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New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
New microsoft office power point presentation
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New microsoft office power point presentation

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  • A comparative study on tsunami
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    • 1. Introduction  Name - Debendu Barman  Class- viii-B  Roll no-2  Sub ENSGLISH PRESENTATION  Teacher name M.P.C  A PPT on 2011 Japan Tsunami and 2004 Indian Tsunami
    • 2. Tsunami  A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: 津波, lit. "harbour wave";[1] English pronunciation: /suːˈnɑːmi/ soo-NAH-mee or /tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-NAH- mee[2]) is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, generally an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.[3]  Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to astidal waves. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train".[4] Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history with at least 290,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.  The Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his late 5th century BC, History of the Peloponnesian War, that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes,[5][6] but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; trying to accurately forecast the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and also to forecast how
    • 3.  Tsunami is a Japanese word which means “HARBOR WAVES”.  An earthquake, a volcanic eruption or underwater landslides can shift large amounts of ocean  water henceforth a huge tidal wave is originated called Tsunami.  Tsunami struck in the Indian ocean on 26dec 2004.  These huge waves were a result of the earthquake that had its epicentre close to the western  boundary of Sumatra  The magnitude of this earthquake was measured 9.0 on the Richter scale.  As the Indian plate went under the Burma plate, their was certain movement of the was a sudden  movement of the sea floor, causing the earthquake.  The ocean floor was displaced by about 10 metres to 20 metres and tilted in a downward  direction.  Huge mass of ocean water flowed to the fill gap that was being created by the displacement.  This marked the withdrawal of the water mass from the coast lines of the land masses in the  South and Southeast Asia.  After thrusting of the Indian plate below the Burma plate, the water mass rushed back towards the  coast line at a speed of about 800km/h and washed away many islands in Indian ocean.  Tsunami caused wide spread damage to the coastal areas of India. Mainly the Indira point in the  Andaman and Nicobar islands got submerged after the tsunami.
    • 4.  Japan was hit by an enormous earthquake on March 11, 2011, that triggered a  deadly 23-foot tsunami in the country's north. The giant waves deluged cities and  rural areas alike, sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, a train, and boats, leaving  a path of death and devastation in its wake. Video footage showed cars racing away  from surging waves. The United States Geological Survey reported the earthquake  and on Monday revised its magnitude from 8.9 to 9.0, which is the largest in Japan's  history. The earthquake struck about 230 miles northeast of Tokyo. The Pacific  Tsunami Warning center issued warnings for Russia, Taiwan, Hawaii, Indonesia, the  Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the west coasts the U.S.,  Mexico, Central America, and South America. As of Tuesday, March 15, the national  police said that more than 15,000 people were missing, though only 2,414 deaths  had been confirmed.
    • 5.  Disaster struck again on Saturday, March 12, when about 26 hours after the  earthquake, an explosion in reactor No. 1 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power  Station caused one of the buildings to crumble to the ground. The cooling system at  the reactor failed shortly after the earthquake. Officials feared that a meltdown may  occur, and radioactive material was detected outside the plant. These fears were  realized on Sunday, when officials said they believed that partial meltdowns  occurred at reactors No. 1 and No. 3. The cooling systems at another plant,  Fukushima Daini, were also compromised but the situation there seemed to be less  precarious. More than 200,000 residents were evacuated from areas surrounding  both facilities. Problems were later reported at two other nuclear facilities. By  Tuesday, two more explosions and a fire had officials and workers at the Fukushima  Daiichi Nuclear Power Station struggling to regain control of four reactors
    • 6. 2011 Japan Earthquake vs 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami  The 2004 Tsunami and 2011 Tsunami are two of the most deadly tsunami that ever occurred in the history of mankind. These tsunamis have cost thousands of lives of people in their areas covered and thousands are also injured. Numerous homes and establishments have also been destroyed.  The 2004 tsunami or formally known as “2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami” occurred on December 26, 2004 with Sumatra, Indonesia as the center of the earthquake. Based from the survey conducted by the United States Geological Agency (USGS), there are more than 200,000 deaths recorded and almost a quarter of it is coming from Indonesia. Other countries affected are: Maldives, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Somalia, India, Myanmar and Seychelles.  The 2011 tsunami was caused by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Sendai, Japan on March 11, 2011. The center of the earthquake that causes the great tsunami is in Tohoku which is Japan’s largest island. The Police in Japan have confirmed the public that the deaths brought by the tsunami and the earthquake is more than 2,000 and still 3,000 plus individuals that are missing as of this writing.  The 2004 tsunami occurred in Indonesia creating numerous loss and damage to properties and lives while the 2011 tsunami is brought by the earthquake in Japan, specifically in Tohoku, Oshika Peninsula. Death toll in the tsunami in Indonesia last 2004 is around 220,000 and the death counts in Japan last March 11, 2011 is around 2,000 but is expected to rise up as high as thousands as the search for missing person’s is still on going. On the magnitude of the earthquake, it’s 9.1 for the 2004 tsunami and 9.0 for the latest 2011 tsunami in Japan.  After the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Japan, there are a great number of hoaxes and speculations that it’s already the end of the world. Especially due to the fact that there is a nuclear chemical that broke up in Japan due to the earthquake. But it’s always been this way during major calamities in a given country.  In brief:  • Death count in the 2004 Indonesia tsunami is more than 200,000 while the Police Agency in Japan has confirmed around 2,400 deaths.  • The center of the earthquake that caused the tsunami in 2004 is Sumatra, Indonesia whereas in the 2011 tsunami is in Sendai, Japan.  • The magnitude in Indonesia earthquake is 9.1. On the other hand, it’s 9.0 in Japan earthquake.
    • 7. Difference between 2011 Japan Tsunami and 2004 Indian Tsunami  Tsunamis are formed when ocean waves come pouring onto the coast and the devastation that the water deluge causes is of a high magnitude. Usually, tsunamis follow earthquakes that occur in the area, which was the case with the recent Japanese tsunami and the Indian tsunami. However, though both of these were horrible events, there are some big differences between the two: the death count, the way each location was prepared for this type of event and the magnitude of the earthquakes that caused the tsunamis.
    • 8. Death Count  The death counts for the Japanese tsunami are still rolling in. Right now they are estimating around 10,000 have been killed due to the tsunami that wreaked havoc through the area. However, the Indian Tsunami killed hundreds of thousands when it hit the enormous range of coastal areas, which is the main difference between the two that experts are pointing out. The majority of people are citing that the Japan tsunami did not have as high of a death count because the area was more readily prepared for such events.
    • 9.  Preparation for a Tsunami  Those who have ever experienced a tsunami know that once the earthquake hits, the majority of these areas have around ten minutes before the tsunami hits. This is where the two tsunamis differ completely. Emergency sirens and services in Japan were already warning people to get to higher ground because a tsunami was going to hit. There was however, at least on instance where the earthquake tragically knocked out the emergency siren. However, for those who experienced the Indian tsunami, they basically reported having no warning, thus people were caught completely off guard. Those who lived near the coast of Japan were always taught that following an earthquake the chances of a tsunami were expected immediately following. Therefore they automatically kicked into survival mode, whereas the Indian, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Indonesian and Thai communities simply did not have this level of formal survival education.  Magnitude of Earthquakes that Caused Tsunami  Both of these regions experienced earthquakes that are considered some of the strongest that the world has seen in many years. Both the Indian and Japanese earthquakes were recorded at 9.0 magnitudes. They both occurred around eight miles off the shoreline which gave scientists, emergency response devices and people near the shores about the same amount of time to respond. Approximately 230,000 people lost their lives due to the Indian tsunami and the world responded with a gasp, disaster aid and a resolve to improve emergency response technology and public management under such conditions going forward.  Japan is located on a volatile fault location and experiences earthquakes quite often. All structures are built to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis, most inhabited areas have flood walls in place. There are 55 nuclear power plants in Japan which proved not to withstand dire effects of the 9.0 earthquake. In addition, the earthquake and aftershocks seem to be affecting volcanic activity on the island.
    • 10. Similarities and Differences  Both of these tsunamis caused many problems for the citizens of the area, and caused many deaths.  The Japan tsunami is recording a number of around 10,000 being killed, however the final count is still not known.  The Indian tsunami killed hundreds about 230,000.  Japan was more prepared for a tsunami as they had warning systems in place and people were much more knowledgeable about what could happen.  The Indian tsunami was somewhat of a surprise to those in the area, and because of this they were not ready to handle the effects.  The Indian tsunami affected about 20 different communities in proximal coastal areas.  The Japanese tsunami affected far fewer people. The present dangers posed by the highly unstable coastal nuclear power plants are aggravated by the fact that there is no visibility regarding what is happening inside. The contracting service which manages the nuclear plant operations is not willing to share information openly with the anyone outside - apparently this includes the Japanese government and highly respected foreign nuclear physicists
    • 11. Video’s
    • 12. THANKYOU FOR WATCHING  By Debendu Barman

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