Name - Debendu Barman
Sub ENSGLISH PRESENTATION
Teacher name M.P.C
A PPT on 2011 Japan Tsunami and 2004 Indian
A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: 津波, lit. "harbour
wave"; English pronunciation: /suːˈnɑːmi/ soo-NAH-mee or /tsuːˈnɑːmi/ tsoo-NAH-
mee) is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body
of water, generally an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and
other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices),
landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below
water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far
longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially
resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to astidal waves.
Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to
hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train". Wave heights of tens of metres can be
generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas,
their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins;
the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human
history with at least 290,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering
the Indian Ocean.
The Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his late 5th century BC, History of the
Peloponnesian War, that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the
understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and much
remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine why
some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; trying to
accurately forecast the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and also to forecast how
Tsunami is a Japanese word which means “HARBOR WAVES”.
An earthquake, a volcanic eruption or underwater landslides can shift large amounts of ocean
water henceforth a huge tidal wave is originated called Tsunami.
Tsunami struck in the Indian ocean on 26dec 2004.
These huge waves were a result of the earthquake that had its epicentre close to the western
boundary of Sumatra
The magnitude of this earthquake was measured 9.0 on the Richter scale.
As the Indian plate went under the Burma plate, their was certain movement of the was a sudden
movement of the sea floor, causing the earthquake.
The ocean floor was displaced by about 10 metres to 20 metres and tilted in a downward
Huge mass of ocean water flowed to the fill gap that was being created by the displacement.
This marked the withdrawal of the water mass from the coast lines of the land masses in the
South and Southeast Asia.
After thrusting of the Indian plate below the Burma plate, the water mass rushed back towards
coast line at a speed of about 800km/h and washed away many islands in Indian ocean.
Tsunami caused wide spread damage to the coastal areas of India. Mainly the Indira point in the
Andaman and Nicobar islands got submerged after the tsunami.
Japan was hit by an enormous earthquake on March 11, 2011, that triggered a
deadly 23-foot tsunami in the country's north. The giant waves deluged cities and
rural areas alike, sweeping away cars, homes, buildings, a train, and boats, leaving
a path of death and devastation in its wake. Video footage showed cars racing away
from surging waves. The United States Geological Survey reported the earthquake
and on Monday revised its magnitude from 8.9 to 9.0, which is the largest in Japan's
history. The earthquake struck about 230 miles northeast of Tokyo. The Pacific
Tsunami Warning center issued warnings for Russia, Taiwan, Hawaii, Indonesia, the
Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and the west coasts the U.S.,
Mexico, Central America, and South America. As of Tuesday, March 15, the national
police said that more than 15,000 people were missing, though only 2,414 deaths
had been confirmed.
Disaster struck again on Saturday, March 12, when about 26 hours after the
earthquake, an explosion in reactor No. 1 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power
Station caused one of the buildings to crumble to the ground. The cooling system at
the reactor failed shortly after the earthquake. Officials feared that a meltdown may
occur, and radioactive material was detected outside the plant. These fears were
realized on Sunday, when officials said they believed that partial meltdowns
occurred at reactors No. 1 and No. 3. The cooling systems at another plant,
Fukushima Daini, were also compromised but the situation there seemed to be less
precarious. More than 200,000 residents were evacuated from areas surrounding
both facilities. Problems were later reported at two other nuclear facilities. By
Tuesday, two more explosions and a fire had officials and workers at the Fukushima
Daiichi Nuclear Power Station struggling to regain control of four reactors
2011 Japan Earthquake vs 2004
Indian Ocean Tsunami
The 2004 Tsunami and 2011 Tsunami are two of the most deadly tsunami that ever occurred in the history of
mankind. These tsunamis have cost thousands of lives of people in their areas covered and thousands are also
injured. Numerous homes and establishments have also been destroyed.
The 2004 tsunami or formally known as “2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami” occurred on December 26,
2004 with Sumatra, Indonesia as the center of the earthquake. Based from the survey conducted by the United
States Geological Agency (USGS), there are more than 200,000 deaths recorded and almost a quarter of it is
coming from Indonesia. Other countries affected are: Maldives, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Somalia, India,
Myanmar and Seychelles.
The 2011 tsunami was caused by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake in Sendai, Japan on March 11, 2011. The center of the
earthquake that causes the great tsunami is in Tohoku which is Japan’s largest island. The Police in Japan have
confirmed the public that the deaths brought by the tsunami and the earthquake is more than 2,000 and still
3,000 plus individuals that are missing as of this writing.
The 2004 tsunami occurred in Indonesia creating numerous loss and damage to properties and lives while the
2011 tsunami is brought by the earthquake in Japan, specifically in Tohoku, Oshika Peninsula. Death toll in the
tsunami in Indonesia last 2004 is around 220,000 and the death counts in Japan last March 11, 2011 is around 2,000
but is expected to rise up as high as thousands as the search for missing person’s is still on going. On the
magnitude of the earthquake, it’s 9.1 for the 2004 tsunami and 9.0 for the latest 2011 tsunami in Japan.
After the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Japan, there are a great number of hoaxes and speculations
that it’s already the end of the world. Especially due to the fact that there is a nuclear chemical that broke up in
Japan due to the earthquake. But it’s always been this way during major calamities in a given country.
• Death count in the 2004 Indonesia tsunami is more than 200,000 while the Police Agency in Japan has
confirmed around 2,400 deaths.
• The center of the earthquake that caused the tsunami in 2004 is Sumatra, Indonesia whereas in the 2011 tsunami
is in Sendai, Japan.
• The magnitude in Indonesia earthquake is 9.1. On the other hand, it’s 9.0 in Japan earthquake.
Difference between 2011 Japan
Tsunami and 2004 Indian Tsunami
Tsunamis are formed when ocean waves come pouring onto the coast
and the devastation that the water deluge causes is of a high
magnitude. Usually, tsunamis follow earthquakes that occur in the
area, which was the case with the recent Japanese tsunami and the
Indian tsunami. However, though both of these were horrible events,
there are some big differences between the two: the death count, the
way each location was prepared for this type of event and the
magnitude of the earthquakes that caused the tsunamis.
The death counts for the Japanese tsunami are still rolling in.
Right now they are estimating around 10,000 have been killed due
to the tsunami that wreaked havoc through the area. However, the
Indian Tsunami killed hundreds of thousands when it hit the
enormous range of coastal areas, which is the main difference
between the two that experts are pointing out. The majority of
people are citing that the Japan tsunami did not have as high of a
death count because the area was more readily prepared for such
Preparation for a Tsunami
Those who have ever experienced a tsunami know that once the earthquake hits, the majority of these
areas have around ten minutes before the tsunami hits. This is where the two tsunamis differ
completely. Emergency sirens and services in Japan were already warning people to get to higher
ground because a tsunami was going to hit. There was however, at least on instance where the
earthquake tragically knocked out the emergency siren. However, for those who experienced the
Indian tsunami, they basically reported having no warning, thus people were caught completely off
guard. Those who lived near the coast of Japan were always taught that following an earthquake the
chances of a tsunami were expected immediately following. Therefore they automatically kicked into
survival mode, whereas the Indian, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Indonesian and Thai communities
simply did not have this level of formal survival education.
Magnitude of Earthquakes that Caused Tsunami
Both of these regions experienced earthquakes that are considered some of the strongest that the
world has seen in many years. Both the Indian and Japanese earthquakes were recorded at 9.0
magnitudes. They both occurred around eight miles off the shoreline which gave scientists,
emergency response devices and people near the shores about the same amount of time to respond.
Approximately 230,000 people lost their lives due to the Indian tsunami and the world responded
with a gasp, disaster aid and a resolve to improve emergency response technology and public
management under such conditions going forward.
Japan is located on a volatile fault location and experiences earthquakes quite often. All structures are
built to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis, most inhabited areas have flood walls in place. There
are 55 nuclear power plants in Japan which proved not to withstand dire effects of the 9.0 earthquake.
In addition, the earthquake and aftershocks seem to be affecting volcanic activity on the island.
Similarities and Differences
Both of these tsunamis caused many problems for the citizens of the area, and caused many deaths.
The Japan tsunami is recording a number of around 10,000 being killed, however the final count is
still not known.
The Indian tsunami killed hundreds about 230,000.
Japan was more prepared for a tsunami as they had warning systems in place and people were much
more knowledgeable about what could happen.
The Indian tsunami was somewhat of a surprise to those in the area, and because of this they were
not ready to handle the effects.
The Indian tsunami affected about 20 different communities in proximal coastal areas.
The Japanese tsunami affected far fewer people. The present dangers posed by the highly
unstable coastal nuclear power plants are aggravated by the fact that there is no visibility regarding
what is happening inside. The contracting service which manages the nuclear plant operations is
not willing to share information openly with the anyone outside - apparently this includes the
Japanese government and highly respected foreign nuclear physicists