Chapter 5
Chapter ObjectivesPlanning of market research in rural IndiaData collection methods, measurement, scalingmethods, questi...
Why Rural ResearchRural consumer is an unknown ‘consumption unit’Buyer motivationInfluencersWhere do they buy?No data...
Rural Consumer Is he different?Less LiterateLess exposure to media (media dark zones)OccupationAn undeclared entrepren...
Planning the Rural ResearchResearch Objectives and DesignTypes of Rural Studies4 As of rural marketing – acceptability,...
Secondary Data ResearchData Source DescriptionCensus Once in 10 years; captures data on ruralNCAERLargest sample surveyor ...
Primary Data CollectionNormally in-depth interviews and focus groupdiscussionsThe researcher has to make his purpose ver...
Advantages of PRA over Focus GroupsAdvantages of PRARural people have greater capacity to map, model, quantify &estimate...
Advantages of PRA over Focus GroupsParticipatory Rural Appraisal Focus Group DiscussionsLarge and heterogeneous in nature,...
PRA ToolsSocial mapping to capture house locations and castedistribution throughout the villageResource mapping to captu...
PRA Application – Activity ClockMaps the economic &social activities indaily life… identifiestime windowavailable forcommu...
Measurements and Scaling MethodsSimple and easy to understandMake use of visuals and coloursEnsure involvement ofrespon...
Are Western Techniques Adequate?Issues with Sampling design No listing of households Village has clusters of households...
Instrument DesignUse simple and direct questionsQuestions should be self-explanatoryQuestions should not be ambiguousQ...
SamplingUse socio cultural indicators to identify region forstudyVillage pop strata to segment potential areasUse socio...
Village SamplingVillages could be selected on the basis of:PopulationPopulation of productProximity to highway or remo...
Respondents SamplingDone on SEC classification:R1 Most prosperous 4%R2 11%R3 37%R4 Least prosperous 48%Most studies ...
Issues related to CommunicationAbove the LineReadership surveysListener ship surveysTRPBelow the LineNo media rating...
Do’s and Don’ts of Rural MR Wear simple clothes and greet them in their way Familiarise yourself with the local dialect...
Attributes of Rural ResearchersDevelop a rural mindsetEffective communication with emphasis on activelisteningDiscernin...
Location for conducting researchCaste neutral place in the villageWhere it is easy to find people and initiate aconversa...
Limitations of rural researchLow literacyPoor media exposureLow brand and product awarenessLocal language communicatio...
Rural Market Research IndustryIndian market research industry is worth Rs. 4,000 croresof which only 2 to 3% is estimated...
Ch 05 mr
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Ch 05 mr

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  1. 1. Chapter 5
  2. 2. Chapter ObjectivesPlanning of market research in rural IndiaData collection methods, measurement, scalingmethods, questionnaire design and samplingField procedures and rural realitiesDo’s and don’ts for researchersThe major players in rural researchRMH 052
  3. 3. Why Rural ResearchRural consumer is an unknown ‘consumption unit’Buyer motivationInfluencersWhere do they buy?No data on rural markets and consumerNo brand information Regional and local brands are not mapped Spurious brandsCompanies do not have any channel controlmechanism below the sub-stockist level in smalltownRMH 05 3
  4. 4. Rural Consumer Is he different?Less LiterateLess exposure to media (media dark zones)OccupationAn undeclared entrepreneur – Risk bearerSecurity environmentInfrastructure conditionsAccess to products & brandsRMH 05 4
  5. 5. Planning the Rural ResearchResearch Objectives and DesignTypes of Rural Studies4 As of rural marketing – acceptability, affordability,awareness and availabilityU&A (Usage and Attitudes) or KAP (Knowledge,Attitudes and PracticesFeasibilityMapping distribution, promotion and communicationchannelsRMH 05 5
  6. 6. Secondary Data ResearchData Source DescriptionCensus Once in 10 years; captures data on ruralNCAERLargest sample surveyor in the country; data ondemographics, durables and non-durablesNSSOConsumption and expenditure related data on majorproducts and servicesCSODistrict level data on demographics, economicindicators, infrastructure and welfare related dataStatistical AbstractsStatistical records on demographics, economicindicators, infrastructure and welfare related dataPanchayat OfficesVillage level information household wise ondemographics, healthRural panels of MRcompaniesORG, MARG panels that collect data on consumptionand expenditure on a daily basisRMH 05 6
  7. 7. Primary Data CollectionNormally in-depth interviews and focus groupdiscussionsThe researcher has to make his purpose very clear andexplain benefits to the villagers in the long runThe challenge is to make the villagers participateactivelyResearch tools like Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)are used extensively in rural as they are designed toempower the respondent such that he/she voluntarilyparticipates in the research process.RMH 05 7
  8. 8. Advantages of PRA over Focus GroupsAdvantages of PRARural people have greater capacity to map, model, quantify &estimate, rank, score & diagram than an outsiderLarge, heterogeneous group ensuring participation from all walks oflifeRelaxed rapport facilitates participationExpression is both verbal and non-verbalParticipants cross check among themselves for accuracyInformation gathered is shared to check on acceptanceRMH 05 8
  9. 9. Advantages of PRA over Focus GroupsParticipatory Rural Appraisal Focus Group DiscussionsLarge and heterogeneous in nature,ensuring participation from all walks oflifeTypically small andhomogeneous in natureAs expression is both verbal and non-verbal, even less assertive people canexpress their viewsA verbal channel – outspokenindividuals dominate thediscussionModerator’s role is low; henceinformation flow is more naturalModerator’s role can be high inevoking response from allsectionsAttitudes and behavioural changeorientedAction orientedOn the spot analysis by participants Analysis done by moderatorsCross checking and validation of data canbe done on site by involving othermembers of groupsReiterative process tillconsensus is reachedRMH 05 9
  10. 10. PRA ToolsSocial mapping to capture house locations and castedistribution throughout the villageResource mapping to capture availability of resourcesthroughout the villageSeasonality diagramVenn diagrams to identify various issues with theirrelative importanceRMH 05 10
  11. 11. PRA Application – Activity ClockMaps the economic &social activities indaily life… identifiestime windowavailable forcommunicatingwith consumerRMH 05 11Wake up6Milk Collection78AgriOperations591011 124321NewspaperTVFieldworkLunchRestAgriManagementMilk CollectionAMPMBhajanGossipingAt ChaupalDinnerFamily TimeTV
  12. 12. Measurements and Scaling MethodsSimple and easy to understandMake use of visuals and coloursEnsure involvement ofrespondentsEmpower the respondentsRMH 05 12Face 1 Face 2Face 3 Face 4 Face 5Face 1 2 3 4 5Rating (out of 5) 5 4 3 2 1
  13. 13. Are Western Techniques Adequate?Issues with Sampling design No listing of households Village has clusters of households based on caste/religion Joint families Multiple occupationsIssues with data collection Application of rating scales or ranking tools Apprehension about responses being documented Life of approximation Brand recognition poor Rural Connotations can be differentRMH 05 13
  14. 14. Instrument DesignUse simple and direct questionsQuestions should be self-explanatoryQuestions should not be ambiguousQuestions should have a logical flow moving fromgeneral to specific and from macro to microUse properly translated questionnaire/discussionguideTranslation should ensure sensitivity to localconnotationsA very large questionnaire may drive respondentimpatientRMH 05 14
  15. 15. SamplingUse socio cultural indicators to identify region forstudyVillage pop strata to segment potential areasUse socio economic indicator to classify targetrespondentsRMH 05 15Category Population RatioLarge >5000 1Medium 2000-5000 3Small 1000-2000 4Tiny < 1000 12
  16. 16. Village SamplingVillages could be selected on the basis of:PopulationPopulation of productProximity to highway or remote locationOccupation profileReligionTribal populationRMH 05 16
  17. 17. Respondents SamplingDone on SEC classification:R1 Most prosperous 4%R2 11%R3 37%R4 Least prosperous 48%Most studies in rural are qualitative in nature andhence require small samples75% of rural segment is employed in agriculturehence it is more homogeneousRMH 05 17
  18. 18. Issues related to CommunicationAbove the LineReadership surveysListener ship surveysTRPBelow the LineNo media rating toolNo standard method to measure exposureRMH 05 18
  19. 19. Do’s and Don’ts of Rural MR Wear simple clothes and greet them in their way Familiarise yourself with the local dialect Discuss unrelated issues to develop rapport Lead from general talk to specifics Clarify the purpose of the survey Make the respondent a part of the project Make the respondent feel he is leading the interview Listen carefully and play the role of a learner Careful handling of sensitive subjects Intersperse close ended questions with open ended questions Remember villagers gather and there are no one to one interviews.Request observers not to prompt Avoid being over friendly Carry food, water and first aid kitRMH 05 19
  20. 20. Attributes of Rural ResearchersDevelop a rural mindsetEffective communication with emphasis on activelisteningDiscerning abilitySensitivityMemoryPatienceRMH 05 20
  21. 21. Location for conducting researchCaste neutral place in the villageWhere it is easy to find people and initiate aconversationSuggested venues:Retailer/STD boothTea stallPlaygroundChaupalHaatRMH 05 21
  22. 22. Limitations of rural researchLow literacyPoor media exposureLow brand and product awarenessLocal language communicationInaccessible roadsSocial taboosInterview timingNo revalidation of dataRMH 05 22
  23. 23. Rural Market Research IndustryIndian market research industry is worth Rs. 4,000 croresof which only 2 to 3% is estimated to be ruralMajor players are:NCAER for large scale national sample surveysIMRB (SRI) for social issues as well as for rural marketingA C Nielsen ORG MARG – the largest social researchconsultancy from conceptualisation to final implementationMART for successful innovations in the 4 As of ruralmarketing with path breaking research on haats and melas,spurious products, rural distribution, media and consumerbehaviourRMH 05 23

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