcomputing. because multi- ple organization will be deploying their business processes within a single cloud environment.3.5. Data segregationAs a result of multi-tenancy multiple users can storetheir data using the applications provided by SaaS. In 3.7. Authentication and authorizationsuch a situation, data of various users will reside at thesame location. Intrusion of data of one user by another Most of the companies are storing their employeebecomes possible. This intrusion can be done either by information in some type of Lightweight Directoryhacking through the loop holes in the application or by Access Protocol (LDAP) servers. In the case of SMBinjecting client code into the SaaS system. A client can companies, a segment that has the highest SaaSwrite a masked code and inject into the application. If adoption rate, Active Directory (AD) seems to be thethe application executes this code without verification, most popular tool for managing users. With SaaS, thethen there is a high potential of intrusion into other’s software is hosted outside of the corporate firewall.data. A SaaS model should therefore ensure a clear Many a times user credentials are stored in the SaaSboundary for each user’s data. The service should be providers’ databases and not as part of the corporate ITintelligent enough to segregate the data from different infrastructure. This means SaaS customers mustusers. A malicious user can use application remember to remove/disable accounts as employeesvulnerabilities to hand- craft parameters that bypass leave the company and create/enable accounts as comesecurity checks and access sensitive data of other onboard. In essence, having multiple SaaS products willtenants. The following assessments test and validate the increase IT management overhead. For example, SaaSdata segregation of the SaaS vendor in a multi-tenant providers can provide delegate the authenticationdeployment: process to the customer’s internal LDAP/AD server, so that companies can retain control over the  SQL injection flaws management of users.  Data validation  Insecure storage. 3.8. Data confidentiality issue
  • 6. Cloud computing involves the sharing or storage by address the problem. Web applications introduce newusers of their own information on remote servers security risks that cannot effectively be defendedowned or operated by others and accesses through the against at the network level, and do require applicationInternet or other connections. Cloud computing level defenses. Since the web applications and SaaS areservices exist in many variations, including data storage tightly coupled in providing services to the cloud users,sites, video sites, tax preparation sites, personal health most of the security threats of web application are alsorecord websites and many more. The entire contents of posed by the SaaS model of the cloud. The Open Weba user’s storage device may be stored with a single Application Security Project has identified Top 10cloud provider or with many cloud providers. security risks faced by web applications. Those threatsWhenever an individual, a business, a government are:agency, or any other entity shares information in thecloud, privacy or confidentiality questions arise. Some 1. Injection flaws like SQL, OS and LDAP injectionof the findings related to the confidentiality issues are: 2. Cross-site scripting1. Cloud computing has significant implications for the 3. Broken authentication and session managementprivacy of personal information as well as for theconfidentiality of business and governmental 4. Insecure direct object referencesinformation. 5. Cross-site request forgery2. A user’s privacy and confidentiality risks varysignificantly with the terms of service and privacy 6. Security misconfigurationpolicy established by the cloud provider. 7. Insecure cryptographic storage3. Disclosure and remote storage may have adverseconsequences for the legal status of protections for 8. Failure to restrict URL accesspersonal or business information. 9. Insufficient transport layer protection4. Information in the cloud may have more than onelegal location at the same time with differing legal 10. Unvalidated redirects and forwards.consequences. 7. Laws could oblige a cloud provider to examine userrecords for evidence of criminal activity and othermatters. 3.10. Vulnerability in virtualization8. Legal uncertainties make it difficult to assess the Virtualization is one of the main components of astatus of information in the cloud as well as the privacy cloud. But this poses major security risks. Ensuring thatand confidentiality protections available to users. different instances running on the same physical machine are isolated from each other is a major task of virtualization which is not met completely in today’s3.9. Web application security scenario. The other issue is the control of administrator on host and guest operating systems. Current VMMsSecurity holes in the web applications create a (Virtual Machine Monitor) do not offer perfectvulnerability to the SaaS application. In this scenario, isolation. Many bugs have been found in all popularthe vulnerability can potentially have damaging impact VMMs that allow escaping from VM. Virtual machineon all of the customers using the cloud. The challenge monitor should be ‘root secure’, meaning that nowith SaaS security is not any different than with any privilege within the virtualized guest environmentother web application technology, however one of the permits interference with the host system. Someproblems is that traditional network security solutions vulnerability has been found in all virtualizationsuch as network firewalls, network intrusion detection software which can be exploited by malicious, localand prevention systems (IDS & IPS), do not adequately
  • 7. users to bypass certain security restrictions or gain 1. The pure identity paradigm: Creation,privileges. management and deletion of identities without regard to access or entitlements.3.12. Availability 2. The user access (log-on) paradigm: For example:The SaaS application needs to ensure that enterprises a smartcard and its associated data used by a customerare provided with service around the clock. This to logon to a service or services (a traditional view).involves making architectural changes at the applicationand infrastructural levels to add scalability and high 3. The service paradigm: A system that deliversavailability. Resiliency to hardware/software failures, as personalized role-based, online, on-demandwell as to denial of service attacks, needs to be built ,multimedia (content),presence- based services to usersfrom the ground up within the application. Following and their devices.assessments test and validate the availability of the SaaSvendor. The SaaS vendor can support identity management and sign on services using any of the following models.  Authentication weaknesses a) Independent IdM stack  Session management weaknesses. b) Credential synchronizationMany applications provide safeguards to automaticallylock user accounts after successive incorrect The SaaS vendor supports replication of user accountcredentials. However, incorrect configuration and information and credentials between enterprise andimplementation of such features can be used by SaaS application. The user account informationmalicious users to mount denial of service attacks creation is done separately by each tenant within the enterprise boundary to comply with its regulatory3.13. Backup needs.The SaaS vendor needs to ensure that all sensitive c) Federated IdMenterprise data is regularly backed up to facilitate quickrecovery in case of disasters. Also the use of strong The entire user account information includingencryption schemes to protect the backup data is credentials is managed and stored independently byrecommended to prevent accidental leakage of sensitive each tenant. The user authentication occurs within theinformation. In the case of cloud vendors such as enterprise boundary. The identity of the user as well asAmazon, the data at rest in S3 is not encrypted by certain user attributes are propagated on-demand to thedefault. The users need to separately encrypt their data SaaS vendor using federation to allow sign on andand backups so that it cannot be accessed or tampered access control.with by unauthorized parties.  Authentication weakness analysisThe following assessments test and validate the security  Insecure trust configuration.of the data backup and recovery services provided bythe SaaS vendor:  Insecure storage 4. Security issues in PaaS  Insecure configuration. In PaaS, the provider might give some control to the people to build applications on top of the platform. But3.14. Identity management and sign-on process any security below the application level such as hostIdentity management (IdM) or ID management is a and network intrusion prevention will still be in thebroad administrative area that deals with identifying scope of the provider and the provider has to offerindividuals in a system and controlling the access to the strong assurances that the data remains inaccessibleresources in that system by placing restrictions on the between applications. PaaS is intended to enableestablished identities. Identity management can involve developers to build their own applications on top ofthree perspectives the platform. Metrics should be in place to assess the
  • 8. effectiveness of the application security programs. Although there are extreme advantages in using aAmong the direct application, security specific metrics cloud-based system, there are yet many practicalavailable are vulnerability scores and patch coverage. problems which have to be solved. As described in theThese metrics can indicate the quality of application paper, currently security has lot of loose ends whichcoding. Attention should be paid to how malicious scares away a lot of potential users. Until a properactors react to new cloud application architectures that security module is not in place, potential users will notobscure application components from their scrutiny. be able to enjoy the advantages of this technology. ThisThe vulnerabilities of cloud are not only associated security module should accommodate all the issueswith the web applications but also vulnerabilities arising from all directions of the cloud. An integratedassociated with the machine-to-machine Service- security model targeting different levels of security ofOriented Architecture (SOA) applications, which are data for a typical cloud infrastructure is under research.increasingly being deployed in the cloud. This model is meant to be more dynamic and localized in nature. This research paper is based on the5. Security issues in IaaS conceptualization of the cloud security based on real world security system where in security depends on theWith IaaS the developer has better control over the requirement and asset value of an individual orsecurity as long as there is no security hole in the organization. The intense of security is directlyvirtualization manager. Also, though in theory virtual proportional to the value of the asset it guards. In amachines might be able to address these issues but in cloud where there are heterogeneous systems having apractice there are plenty of security problems. The variation in their asset value, a single security systemother factor is the reliability of the data that is stored would be too costly for certain applications and if therewithin the provider’s hardware. Due to the growing is less security then the vulnerability factor of somevirtualization of ‘everything’ in information society, applications like financial and military applications willretaining the ultimate control over data to the owner of shoot up. On the other side, if the cloud has a commondata regardless of its physical location will become a security methodology in place, it will be a high valuetopic of utmost interest. To achieve maximum trust asset target for hackers because of the fact that hackingand security on a cloud resource, several techniques the security system will make the entire cloudwould have to be applied. The security responsibilities vulnerable to attack. In such a scenario, if customizedof both the provider and the consumer greatly differ security is provided as a service to applications, itbetween cloud service models. would make sense.6. ConclusionReferences Kandukuri BR ,Paturi VR, Rakshit A. Cloud security issues. In: IEEE international conference on servicesHeiser J. What you need to know about cloud computing, 2009, p. 517–20.computing security and compliance, Gartner, Research,ID Number: G00168345, 2009. Cloud SecurityAlliance.SecuritybestpracticesforcloudcomputinViega J. Cloud computing and the common man. g,2010b /http://www.cloudsecurityalliance.orgSComputer 2009;42(8):106–8. [accessed on:10April2010].BNA. Choudhary V. Software as a service: implications forPrivacy&securitylawreport,8PVLR10,03/09/2009.Copy investment in software development. In: Internationalright2009byThe Bureau ofNationalAffairs,Inc.(800- conference on system sciences, 2007, p. 209.372-1033),2009 /http://www.bna.comS [accessedon:2November2009]. Basta A, Halton W. Computer security and penetration testing. Delmar Cengage Learning 2007Basta A, Halton W. Computer security and penetrationtesting. Delmar Cengage Learning 2007 Kaufman L. Data security in the world of cloud computing .IEEE Security andPrivacy2009;7(4):61e4